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TheWISDOM of the FLYING PIG Guidance and Inspiration for Managers and Leaders Jack Hayhow

TheWISDOM of the FLYING PIG Guidance and Inspiration for Managers and Leaders Jack Hayhow Designed by Brian McMurray Illustrated by John Mahomet Edited by Carol Talley Published by Opus Communications, Inc. www.opustraining.com

Dedicated to Jack Hayhow, Sr., and Wilmetta Hayhow As close to perfect as parents could possibly be. � copyright 2005 Jack W. Hayhow Jr. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. First printing: September 2005 ISBN: 0-9715440-6-9 Opus Communications, Inc. www.opustraining.com

Acknowledgments I�m not sure I�m capable of adequately acknowledging the support I�ve received from my wife, Joyce. For over thirty years of marriage she has supported my every dream and every effort, no matter how misguided. Along the way, she has contributed her insight and wisdom. Much of what I know about management and leadership and life I learned from her. I love you, Joyce Ann. I owe a special debt of gratitude to my friend and mentor, Rick Krska. I stand in awe of his caring and compassion. At some point, every leader has dark moments and long, sleepless nights. Rick�s guidance and belief carried me through those times. Rick, thanks to your help, the pillow really is softer now. For many years our company has been blessed by great clients, friends, and advisors. Special thanks to Tom Bash, Nelson Mann, Joy Wheeler, Jim Heeter, Mark Johns, Bob Shoop, Mike Grogan, Danny O�Neill, Charlie Arrambide, Dave Whitney, Jack Cooney, Kathy Burgio, and Gary Weinberg. To those who read and commented on drafts of the manuscript, I thank you: Julie Nelson-Meers, Bob Shoop, Carmen Sigler, Mike Grogan, and Joyce Hayhow.

I�ve also benefited immensely from my relationship with those trudging the road of happy destiny. The people around the tables have touched my heart and changed my life. Especially these people: Wes C., Janet R., Diane A., Nancy P., Bob I., and Jayme F. And last, but certainly not least, thanks to the gang at Opus. Your talent and commitment are stunning. I�m honored by your presence.

Contents i Preface Section One: Management 2 Managers don�t get paid for what they do, they get paid for what their people do. 4 Reciprocity is a fundamental law of life and an indispensable lever for management effectiveness. 6 In the year 2000 alone, forty CEOs of the top two hundred companies on the Fortune 500 list were fired or forced to resign. 8 �Be subject to one another! Don�t you think you might find some relevance in Verse 21?� 10 As your managers get better, the performance of everyone in your company will improve.

14 �The job of the manager is enabling.� 16 �It was impossible to get a conversation going�everyone was talking too much.� 18 Don�t try to teach a pig to sing�it wastes your time and it annoys the pig. 22 �To build on a person�s strength, that is, to enable him to do what he can do, will make him effective�to try to build on his weaknesses will be frustrating and stultifying.� 24 The most compelling, satisfying, and motivating force in the universe is achievement. 26 Each of us has a profound need to be unique and an equally profound need for a union with something greater than ourselves. 28 Great achievement is always preceded by great expectation. 30 The number one reason people don�t do what you want them to do? They don�t know what you want them to do! 32 Great managers provide the information and resources to do the job right. 34 Measurement just might be the magic potion. With proper measurement, productivity can double. 38 �The deepest craving of human nature is to feel appreciated.� 40 �There are only two things people want more than sex and money� and that�s recognition and praise.� 42 No one responds well to manipulation�no matter how cleverly or skillfully the manipulation is done. 44 According to research by Dr. Gerald H. Graham, �the most powerful motivator was personalized, instant recognition from their managers.� 46 According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the number one reason

people leave their jobs is they do not feel appreciated. 48 Contrary to what you might have heard, there IS a secret formula.

50 �To care for another person, in the most significant sense, is to help him grow and actualize himself.� 52 Caring isn�t about how you feel�but it IS about how they feel. 54 Are Management and Leadership the Same? Section Two: Leadership 58 �What is the point of this story�what information pertains? The thought that life could be better is woven indelibly into our hearts and our brains.� 60 �For myself, I am an optimist. It does not seem of too much use being anything else.� 64 People will invest their effort and commitment in direct proportion to their belief in the leader. 66 �A mind once expanded by a new idea never returns to its original dimension.� 68 �I don�t know who discovered water, but I�m pretty sure it wasn�t a fish.� 72 �I think without that feeling of affection and connection with other fellow human beings, life becomes very hard.� 74 The essence of leadership is relationship. The essence of relationship is emotion. 76 Thanks, Herb 78 The gift of great leaders is that they rally the collective passion of the enterprise toward a better future. 80 The defining characteristics of the most productive cultures are participation and choice. 82 �Conviction is worthless unless it is converted into conduct.� 84 �If you never did, you should. These things are fun and fun is

good.� 86 �The essence of economic activity is the commitment of present resources to future expectations, and that means uncertainty and risk.� 88 �No more pigs! You can�t top pigs with pigs.�

92 �There is no higher religion than human service. To work for the common good is the greatest creed.� 95 Epilogue 99 A Ridiculously Incomplete List of Books that Matter to Me 102 About the Author

� i � Preface This is a book for managers. And for the leaders who rely on them. Within these pages, you�ll discover (or rediscover) principles and practices that can propel you along the path to a better department or a better company. There is guidance. Much of it, startlingly simple. Some of it, wrenchingly difficult in practical application. All of it, I believe, worthy of your consideration. There is inspiration. Stories and ideas and questions of significance. As you think about what you encounter here, you may clarify your own concept of what it means to be a manager or, for the first time, come face to face with the profound responsibilities of leadership. Maybe your gut will tell you what�s next. Perhaps you�re looking for straight answers to pressing, pragmatic problems: How do I motivate my direct reports? What can I do to increase productivity? Is there a way to stop the revolving door�a way to keep my best people? Why don�t people do what I want them to do? How can I possibly get my own work done when someone always needs something from me? What about the troublemakers? Bad news�there is no panacea. Good news�there is hope, and there are realistic approaches�sometimes even a solution

lurking about. You�ll find many of them here. There is also a chance this book will lead you to a better way to live your business life. A better way to relate to and work with your subordinates and your boss. A more productive way to deal with the stress and conflict that arise in even the best of workplaces. And, most important, a way to experience the joy and satisfaction that come with achievement.

Section One Management

The Wisdom of the Flying Pig � 2 � � 3 � Managers don�t get paid for what they do, they get paid for what their people do. Several years ago, on an early August afternoon, my friend Bill Hanson was managing a kid�s baseball team in a suburb of Kansas City. August is hot and humid in Kansas City, this particular August more oppressive than most. In the late innings of a play-off game, Bill�who has always been a little excitable� suffered heat exhaustion and collapsed on the bench. A couple of the parents carried Bill into the shade and wrapped a cold towel around his neck. A few minutes later, Bill�s eyes uncrossed and he glanced up at the scoreboard to see his team had scored three runs and taken the lead. Bill chuckled and said, �Great managing.� �When I was a small boy, a friend of mine and I went fishing. I told him I wanted to be a real major league baseball player. My friend said he�d like to be president of the United States. Neither of us got our wish.� Dwight D. Eisenhower 34th President of the United States Imagine tomorrow is opening day at the ballpark in your hometown. You just got a call inviting you to the game�box seats behind the third-base dugout. No question, you�re going. But there is a question. If you go to the game, but all of your direct reports show up at work as scheduled, how much of the work that is supposed to get done will get done? Now let�s turn it around. If all of your direct reports take off and go to the game, and you alone show up for work, how much of the work that is supposed to get done will get done? Your answers to those questions should make it clear that you need your direct reports more than they need you�and that your time is best invested in clearing the obstacles and providing the support your people need.

Reciprocity is a fundamental law of life and an indispensable lever for management effectiveness. Next time the holidays roll around, try this. Open the phone book and pick some names at random. Close your eyes if you want. It doesn�t matter who you pick as long as they�re complete strangers. Now, send each of those strangers a Christmas card. Then watch your mailbox. You�re going to get holiday greetings from a bunch of people you�ve never met. How do I know? Because psychologists Phillip Kunz and Michael Woolcott proved it some years ago. As a part of their research, Kunz and Woolcott sent Christmas cards to 578 complete strangers. An amazing 117 of those complete strangers reciprocated by sending a card back to the psychologists. I�ve experienced the fundamental law of reciprocity, and I�ll bet you have, too. When someone does something for us we are obligated (and maybe driven by our very nature) to return the favor. Management is the process of working with and through other people to accomplish the goals of the organization AND the goals of the people in the organization. In 1956, William Whyte described the Organization Man: �They are the ones�who have left home, spiritually as well as physically, to take the vows of organization life�� Scary. Today, the vows of organizational life are but a quaint artifact, and the Organization Man is, for practical purposes, extinct. The balance of power in the employment equation has tilted precipitously away from the employer and toward the employee. Managers must face the stark reality that in today�s workplace, effective management must be concerned with the goals of the workforce as well as the goals of the organization. When you demonstrate a commitment to improving the lives of the people you manage, then, and only then, will they demonstrate a commitment to you and the goals you�re trying to achieve.

In the year 2000 alone, forty CEOs of the top two hundred companies on the Fortune 500 list were fired or forced to resign. I�m not sure how many managers get fired every year, but I�d guess it�s a pretty big number. I�d also guess that some significant fraction of those terminated managers don�t have a clue why they�ve ended up pounding the pavement. Managers are ultimately judged by two criteria. The first criterion is the productivity of the manager�s workgroup. How much work gets done, and what is the quality of that work? The second criterion is about the people. Are they learning and growing and becoming more valuable to the organization? And just as important, how long are they staying? Turnover is crippling to productivity, and it�s expensive. Are your people more productive working for you than they would be working for someone else? Are they growing more? Dr. Elliot Jaques, author of Requisite Organization, suggests an eminently practical definition of management: �We define a manager as a person who is held accountable for the outputs of others and for sustaining a team capable of producing those outputs.� So we�re back to productivity and people. If a manager isn�t adding value to the work of subordinates, or if the manager isn�t helping to increase the personal capability of those subordinates, that manager is superfluous in the organization. At the end of the day, every manager needs to produce two distinct results: The manager needs to make sure 1. some work gets done. Whether that work is manufacturing widgets or crunching numbers or making sales�it�s the manager�s responsibility to mobilize the people and resources to get the assigned objectives accomplished. The manager needs to tend to the 2. satisfaction and growth of every direct report, because employee satisfaction and growth have important bottom line benefits.

�Be subject to one another! Don�t you think you might find some relevance in Verse 21?� The West Wing, Season 3 I am in no way qualified to comment on the instructions of Saint Paul in the Book of Ephesians, but I did understand Martin Sheen�in his role as President Jeb Bartlett�to suggest that we should serve one another. This is especially true for managers. In fact, in a certain light, service is the core function of management. Here�s why. The best tests of service are these questions: Has the person being served grown? Is that person more knowledgeable and more capable? Is that person more confident and, therefore, more likely to contribute to the success of the organization? If a manager�s subordinates are more knowledgeable, capable, and confident, that manager has served well and succeeded in one of the vital management functions. �The work exists for the person as much as the person exists for the work.� Robert K. Greenleaf Servant Leadership In his wise and wonderful book, Servant Leadership, Robert Greenleaf suggests that a business exists as much to provide meaningful work for the employee as it exists to provide a product or service to the customer. A good number of managers, leaders, and owners I�ve met might take exception to this idea, and maybe you do as well. So let�s think it through. What happens as a result of providing meaningful work? Meaningful work usually inspires significant effort. Significant effort often leads to exceptional performance and achievement. And achievement is the single most important factor in motivation and job satisfaction�both of which, by the way, dramatically impact productivity, retention, and profit. Meaningful work has both bottom line and metaphysical benefits. Makes it worth thinking about.

As your managers get better, the performance of everyone in your company will improve. The performance of your managers has more impact on your productivity and profit than any other controllable factor. Research from the Gallup Organization has made it startlingly clear�the quality of the relationship between supervisor and subordinate has a dramatic impact on almost every critical business factor. It�s just this simple: Good managers get more work and better work from their direct reports. Even relatively small improvements in management knowledge and skill can magnify productivity throughout the organization. When a manager does his or her job better there is a multiplier effect�it improves the performance of everyone in the workgroup. We think of this as management leverage. �They all excel at turning one person�s talent into performance. This, in all its simplicity, is the role of great managers.� Marcus Buckingham The One Thing You Need to Know Great managers find a way. A way to help their people understand what needs to be done. A way to provide the resources their people need to do the job right. A way for every direct report to have a shot at the satisfaction that comes from achievement. A way for each person to feel recognized and cared for. Great managers don�t see departments� they see individuals. Great managers see with exquisite clarity what average managers often miss completely�that the only way to grow an extraordinary department or an extraordinary company is one person at a time. It is this intense focus on the individual that lies at the heart of every great manager�s effectiveness.

The Wisdom of the Flying Pig � 13 � � 12 � When a manager does his or her job better there is a multiplier effect�it improves the performance of everyone in the workgroup. We think of this as management leverage.

�The job of the manager is enabling.� Robert Noyce Founder, Intel There was a time when the term manager implied someone who controlled. Today the manager must facilitate. In the past, the manager kept people in line. Today the manager must lift people up. Today, the manager�s most vital role is to make sure every employee is performing at the highest possible level. That means managers should be concerned with getting the barriers out of the way so people can do the things they do well. Managers add value when they clear the obstacles. Managers add value when they find ways to make people more productive. When a manager focuses on these vital tasks, subordinates do more work and better work. �Business is simple. Management�s job is to take care of employees. The employee�s job is to take care of customers. Happy customers take care of the shareholder.� John Mackey CEO, Whole Foods � Forbes, February 12, 2005 It really is simple. Focus your time and energy on four key activities and your success as a manager is virtually assured: Communicate explicit expectations.1. Provide the information and resources 2. to do the job right. Measure, recognize, and celebrate.3. Show you care by encouraging 4. growth. If you accept the premise that as a manager you don�t get paid for what you do, you get paid for what your people do, it naturally follows that the best use of your time is helping your people be more productive. And here�s what your people need to be more productive: Your people need to know exactly what you want them to do. Your people need certain information and resources to do the job right. Your people need to know how they�re doing and to be recognized when they succeed. And finally, your people need to know you care.

�It was impossible to get a conversation going�everyone was talking too much.� Yogi Berra (of course) One of the giants of modern-day marketing communications was Bill Bernbach, founding partner of Doyle, Dane and Bernbach Advertising. Mr. Bernbach once commented that a writer is concerned with what he puts into his writing while a communicator is concerned with what the reader gets out of it. One of the core skills of great managers is the ability to communicate effectively. But even more important than the ability to communicate is the understanding of precisely what should be communicated. Every employee comes to the workplace with one burning question: What are we trying to do? The most basic and most productive information you can communicate to your direct reports is the answer to this question. The most important list you�ll ever make is the list of things you�re going to stop doing. A woman I know runs a highly profitable business unit for a major national company. She is an experienced, successful, and hugely conscientious executive. She is also often overwhelmed. A year or so ago, while visiting with her mentor, this executive was bemoaning her massive to-do list. The mentor listened for a bit and said, �You know, you could stop doing about 80 percent of the stuff on that list and no harm would be done.� William Jennings Bryan once commented, �Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice.� Success requires choices�you must choose what to do and what not to do. Success demands that you focus your personal efforts, your people, and your resources on the vital few activities that have the power to help you achieve your objectives. Great managers shine a light on �what we�re trying to do� through their actions and their expectations.

Don�t try to teach a pig to sing�it wastes your time and it annoys the pig. Napoleon Hill once said, �Anything the mind of man can conceive and believe, it can achieve.� Hogwash. The idea that we can do anything we want as long as we work hard enough is just plain wrong. Think about this: I can conceive of playing in the NBA, and with enough self-delusion I might even be able to believe it. But I won�t achieve it because you can�t coach tall�or fast. In other words, I don�t have the talent. So I�d like to suggest an adaptation of Mr. Hill�s bromide: �Anything the mind can conceive and believe, it can achieve� as long as the required talent is also present.� �Talent is the capacity for near-perfect performance.� Donald O. Clifton, Ph.D. Beginning in 1991, I had the opportunity to meet and spend some time with Don Clifton. Don was a pioneer in the field of positive psychology. He founded a company called Selection Research, Incorporated, and was later chairman of the Gallup Organization. Don�s insight and research into management excellence have changed the face of modern management. As I understand it, this is Don�s central message: Everyone has talent�of some kind. Everyone has the capacity for near perfect performance� in some area. But each of us also has areas of non-talent, things we just don�t do very well and probably never will. One of the most important responsibilities you have as a manager is to identify the talent of each of your direct reports and to match that talent with a task that needs to be accomplished.

One of the most important responsibilities you have as a manager is to identify the talent of each of your direct reports and to match that talent with a task that needs to be accomplished.

�To build on a person�s strength, that is, to enable him to do what he can do, will make him effective�to try to build on his weaknesses will be frustrating and stultifying.� Peter Drucker In my seventh-grade year, I was assigned to the shot put event for my school�s track and field day. That was a bit of a problem. I wasn�t what you would call skinny�I was downright scrawny. I could barely pick up the shot put, let alone heave it across the field. Let me tell you though, I was scrawny, but I was scrappy, too. I practiced hard. The gym teacher worked with me, and day by day I got better. It hurt and I hated it, but I got better. On track and field day I threw the shot put farther than I had ever thrown it. It was a personal best. And I came in dead last�thirty-seventh out of thirty-seven boys. I had worked hard, I had gotten better, and I had gone from poor to just a little less poor. My hard work went largely unrewarded. That�s what happens when the talent doesn�t match the task. Make sparing use of your red pencil. Many of us learned most of what we know about management in grade school. Remember handing in an assignment? The very first thing the teacher did was pick up her red pencil, primed to start scratching and circling�pouncing on even the most insignificant of mistakes. That�s how managers often operate. They spend their time looking for what�s wrong. They spend their time looking for what their people can�t do. That�s a bad idea. It doesn�t work and it destroys people. If you�re doing this, please stop.

The most compelling, satisfying, and motivating force in the universe is achievement. In the January 1968 issue of Harvard Business Review, psychologist Frederick Herzberg published the results of his metanalysis of all motivating factors contributing to job satisfaction. Far and away the leading component of extreme job satisfaction was achievement. Thirty years later, the National Study of the Changing Workforce concluded that �factors such as a sense of accomplishment and the challenge of work�are far more important than salary or fringe benefits in improving job satisfaction, commitment, retention and performance.� Great achievement demands great ability. Great achievement most often occurs when people are making use of the ability (talent) they were born with. Keep this in mind: Talent can be developed, but it probably can�t be created. No amount of training or practice can take the place of inherent talent. That means you must figure out what your people are naturally wired for. There are three reliable indicators of talent: Passion1. Rapid learning2. Glimpses of excellence3. When you spot any of these indicators, be especially thoughtful. Remember, when you match the talent with the task, great achievement is possible. So here�s the drill. First you find someone doing something right. Then you recognize the performance and give that person an opportunity to do more of that kind of work. Because when people are using their natural talent, they�ll grow and get better, and they�ll achieve more than anyone ever thought possible. And you�ll see for yourself that achievement is the most motivating force on the planet.

Each of us has a profound need to be unique and an equally profound need for a union with something greater than ourselves. Sometimes managers think employee satisfaction is mostly about money or prestige. And without a doubt, money and prestige play a role. But as Tom Morris said in his stunning book True Success, The desire to have, to acquire and possess, is in principle insatiable, and rarely generates the sense of fulfillment and happiness it promises. By contrast, only the desire to do, to produce, to contribute, or to give can reliably, when acted on, yield the true sense of satisfaction we all deeply need. When you offer employees a way to make a unique contribution to a team pursuing a worthy goal, their needs to be unique and in union are both served. �Mobilize your people around a common goal. Help them to feel part of something genuine, special and important, and you�ll inspire real passion and loyalty.� Michael Dell Direct from Dell I�ve often thought that one of the most important roles of the manager is to provide context. Managers have a responsibility to help employees make sense of an increasingly complex, often confusing, and startlingly fast-changing world. As a manager you have a responsibility to help your people understand their place in this world, how they fit in, and how they contribute. You have the unique opportunity to help your people connect their efforts to the objectives of the department, the company, and the clients you serve. Providing context communicates respect. It makes people feel good about how they spend most of their waking hours. Providing context makes it clear that your people are doing something important�for the company and the clients, and also for themselves.

Great achievement is always preceded by great expectation. One of the most important lessons I�ve learned as a manager is that great achievement is always preceded by great expectation. Great expectation has three components. First, great expectation explicitly communicates the specific results you�re looking for. Second, great expectation is based on the skills and abilities of the individual. And third, great expectation causes people to stretch and grow. �It is the nature of man to rise to greatness if greatness is expected of him.� John Steinbeck If we want outstanding performance, we must first expect outstanding performance. But we have to be careful because expectation can be dangerous. Which of the following statements would you say is most true? If two people are doing the same 1. job, it�s only fair to expect the same performance from both. The job description defines the proper 2. expectation. Expectation is about the individual, 3. not about the job description. I hope you picked number three. As you�re developing expectations for each of your direct reports, your first considerations must be, What is this person capable of? What knowledge, skill, or ability does this person have? And perhaps more important, What knowledge, skill, or ability does this person NOT have? Be mindful�expectation must always be congruent with capability.

The number one reason people don�t do what you want them to do? They don�t know what you want them to do! You might not believe this, but there are a bunch of people stumbling around out there who don�t have a clue what�s expected of them�50 percent of all people if you pay attention to the research. Some of these people report to you�and as frustrating as you might find this, they simply don�t know precisely what you want them to do. Communicating explicit expectations may well be the most difficult aspect of a manager�s job. But it is absolutely essential to creating a high performance workplace. At the very least, the expectations you communicate to your direct reports must include quantity, quality, and time frame. I suggest you find a quiet room and start making a list of what you expect from each of your direct reports. A specific list. You might be surprised how difficult this is. Then meet with each of your people individually. Ask them what they think you expect of them. Ask them what specific results�including quantity, quality, and time frame�they think they�re responsible for. It will make you want to scream. But it�s worth it. �People can�t do anything well unless they can define it in a way that they and others can understand.� Philip Crosby Absolutes of Leadership It often seems that when people describe someone as a �good communicator,� what they�re really saying is that the person is a �good speaker.� Certainly communicating can, and often does, involve speaking. But I�ve always thought of communication as something far more profound and productive than simply flapping my lips. I think of communication as the creation of mutual understanding. The first key activity of great managers is to communicate explicit expectations. To me that means great managers must create a mutual understanding of what�s to be accomplished. Without such an understanding it is unlikely that employee efforts, however intense, will lead to optimal business results.

Great managers provide the information and resources to do the job right. After reviewing extensive research from the Saratoga Institute, Leigh Branham determined that people leave their employers because the employer is not meeting one or more basic human needs. In his book The 7 Hidden Reasons Employees Leave, Branham identifies these four needs: the need for trust, the need to have hope, the need to feel a sense of worth, and the need to feel competent. When employees don�t have the information and resources to do the job right, their sense of competence is compromised, they become discouraged, and ultimately they�re more likely to leave. Having the right tools�that is, the information and resources to do the job right�is fundamental to a sense of competence, which is, in turn, fundamental to retention and productivity. As we�ve said, managers don�t get paid for what they do; they get paid for what their people do. So, as a manager, it�s up to you to find out what your people need and get it for them. Did you ask any good questions today? Isidor Issac Rabi came to America as an Austrian immigrant. From the public schools on New York�s Lower East Side, he became one of America�s most outstanding physicists, winning the Nobel Prize in 1944. When asked of his influences, Rabi often mentioned his mother, who each day asked him, �Did you ask any good questions today?� What�s true for a Nobel Laureate is also true for managers. Questions are important. If you pose questions like the following to your staff, you might be amazed at what happens. What tools or materials would give � you the ability to do your job better? What obstacles are you encountering?� What information would help you do � your job better? How can I support your efforts?�

Measurement just might be the magic potion. With proper measurement, productivity can double. If you expect people to produce specific results, you must measure their performance. Without measurement your expectations have no validity; they are little more than idle conversation. Simply put, measurement tells you whether or not your people have done what you expected them to do. Isn�t that something you�d like to know? Isn�t that something your boss would like to know? What you measure and how you measure it will be unique to your particular workgroup. But keep in mind, in every workgroup there are a critical few activities that drive productivity. We call these critical activities key drivers. Identify the key drivers and measure them relentlessly. Measurement improves performance and changes how people experience their work. As a sous-chef in a large kitchen, Mike H. manages half a dozen cooks. He told me this story. Cooks in Mike�s kitchen rotate through several stations. Cooks hate the broiler station. It�s hot, it�s hectic, and they avoid it if they can. Early in a promotion featuring strip steaks, at the end of the shift when he was doing the steak count, Mike happened to mention to the broiler man that he had cooked 100 strips that night� well over the average of 30 strips per night. The cook was excited and told all the other cooks. From then on, every night the cooks hung around for the steak count to see if they beat the previous record. They stared vying for a chance to be on the broiler. The cooks even started exhorting the servers to sell more strip steaks. Instead of approaching that job with dread, they looked forward to their turn on the broiler. And by the way, one night they sold 276 strip steaks.

Without measurement your expectations have no validity.

�The deepest craving of human nature is to feel appreciated.� William James My friend Greg Kirsch is a wonderful trainer and keynote speaker. As you might imagine, his work requires extensive travel. He told me this story of the road and recognition recently. When I checked into my hotel room, I had mixed emotions. Santa Fe is a striking city, and I was excited about the group I was speaking to the next morning. But I�d spent most of my Sunday traveling, and I missed spending that time with my family. I was feeling melancholy and more than a little lonely. When I opened my suitcase I discovered a note tucked into the corner. I recognized my daughter�s handwriting immediately. Hey, Pop. I wanted to wish you good luck on your presentation. Thanks for all you do. We miss you. Luv ya. Love, Erika. P.S. Luv ya again. Greg went on to say. As you can imagine, that note made me feel great. My daughter�s expression of appreciation and affection touched me deeply. I wasn�t quite so sad. I wasn�t quite so lonely. And the next morning I was inspired to do what turned out to be maybe the best performance of my life. Recognition brings out the best in each of us. It energizes us. It causes us to stretch and to grow. When our efforts are recognized, we feel valued and our satisfaction surges. As our satisfaction grows, our loyalty grows. And one person at a time we build a strong and vital organization.

�There are only two things people want more than sex and money�and that�s recognition and praise.� Mary Kay Ash Founder, Mary Kay Cosmetics I think Mary Kay�s message is that recognition is an elemental force. It propels our achievement at work and profoundly impacts the satisfaction we experience in our lives. And research seems to prove the awesome power of recognition. In their book First Break All the Rules, authors Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman reveal Gallup research that ties recognition to the critical business outcomes of productivity, profitability, retention, and customer satisfaction. In the largest study of its kind ever undertaken, Gallup discovered six questions with the strongest links to the most business outcomes. One of those six questions is, In the last seven days have I received recognition or praise for good work? Proper recognition can be a powerful business tool. But there�s something else you should think about. When you praise people�when you tell them how much you appreciate them and what they do�they�ll feel great and you�ll feel great. Management genius is the ability to see what�s right with people. A number of years ago I had the opportunity to work with a remarkable guy, Bill Erickson. Bill is vice chairman of Kenexa, a leading provider of talent acquisition and talent management solutions. He is also a fascinating storyteller with a unique ability to make the most arcane management research accessible through an entertaining tale. One of his stories was about some research conducted by the University of Nebraska. In this particular project, �average people� were asked to stand on a street corner and record their observations of the people walking by. When evaluated, the observations of average people were 70 percent negative. The study was then repeated, except this time outstanding managers were placed on the street corner. When the observations of great managers were evaluated, those observations turned out to be 70 percent positive.

No one responds well to manipulation�no matter how cleverly or skillfully the manipulation is done. The first principle of effective recognition: Provide recognition in an honest and authentic way. Some managers think any recognition is good recognition. That�s just not true. If your objective for giving praise is to get something in return�stop immediately. That�s manipulation, and it is overwhelmingly likely to do more harm than good. People can spot manipulation a mile away, and they hate it. Recognition must always be attributable to honest efforts and/or successful results. Anything else undermines the manager�s credibility and the employee�s passion, loyalty, and effectiveness. Ideally, the manager creates a climate of support, achievement, and recognition that people recognize as genuine. We learn a lot from the managers we work with. One of these managers told us about the recognition technique that inspired the title of this book. We�ll let her tell you the story of the flying pig. One of my favorite recognition tools is the �When Pigs Fly� award. I�m sure you�re familiar with the expression �when pigs fly.� That expression usually means something is impossible. Well, I was walking through an airport, it was in Las Vegas I think, and I saw one of these silly flying pigs. I thought, WOW! That would be a perfect award when people do something really tough. So I brought one of the flying pigs home. Every so often we let our team decide who has accomplished the most impossible task and that person has the honor of displaying the coveted Flying Pig.

According to research by Dr. Gerald H. Graham, �the most powerful motivator was personalized, instant recognition from their managers.� The second principle of effective recognition: Be specific and timely. The goal here is to provide immediate positive feedback for effort and results. The sooner you�re able to recognize good performance, the more powerful the recognition will be. The same goes for specificity�tell people exactly what they did that was praiseworthy. That way they�ll know what behavior they should repeat. So be on the lookout for positive behavior. When you see it�say something, do something. It doesn�t have to be a parade (although that�s not a bad idea). It can be a simple word of thanks, appreciation scribbled on a sticky note, a cookie or a star sticker like you got in grade school. If you haven�t praised each of your staff at least once in the last week, you have an inadequate staff, OR your performance as a manager is deficient. It�s pretty simple, really, people want to feel appreciated for their work and they want to enjoy their workplace. Some time ago our company moved into new facilities. We were all excited because, after years of sharing offices, everyone was going to have a private workspace. During that same period we committed to some very aggressive growth goals and adopted some new processes. Over the course of a few weeks I noticed a malaise enveloping our company. Finally, late one Tuesday afternoon, one of our most engaged and productive people came into my office and told me he had dreaded coming to work the day before. I was stunned. But as we talked, we discovered where the wheels had come off. It seems we had let our new private offices isolate us. Our goals and deadlines and processes had supplanted the exhilarating creative collaboration that had characterized our company from its inception. No one�most conspicuously, me� was recognizing the enormous effort and results of their coworkers. The lesson I learned? Look for what�s right every day. Today when I see great effort and great results I shout it out, right then and right there. Forgetting the power of specific and timely recognition almost cost us our culture.

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the number one reason people leave their jobs is they do not feel appreciated. The third principle of effective recognition: Individualize recognition. In order to properly recognize your people, you need to know them well enough to be absolutely certain the recognition you provide is welcome. Both the symbol of your recognition and the setting in which you deliver that symbol are critical to providing recognition that is rewarding and inspiring. Please remember recognition is NOT a one-size-fits-all proposition. Recognition that is inspiring to one person could be worthless to another. Recognition that is affirming to one person may be humiliating to someone else. Not everyone loves plaques. People are different. For example, I think brussel spouts are nasty. But there�s a guy in my office who loves brussel sprouts. I�m aware that some people don�t get jazzed up if they win a trip. Other folks don�t assign much value to a plaque. In fact, I heard a story about a guy who was absolutely incensed when his company gave him a plaque. The guy�s name was Lou, and apparently Lou was the hands-down leading producer in a large sales organization. Every year he won the plaque. And every year he told them he didn�t want the %*#%&^ plaque! This particular year the group had gathered in Maui. There had been several days of meetings and speakers, as well as a number of outdoor activities that included tropical drinks, which may have contributed to the looming fiasco. Once again, Lou was the leading producer. But this time, as they unveiled a stunning plaque and called his name, Lou stood up, flipped off the executives standing on the dais, and stomped out of the ballroom.

Contrary to what you might have heard, there IS a secret formula. The fourth principle of effective recognition: Praise often. This seems intuitive, but there is empirical data that lends credence to the idea. I first heard about some fascinating research in a terrific book by Tom Rath, How Full is Your Bucket. According to positive psychology expert John Gottman, there is a secret formula in relationships. Gottman�s research revealed that marriages are significantly more likely to succeed when the interactions between the couple are five to one, positive to negative. In 1992, Gottman recruited seven hundred couples who had just received their marriage licenses. A fifteen-minute conversation between prospective husbands and wives was videotaped, and the number of positive and negative comments was counted. Then, based on the five to one ratio, Gottman predicted whether each couple would stay together. Ten years later, Gottman�s predictions turned out to be 94 percent accurate. The secret formula is simple: Praise often. Research from the American Management Association reveals that less than one-third of all people report they frequently receive praise or recognition. A few months ago I had the opportunity to teach (and learn from) some managers working in a casino in northern Nevada. I worked intensively with a group of ten managers who had been identified as thought leaders. Most of these managers were deeply committed, working hard in hectic, often difficult, situations. But there was one who didn�t seem to get it. At all. When we started talking about recognition he said, �I don�t praise people because that just makes it harder when I have to fire them.� (Sound of me pounding my head on the table!) Later he asked, �Don�t you think you can give too much recognition?� Well, I guess it is theoretically possible to give too much recognition. But from a practical standpoint, if you�re always recognizing honest effort and positive results it seems virtually impossible to give too much recognition.

�To care for another person, in the most significant sense, is to help him grow and actualize himself.� Milton Mayeroff On Caring Great managers understand two important ideas about caring. First, caring is an activity, not an emotion. How a manager feels about a person has little to do with the responsibility of caring for that person in a managerial sense. Second, because caring is primarily about helping people grow and develop, it is among the most pragmatic and productive activities a manager can undertake. Think about it this way: At its core, business is fundamentally about people completing tasks. As people grow and develop, they get better at completing those tasks. So in a very real sense, caring is a direct link to productivity. How can I best help each of my people grow and develop? You can�t care unless you know. You can�t help people grow and develop until you understand who they are. What is their talent, their unique capacity for near perfect performance? What are their limitations and their needs? How do they experience meaning in their work? You have to know, because the only way to grow a great business is one person at a time. Some miniscule percentage of managers has the gift of naturally perceiving every individual as unique. The rest of us have to work at it. We have to consciously and consistently seek ways to discover what our people are capable of and what we need to provide in order for them to realize that capability. I don�t think psychologist Carl Rogers was thinking about management when he made the following statement, but it applies just the same: �The degree to which I can create relationships which facilitate the growth of others�is a measure of the growth I have achieved in myself.�

Caring isn�t about how you feel �but it IS about how they feel. Would it be good if productivity went up in your workgroup? What if your employees missed fewer days of work�would that have a positive effect? How about if there were fewer accidents, fewer worker�s compensation claims, and less theft? Well, here�s the deal. All this stuff improves when your employees feel cared for. Common sense tells you this should be true, and about a jillion research studies confirm it. The field of play for managers�the arena in which they can make their unique contribution�is defined by the relationship they have with each of their direct reports. The professional challenge for managers is to make each employee more productive than that employee would be working for some other manager. There is only one road to this result�your people must be possessed of the genuine, unshakable belief that their success is your primary objective. �As a manager, the one signal you need to steadily send to your people is how important they are to you. In fact, nothing is more important to you.� Captain D. Michael Abrashoff Former Commander, USS Benfold Captain Abrashoff�s counsel is not what I would normally expect from an officer in the United States Navy. But in his book It�s Your Ship, there are numerous surprises, including this one: �My experience has shown that helping people realize their full potential can lead to attaining goals that would be impossible to reach under command and control.� A military man disparaging command and control? What�s up with that? Here�s what: No matter what type of organization you manage, gaining the trust and commitment of your people is paramount. And it is a cosmic truth that people will trust you and commit to your goals to the exact extent that they believe you care about them.

Are Management and Leadership the Same? Although the terms management and leadership are often used interchangeably, they are, in theory and in practice, very different disciplines. Please understand, management and leadership are both honorable and vital pursuits. And they are both central to organizational success. But the roles and responsibilities of managers and leaders are fundamentally different. Without question, the roles often overlap. Managers sometimes lead, and leaders often manage. But at the end of the day, while managers make their unique contribution in one particular way, leaders contribute in quite another. In overly simplistic terms, managers look first to the individual, in the present moment. Leaders look first to the group, and toward the future. Managers help organizations grow one person at a time. As I�ve emphasized in the preceding pages, the focus of all great managers is on the individual. Great managers help each employee discover his or her own talent. Great managers provide the opportunity and resources for employees to use their talent in pursuit of achievement and personal satisfaction. And great managers revel in the accomplishment and growth of individual direct reports. The playing field for managers is the present�today, this week, this month. The manager�s focus is always locked on to what is happening with his or her direct reports in real time. On the other hand, every leader on the planet woke up today thinking about tomorrow. The gift of great leaders is that they rally the collective passion of the enterprise toward a better future. Great leaders use their talents of optimism, believability, and lifelong learning to inspire widespread, shared commitment to a new reality. Managers and leaders have profound impact on the culture of the organization and on the lives of the people who comprise the organization. It is sadly and unfortunately true that in the current environment, managers are sometimes vilified while leaders are glorified. To say this attitude is small-minded and wrong-headed doesn�t go anywhere near far enough. No organization can excel without extraordinary performance from both managers and leaders. So the answer to the question, Are management and leadership the same? is no. Emphatically, no. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same. And now a few words about leadership.

Section Two Leadership

�What is the point of this story� what information pertains? The thought that life could be better is woven indelibly into our hearts and our brains.� Paul Simon I�d like for you to use your imagination for a moment to picture a group of people. In this group there is one leader. The rest of the people are followers. In your mind�s eye, where is the leader standing? He or she is probably standing in front. That�s because the very essence of leadership is about going out ahead to point the way. Ask yourself this: If you don�t have a better idea about where the company is going, why would anyone follow you? Leaders are obsessed with a vision of a better future�and a compulsion to arouse the enthusiasms of others that they might join in creating that better future. This obsession is the defining characteristic of all great leaders. �Leaders . . . know their constituency is tomorrow. They rally around a vision of what the business can become.� Jack Welch Get this: Vision is not soft. It is not amorphous or ephemeral. It is the rallying point�the point at which people are most likely to join the crusade. Vision is nothing less than a hard-edged, pragmatic tool wielded with mastery and consistency by the best leaders. Vision accomplishes three compelling purposes: Vision builds a bridge from the 1. present to the future. It sharpens the focus on what can be. It helps people believe that where we�re going is more important than the obstacles that stand in our way. Vision molds meaning for everyone 2. in the organization. It explains our connection to something larger than ourselves. It articulates what we do, how we do it, and who we are. Vision attracts commitment and 3. energizes people. It gives people a way to get on the bus. It gives them a chance to say, �If that�s where you�re going, scoot over because I�m coming too.�

�For myself, I am an optimist. It does not seem of too much use being anything else.� Sir Winston Churchill While I readily admit that I am not personally acquainted with every great leader who has ever walked the planet, I will nonetheless declare: All great leaders are optimists. Optimists have a tendency to dwell on the best of all possible outcomes. They believe deeply�and probably instinctively�that the future will be better than the present or the past. It�s as simple as this: There can be no leadership without optimism. To be a leader, you must have followers�people who willingly and enthusiastically commit their hearts and minds and sweat to the attainment of your vision. Can you imagine, for even a moment, that anyone would commit so much of himself or herself to a person who is pessimistic about the future? Leaders are driven to make things happen. They have a dream about creating something that has never existed before. Optimism is one of the indispensable tools great leaders use to make the dream come true. �The grand essentials to happiness in this life are something to do, something to love and something to hope for.� Joseph Addison There is, it seems, an almost universal fear of the future. Lurking in each of us is the concern that, somehow, the uncertain future conspires to diminish our comfort, our security, our status, or our enjoyment of life. And therein lies the great opportunity of optimism. We�ve learned from Martin Seligman and others in the positive psychology movement that success is often rooted in optimism. And for very good reason. Optimism defeats fear. Optimism creates hope. And hope inspires confidence and enthusiasm and energy�the positive emotions that propel extraordinary effort and extraordinary results.

There can be no leadership without optimism.

People will invest their effort and commitment in direct proportion to their belief in the leader. Above all else, leaders must be believable. And while this should come as no surprise, believability begins with honesty. For over twenty years, James Kouzes and Barry Posner have been asking people what they expect from their leaders. In their seminal work, The Leadership Challenge, Kouzes and Posner report, �In almost every survey, honesty has been selected more often than any other leadership characteristic; overall it emerges as the single most important ingredient in the leader-constituent relationship.� Of course, honesty requires that you tell the truth. But it goes much deeper. You must always do what you say you will do. Your actions must be absolutely consistent with your words. If you don�t walk the talk, you can�t be believed. According to Watson Wyatt�s WorkUSA survey, the rate of three-year total returns to shareholders is almost three times higher at companies with high trust levels than at companies with low trust levels. For people to willingly enroll in your quest, they must be confident of your honesty, but honesty alone is not enough. They must also have an abiding faith in your competence. If you expect extraordinary effort from your people and extraordinary results from your organization, there can be no question about your ability to get things done, to execute. Your people must believe that you have the courage to confront reality and acknowledge problems rationally. Your people must be certain of your ability to focus the right people and the right resources on the right task. And you must demonstrate through your actions that you are willing to make the hard choices, and to do what needs to be done. And through it all, your people must know in their hearts that you are as committed to improving their lives as you are to building your business.

�A mind once expanded by a new idea never returns to its original dimension.� Oliver Wendel Holmes Currently, there are between six and seven billion people inhabiting planet Earth. A billion is a very big number. To provide a context for just how big, think about this: A million seconds pass in a little over eleven days. A billion seconds, on the other hand, take almost thirty-two YEARS. So with over six billion people wandering around, you have to assume that somebody, somewhere, has a better idea. Great leaders live with a compulsion to find that better idea and put it into action. That means leaders are learners. Leadership experts Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus have gone so far as to say, �It is the capacity to develop and improve their skills that distinguishes leaders from their followers.� When an old pond gets a new frog, it becomes a new pond. Learning is the catalyst for growth and progress. Learning leads to new connections, new ideas, and new actions�which, in turn, spark innovation and greater productivity. But for the leader, learning offers an even more profound opportunity, an even higher purpose. From the leader�s perspective, learning is more than the mere accumulation of new facts and new techniques. Learning is transformational. It is about fundamentally recreating who the leader is through the integration of new ideas and new experiences. A leader grows by becoming more honest with himself or herself, more aware of the environment and its influences, and more willing to make decisions without either conforming to prevailing wisdom or compulsively rejecting accepted practices. When seen in this light, we understand why President John F. Kennedy said, �Leadership and learning are indispensable to one another.�

�I don�t know who discovered water, but I�m pretty sure it wasn�t a fish.� Marshall McLuhan Sometimes one of our most difficult tasks is to see what�s staring us right in the face. My guess is there are lots of reasons for that, some of them completely rational. But far too often the reason we don�t cop to reality is some combination of fear and denial. And in sufficient doses, fear and denial are terminal. If you aspire to greatness as a leader, it might be helpful to ask yourself these questions: Are you willing? Are you willing to see the truth? Are you willing to do what�s necessary? Are you willing to act decisively, evaluate honestly, and adapt? Most of us don�t get it right the first time, or the second, or the third�or even the forty-third time . Winston Churchill once said that success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm. Leaders have to do that. As tempting as it is at times, we can�t perfume the pig. We have to fess up and then move on. Get the cow out of the ditch. I read an interview in the March 21, 2005, issue of Fortune that just killed me. The CEO of Xerox, Anne Mulcahy, talked about some advice she got from Albert Black, President of On-Target Supplies and Logistics. When everything gets really complicated and you feel overwhelmed, think about it this way: You gotta do three things. First get the cow out of the ditch. Second, find out how the cow got into the ditch. Third, make sure you do whatever it takes so the cow doesn�t go in the ditch again. When the cow is in the ditch, great leaders admit it.

When the cow is in the ditch, great leaders admit it.

�I think without that feeling of affection and connection with other fellow human beings, life becomes very hard.� His Holiness the Dali Lama The Art of Happiness If you read much about leadership, or if you visit even casually with your friends and associates about the topic, the concept of relationship comes up pretty quickly. But what is relationship? One two me, are serviceable definition of relationship is �the way in which or more concepts, objects or people are connected.� To the dominant words there are the way in which . . . people connected.

If you work with other humans�no avoiding it�there is a connection. The question is, what is the nature of that connection? In what way are you connected to people at work? Is your connection characterized by trust, openness, and mutual regard? Or is the connection sullied by suspicion, secrecy, and self-centeredness? Self-centeredness will kill your business�and it might kill you. I�ve long been of the opinion that selfcenteredness is a disease that is rampant in American culture. But until I read about research conducted by Dr. Larry Scherwitz and his associates, I didn�t know self-centeredness could kill you. In a study of the risk factors for coronary heart disease, Dr. Scherwitz determined that selfinvolved (self-centered) people were more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease and more likely to die when they experienced myocardial infarction. Self-centeredness is equally devastating to your business. Leaders are responsible, not only for their own personal relationships, but also for the relationship environment that exists in the companies they lead. When you care enough to listen to every voice, others in the organization will listen as well. When you emphasize the value of every contribution, those contributions will be valued throughout the company. And when you insist on dignity for every contributor, dignity will reign.

The essence of leadership is relationship. The essence of relationship is emotion. In reasonably effective companies, most employees operate on a continuum somewhere between compliance and commitment. Compliance can be enforced in a number of ways�rules, procedures, threats, and bribes, to name a few. But compliance has serious limitations. It is seldom associated with innovation, breakthrough, or exceptional performance. Commitment, on the other hand, knows virtually no bounds. Most forms of organizational capacity, power, and competitive advantage are generated by commitment. But commitment springs only from the heart. It can�t be coerced or legislated. Commitment is an emotional response, a response that almost always results from a meaningful connection�a relationship. One of your crucial tasks as a leader is to create a climate conducive to an ever expanding web of connection between people throughout the organization. Relationship develops when one person acts for the benefit of another. Think about the people you�re most committed to�the people you�d be willing to do almost anything for. Now a question: How do those people feel about you? I�m willing to bet that, without exception, every single person you�re committed to cares deeply about you. This isn�t rocket science. We care about people who care about us. When someone acts in a way that benefits us, a positive connection is established. Over time, as that person continues to act for our benefit, we begin to believe that person cares about us and the relationship deepens. Then, and only then, will commitment spring from our hearts. Ultimately, leadership success is contingent upon employees believing the leader cares.

Thanks, Herb For remembering every one of our names.� For supporting the Ronald McDonald House.� For helping load baggage on Thanksgiving.� For giving everyone a kiss (and we mean everyone).� For listening.� For running the only profitable major airline.� For singing at our holiday party.� For singing only once a year.� For letting us wear shorts and sneakers to work.� For golfing at the LUV Classic with only one club.� For outtalking Sam Donaldson.� For riding your Harley Davidson into Southwest � Headquarters. For being a friend, not just a boss.� Happy Boss�s Day from Each One of Your 16,000 Employees On Boss�s Day in 1994, the employees of Southwest Airlines bought and paid for this ad in USA Today. That�s relationship.

The gift of great leaders is that they rally the collective passion of the enterprise toward a better future. The work environment is the field in which the collective passion of the enterprise takes root and grows. How people experience the work environment�the culture�has dramatic impact not only on individual satisfaction and motivation, but also on organizational performance and success. Consider this: According to research conducted by John Kotter and James Heskett (Corporate Culture and Performance), when strong culture firms are focused on the right values, they radically outperform their competitors. Here�s what happened at strong culture firms focused on the right values: Net income increased three times more than direct � competitors. Profit performance was over 700 percent higher � than direct competitors. Return on invested capital was almost 50 percent � higher than direct competitors. There is no one right culture. It�s abundantly clear that the culture of an advertising agency might be different from the culture of an accounting practice�or that a bank might have different values and practices from a bakery. But there are some characteristics that distinguish effective cultures. The first of these characteristics is that the culture makes sense strategically. To evaluate the strategic fit of your culture, ask yourself, Do our values and practices provide a point of difference the customer cares about, a competitive advantage? Does our culture speak to the needs and desires of employees? Does our culture contribute to becoming the employer of choice? Fundamentally, does the culture fit the context� does it offer a productive response to the world as it is? But even more important, is the culture adaptable? The world will change. The culture must be capable of adapting to that change. One of the leader�s critical tasks is to create and grow an effective, ever evolving culture.

The defining characteristics of the most productive cultures are participation and choice. In her book Mindfulness, Dr. Ellen Langer tells this story: One day, at a nursing home in Connecticut, elderly residents were each given a choice of houseplants to care for and asked to make a number of small decisions about their daily routines. A year and a half later, not only were these people more cheerful, active and alert than a similar group in the same institution who were not given these choices and responsibilities, but many more of them were still alive. In fact, less than half as many of the decision-making, plant-minding residents had died as had those in the other group. If participation and choice can actually sustain life, imagine their effect on productivity. �For the type of engagement that promotes optimal problem solving and performance, people need to be intrinsically motivated.� Edward L. Deci, Ph.D. Director of Human Motivations � University of Rochester Take a guess about what creates intrinsic motivation. Right. Participation and choice. Research proves that when the culture encourages employees to participate in the choices that affect their work, their intrinsic motivation soars. That means you can forget about trying to motivate them because they�ll motivate themselves. And they�ll be more committed to the task. Humans just seem to be hardwired to take responsibility once they�ve made a choice of their own volition. But there�s even more good news. In research conducted at the Xerox Corporation, when managers offered participation and choice, �workers were more trusting of the corporation, had less concern about pay and benefits, and displayed a higher level of satisfaction and morale.� (Why We Do What We Do) The more seriously leaders take the challenge of weaving participation and choice through the fabric of the organization, the more productive the culture will be.

�Conviction is worthless unless it is converted into conduct.� Thomas Carlyle Most of the smart guys who teach and write about leadership will tell you values are important. They point out that shared values give people a common understanding and a common language. They say that clearly understood values contribute to commitment and enthusiasm. And while I suspect all of that is true, sometimes it�s easy to get twisted up in values. First of all, the terminology is excruciating. There seems to be precious little clarity or consensus about what differentiates a value from a purpose, a mission, or a vision. My other issue with values is that they tend to get laminated instead of acted upon. But I�ve found the ideas of the late Milton Rokeach helpful. Dr. Rokeach defined a value as an �enduring belief.� Then he organized values into two sets: goals (ends) and means. Here�s how that translates for me: Values are long-term beliefs about what we�re going to do�and how we�re going to do it. �Core values are essential for enduring greatness, but it doesn�t seem to matter what those core values are.� Jim Collins From what I�ve observed, Collins is right. There is no magic set of values common to all successful companies. Every company gets to pick its own. But whatever values the company adopts, it�s crucial those values be widely shared and strongly held. Charles O�Reilly, a professor at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, says that a strong culture exists only when values have intensity and consensus at every level of the organization. According to O�Reilly, �There is an important difference between the guiding beliefs held by top management and the daily beliefs or norms held by those at lower levels of the organization. The former reflect top management�s beliefs about how things ought to be. The latter define how things really are.� The values in the executive suite have to match the values on the shop floor. The bottom line on values is that everyone has to be pulling in the same direction. It�s up to the leader to make sure that happens.

�If you never did, you should. These things are fun and fun is good.� Dr. Seuss One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish What airline is fun? Where do fish fly? What high-flying retailer hit a bull�s-eye? Southwest Airlines�Unless you�ve been comatose for a couple of decades, you know Southwest built the most profitable major airline in the country on a foundation of fun. It began in the early seventies with hostesses in hot pants (gasp!). It continued when Chairman Herb Kelleher arm-wrestled another CEO to settle a lawsuit. And it lives and breathes today. Pike Place Fish�Where fishmongers chant your order and fling your fish. Pike Place Fish has inspired books and videos and become world famous by making play the first of their four operating principles. I�ve never seen any numbers on sales, but I�m guessing Pike Place Fish sells more fish per square foot than any market in the United States. Tarzhay, of course. From whimsical television commercials to high-design toilet bowl brushes to over $100 million in charitable giving each year, Target has imbued discount retailing with fun and humanity. Oh, and sales are closing in on $50 billion. �Girls just want to have fun.� Cyndi Lauper So do boys. It doesn�t matter if they�re customers or employees, most people want to have fun. Fun is a promotional tool, a sales tool. It�s also a recruitment and retention strategy�which could be important. If the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics is right, sometime in the next few years there are going to be more jobs in this country than there are workers to fill them. Forget about whether those workers are qualified or motivated�we�re talking about not having enough warm bodies! In her book Fun Works, author Leslie Yerkes reports on research from Lou Harris and Associates. When peak performers were asked what kind of workplace they would be reluctant to leave, 74 percent responded, �One that promotes fun and closer work relationships with colleagues.� Fun creates a unique connection. Increasingly, employees expect more than a paycheck, and customers are interested in the experience as much as the product. Great leaders consider the role fun can play in their enterprises.

�The essence of economic activity is the commitment of present resources to future expectations, and that means uncertainty and risk.� Peter F. Drucker Because their central challenge is to rally the collective passion of the enterprise toward a better future, leaders live their lives in the vortex of change. Innovation is the tool leaders use to profit from change. As Drucker says, �Innovation�is the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.� Innovation and leadership are intimately connected. Both are oriented toward the future, and both require the willingness to act in uncertainty. Innovation and leadership are both driven by what is possible, not by what is probable. The best leaders have an ability to imagine how that change might create value in the future, and a willingness to move forward in the midst of doubt and uncertainty. �To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance.� Albert Einstein Every productive enterprise begins with an idea. If that idea is genuinely new, you can�t test it�you have to try it. Market research simply cannot tell you whether or not you�ve invented the new New Thing. If you doubt this, please learn from the past: A number of successful companies � turned down patents on the Xerox machine because market research showed nobody would buy one. Most executives at Sony (except � President Akio Morita) thought the Walkman was a bad idea. At one point Howard Schultz left � Starbucks because the original owners weren�t interested in Schultz�s concept of serving espresso in a caf� setting. That was about 10,000 Starbucks stores ago. Charles Kettering, one of America�s great inventors, once said, �The opportunities of man are limited only by his imagination. But so few have imagination that there are ten thousand fiddlers for one composer.� Leaders must be composers.

�No more pigs! You can�t top pigs with pigs.� Walt Disney Perhaps you�re one of the many people reading this book who have enjoyed success. I�m guessing this success emanated, in large part, from hard work and perseverance. And you�re to be congratulated. But to some extent, your success proves only that you can solve problems that no longer exist. The game is always changing. Customers in every category expect more today than they did yesterday. Way more in most cases. And your competitors are willing to give it to them. Great leaders live important thing in another truth: The exponentially when different. with the undeniable truth that the most business is quite simply the next sale. Here�s likelihood of making the next sale increases you offer the customer something new and

Walt Disney didn�t want to make a sequel to the wildly successful Three Little Pigs. Ultimately, he gave in to the pressure from his associates to make another Pigs movie. It wasn�t new. It wasn�t different. It bombed. �You never change anything by fighting it. You change things by making them obsolete through superior technology.� R. Buckminster Fuller At one point in her career, my wife sold typesetting. Very successfully. But Apple more or less destroyed the typesetting industry with the introduction of the Mac. A simple, startlingly inexpensive desktop computer made the old typesetting process obsolete. The drive to new and different is powerful. And inexorable. And profitable. Think about the industries that for the most part didn�t exist a mere thirty years ago: mutual funds, overnight package delivery, big-box discount retailing, home video, coffee bars, cell phones. Leaders are tempted to ask, �What�s next?� But the better question is �Will it really matter?� And the best question is: �Will it change the game?�

Great leaders live with the undeniable truth that the most important thing in business is quite simply the next sale.

�There is no higher religion than human service. To work for the common good is the greatest creed.� Albert Schweitzer A couple of years ago, I was discussing the topic of leadership with my friend, Bob Shoop. Bob is a kind man, a brilliant professor, a prolific author, and the cofounder of the Leadership Studies program at Kansas State University. (His books, Leadership Lessons from Bill Snyder and A University Renaissance, are must-reads for anyone interested in leadership.) In that conversation, Bob spoke of leadership as a covenant. For some reason, the word covenant struck me as profound within the context of leadership. I think of a covenant as a solemn�perhaps even a sacred�bond, a promise to work in harmony for the common good. To my mind, leadership simply cannot be separated from responsibility for the common good. When you accept the mantle of leadership, you assume responsibility for your institution�which means responsibility for everyone the institution touches, from customers to employees to shareholders to members of the community. The price of greatness is responsibility. Here�s something most leaders (including me) probably don�t think about nearly enough. Employees spend around half of their waking hours at work. To a very large extent, the leader determines the nature of the environment at work. The workplace can be harsh and critical and cruel, or it can be kind and supportive and compassionate. Going to work can inspire dread, or it can instill hope. Your people can be lifted up by what they encounter in the environment, or they can be beaten down. They can go home happy and fulfilled and satisfied, or they can go home, growl at the kids and kick the cat. You�re the leader. You�re responsible. It�s up to you to determine what the work environment will be like. I hope you�ll do it thoughtfully.

Epilogue My current understanding of management and leadership has evolved through study, experience, and reflection. Because I intend to keep studying, I am certain to discover new ideas�ideas that will, no doubt, influence my approach to management and leadership. Because I am engaged in the practice of leadership on a daily basis, I suspect my understanding of what it means to be a leader will be refined through the fire of practical experience. And because I am committed to introspection and reflection, I believe my study and experience will produce insight and clarity as I move along the path. As a result, I�ll have more to share. In fact, there is already more � you can find it at: www.JackHayhow.com A couple of decades ago, one of my mentors characterized me as a �chronic learner.� I�ve always considered that an apt description. After many, many years of study, my passion for learning remains steadfast. In my life, new ideas are manna. But true satisfaction comes only from sharing what I�ve learned. I hope one of the ideas in this book makes your life better� more productive, more satisfying, or more enjoyable. If that

happens, or if you have a comment of any kind, I�d love to hear from you.

A Ridiculously Incomplete List of Books that Matter to Me True Success Tom Morris Good to Great Jim Collins First Break All the Rules Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman Now, Discover Your Strengths Marcus Buckingham and Don O. Clifton Servant Leadership Robert Greenleaf The Art of Happiness His Holiness the Dali Lama and Howard Cutler Loyalty Rules Frederick F. Reichheld

It�s Your Ship D. Michael Abrashoff Innovation and Entrepreneurship Peter F. Drucker A University Renaissance Robert J. Shoop On Caring Milton Mayeroff Guts! Kevin and Jackie Freiberg Influence Robert Cialdini The Leadership Challenge James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner On Becoming a Leader Warren Bennis Execution Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan Make it Happen Before Lunch Stephan Schiffman Daring Visionaries Ray Smilor Why We Do What We Do Edward L. Deci Let�s Get Real or Let�s Not Play Mahan Khalsa

About the Author Jack Hayhow is founder and Chief Executive Servant of Opus, a company dedicated to creating training people LIKE to take. Since 1990, Opus has broken the mold of typical corporate training with productions that are as entertaining as they are effective. Today, Opus training programs are used in tens of thousands of businesses. Jack has been described as a chronic learner and is compelled by his passion for helping people and companies improve performance where it matters most. He is the author of dozens of training programs including: The Foundation of Management, Reward and Recognition, Time Management for Managers, Coaching for Performance, and To Be a Leader. He is the co-author of Sexual Harassment in Our Schools: What Parents and Teachers Need to Know to Spot It and Stop It (Simon & Schuster, 1994). His most recent book, The Wisdom of the Flying Pig: Guidance and Inspiration for Managers and Leaders was published in September, 2005. He is currently at work on his next book, Ten (Harsh) Truths of Leadership. From the speaker�s platform Jack focuses on inspiring outstanding performance through the presentation of practical, actionable ideas and methods. Jack�s keynotes are unique and engaging, drawing on a vast library of video components and extensive audience interaction. Jack began his career in the advertising agency business, serving clients such as McDonald�s Restaurants, Wendy�s OldFashioned Hamburgers, Westin Hotels and Lee Jeans. In 1980 he founded Broadcast Marketing Group, providing audience building and sales promotion services to the radio station industry. Under Jack�s leadership, BMG became the premier radio station marketing company in the country. Today, in addition to his responsibilities at Opus, Jack serves on the boards of a bank, a specialty coffee wholesaler and a light manufacturing company. He blogs at www.JackHayhow.com. A life-long Kansas City resident, Jack lives in Leawood, Kansas with his wife, Joyce. � 103 � � 102 �

The Wisdom of the Flying Pig Jack Hayhow Word for word, we intend for this little book to be the most productive business reading you�ve ever done. Stashed between these whimsical covers, you�ll discover principles and practices that can propel your company and your career. There�s guidance. Much of it, startlingly simple. Some of it, wrenchingly difficult. All of it worth thinking about. There�s inspiration. Stories and ideas and really big questions. As you think about what�s written on these pages, you might find your way to the very heart of management�or come face to face with the profound responsibilities of leadership. Perhaps you�re looking for straight answers to pressing, pragmatic problems: How do I motivate my direct reports? What can I do to increase productivity? Is there a way to keep my best people? Why don�t people do what I want them to do? How can I possibly get my own work done when someone always needs something from me? Bad news�there is no panacea. Good news�there is hope. And there are realistic approaches�sometimes even a solution lurking about. You�ll find many of them in this book. Opus Communications, Inc. www.opustraining.com