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1. The Living Cell. The cell is the building block of all living matter. Every plant and animal is made up of a great number of cells. That is why they are called multicellular organisms. It is the combination of cells that accounts for (a) the variety of living things that we see around us, and (b) the different body parts of every organism. 2. A cell is the smallest living part of your body. It is so small that it cannot be seen by the naked eye. You will need a microscope to see one. The powerful high technology microscopes, called electron microscopes, make it now possible to see even the tiniest structures inside the cell. 3. Cells of a particular kind that are grouped together make up a tissue. Muscles, bones and nerves are examples of tissues. A group of tissues make up an organ; group of organs makes up a system. 4. The human reproductive system, for example, is made up of the male and female reproductive organs. Each organ is made up of different tissues that are composed of the same kind of cells. 5. Structure of a Cell. a. Cell Membrane. Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane that keeps the outside out and the inside in, except for things that a cell needs in order to grow and stay alive, such as water, nutrients, oxygen and other things. b. Nucleus. Inside the cell membrane is a nucleus, which is responsible for the three most important functions of a cell: reproduction, differentiation and metabolism. c. Cytoplasm. Surrounding the nucleus is a jellylike substance called the cytoplasm which contains the mitochondria, lysosomes and vacuoles. Mitochondria extract energy from food and convert it to a form that can be used by the cell. Lysosomes are bodies that store digestive enzymes. Vacuoles are fluid-filled membranes for storing and expelling wastes. Note: All these living materials in a cell are called protoplasm.
The processes of reproduction. Every species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.CHROMOSOMES 1. which only have 23 chromosomes. The pair of sex chromosomes is represented by the letters X and Y. 3. The chromosomes are arranged in homologous pairs. from which a new individual is born. metabolism. the new cell will have the correct 23 pairs of chromosomes for a human being. differentiation. the X chromosome is very much bigger than the Y chromosome. 6. 2. RNA (ribonucleic acid). and a number of proteins. called zygote. serves as the blueprint that enables the cells to make an exact copy of themselves and to make another individual of the same species. 7. Thus. If the sex cells were to have the same number of chromosomes as the body cells. consisting of fragments called genes. long and threadlike structures which are made up of long chains of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The 23rd pair in male is not homologous. a sperm unites with an egg to form a new cell. the new individual will not be anything like any human because it will have 92 chromosomes. and heredity can be traced to one of the materials inside the nucleus of a cell – the chromosomes. 5. Both sperm and egg cell contribute their set of chromosomes to the formation of the new individual. XY for the male and XX for the female. . when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell. 4. Chromosomes are thin. Human beings have 22 pairs of body chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. The fact that two human beings can sexually reproduce another human being only means that sex cells have only half the number of chromosomes. In sexual reproduction. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in all their cells except the sex cells (egg and sperm). The DNA. The number is what differentiates one species from another.
During her reproductive years. In meiosis I each sex cells splits into two haploids. The . the new cell will therefore possess 92 chromosomes. all the haploid cells are of the same size and become sperm cells. having the same number of chromosomes and same characteristics as the original cell. And when an egg cell unties with a sperm cell. b. The difference between mitosis and meiosis comes from a manner by which the chromosomes split into two. In the testes of the male. c. First a cell grows in size. three small haploid cells and one big haploid cell are produced. Egg cells are formed in the female’s reproductive organ. 2. That is not a human being. Meiosis. germ cells reproduce many times over by the process of mitosis. The fact that this does not happen. Cells become old and die. means there is another method of cell division for sex cells. the germ cell also undergoes cell division by meiosis I and II. then every sperm or egg shall contain 46 chromosomes. All body cells are reproduced by mitosis except the sex cells. b. such that each set gets only one of each pair of chromosome. which produces new cells having only chromosomes. When they die. Mitosis. Thus the daughter cells are exactly the same as the mother cell. This is called meiosis (from the Greek word which means “to make smaller”). the germ cell undergoes meiosis I producing one big haploid cell and one small haploid cell. The increase in the number of cells as you grow is due to cellular reproduction. one egg will mature each month. the chromosomes arrange themselves in pairs and then divide into two sets. a. In mitosis. forming four haploid cells having half as many chromosomes as the diploid cells. b. At birth. they are called germ cells and look like any other cells in the human body with the same number of chromosomes and genetic information. a. the ovaries already hold all the eggs the females will ever have. two becomes four. After meiosis II. In the ovary. After meiosis II each haploid then splits into two by a process similar to mitosis. a cell divided and becomes two. All cells grow and divide. and four becomes eight. and so on. a. called diploid. each part having the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. In this process. In meiosis. c. Only the big haploid cell will grow into an egg cell. Then the nucleus and cytoplasm splits into two parts. It is the primary process in the building and repair of body tissues. 4. 3. If sex cells are reproduced by mitosis. A mature egg is the largest cell in her body. In mitosis. they are replaced by new ones through mitosis. Meiosis occurs in two stages. The rest will disintegrate.CELLULAR REPRODUCTION 1. In the ovary and the testes. or the ability of a cell to produce an exact copy of itself by a process called cell division. The transformation of an egg cell and sperm cells from their respective germ cells is by the process of meiosis. Cellular Reproduction of Cells. Sperm cells are developed in the male’s reproductive organ. the ovary. Each chromosome in the nucleus makes an exact copy of itself. In their first stage. the testes. the nucleus of the cytoplasm divides. 5. But unlike in the ovary. a. Mitosis results in two new cells. each chromosome makes an exact copy of itself and then breaks into two. These new cells with only one of each pair of chromosomes are called haploid. or half as many chromosomes as the old cell. b. c.
. prostate and Cowper’s gland forming the semen. The testes can produce millions upon millions of sperm cells.production of sperm begins at puberty and continues throughout his lifetime. The sperm mixes with a fluid produced by the seminal vesicle.
. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that. constitutes semen. Each testicle contains small twisted seminiferous tubules where the sperms are formed. both of which are ducts that carry sperm to the prostate. menstruation occurs. Sexual organs should be kept clean at all times. The female’s initial role in human reproduction is to produce the egg cells. called vas deferens. 3. It takes around two to three hours for sperm to reach the egg in the fallopian tube. together with the sperm. where it may be fertilized. protected by a sac called scrotum. Only one sperm penetrates and fertilizes the egg. The egg descends into the uterus where the embryo develops. especially because bacteria multiply more rapidly on body parts that are not exposed to air. From the testes. into the vagina of the female during sexual intercourse. sperm travel through the urethra of the penis and. only one of these ovaries produces and releases a mature egg every 28 days. The male role in the human reproduction is to provide the sperm that fertilizes the egg. It floats into the fallopian tube. From the prostate. in the ovaries. The testes are two round glands. Health and hygiene are very important factors in reproduction. If the egg is not fertilized. There are two ovaries in the female body. sperm travel upward through the epididymis to a long tube. The uterine wall tissues constitute part of the placenta which serves to nourish the developing embryo. Although each ovary holds hundreds of thousands of immature egg cells. from there. The placenta provides the connection between the mother and the embryo. 2. and deposit the sperm into the vagina of the female. Sperm are produced within the testes.HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 1. or ova. a process known as ovulation.
which means that he or she is capable of producing children. her hips become rounded. In girls. At the . Sex hormones stimulate the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and promote hormonal interactions that bring about the reproductive process. It stimulates the lining of the uterus in order to increase cell division. Both hormones stimulate the thickening of the uterine wall tissue. The sex organs produce not only the sex cells but also the sex hormones. emotionally and socially. As a result. Menstruation comes from the Latin word mensis which means month. The ovaries in females produce the estrogen and the progesterone. causing severe injury to the cells. and his pubic hairs begin to grow. puberty begins with the first menstrual period. When an egg matures and the follicle breaks. a tiny structure inside the ovary. The blood does not clot because of the presence of a protein called plasmin in the tissue. which causes the bleeding. This means that her body is able to ovulate. 3. a hormone is released from the ovary to signal the slowdown of blood flow to the mucous lining. The development of the follicle is stimulated by another hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which is secreted by the pituitary gland. the teenager grows physically. the beginning of puberty is not signaled by anything as obvious as in girls. b. This is also when a girl’s breasts grow larger. Puberty is the state of physical development marking the beginning of one’s reproductive life. 4. referred to as the teenage years. 7. the thickness of the mucous membrane in the uterine membrane increases and is rich with blood. In boys. At ovulation. Adolescence is the time between childhood and adulthood. If the egg is not fertilized. his hips narrow. a. The beginning of puberty generally marks the beginning of adolescence. 2. and menstruation begins. his shoulders broaden. Estrogen is released from the follicle. It is so-called because it takes place about every 4 weeks of the month. a boy’s voice deepens. the uterine membrane shrinks and begins to lose fluid and tissue. 5. This injury causes the mucous lining to fall off. intellectually. 6. which is often. During puberty.PUBERY AND ADOLESCENCE 1. progesterone is secreted by the follicle together with more estrogen. The testes in males produce the testosterone. During this time. her pubic hairs and her body take a more womanly appearance.
same time the estrogen signals the pituitary gland to stop producing the FSH and start secreting luteinizing hormone (LH) which causes ovulation and facilitates the movement of the ovum in the fallopian tube. The first flow of milk is colostrum. Milk follows after two days. But upon the release of the placenta during birth. 8. although high levels of these hormones suppress lactation. hormones from the pituitary glands stimulate lactation. . a milky yellowish fluid that has the same composition as milk but has more protein and less fat. the levels of these hormones drop dramatically and at the same time. Progesterone and estrogen stimulate the development of the female glands.
when to produce it. How the complex process of differentiation is still not clearly understood. What is known is that the process follows the information encoded in the genes of the fertilized egg. The fluid keeps the embryo moist and protects it from bumps and jolts. differentiation and growth processes very rapidly. there is an increase in the levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. and the muscle contractions follow more frequently and stronger until the baby is born. and so are its face. removes its wastes. By the time it reaches the uterus. The embryo implants itself in the uterus where it continues to grow. The umbilical cord connects the embryo and the placenta. 4. From these cells. most of the internal organs are formed. The cord contains blood vessels which transports food to and gathers wastes from the embryo. ears. The embryo begins with the rough shape of a hollow ball. These contractions move the baby slowly toward the vagina. its head is positioned outwards the opening of the uterus into the vagina. After 8 weeks. Oxygen and nutrients diffuse from the mother’s blood to the placental membrane to the embryo’s blood. The fertilized egg. But once the baby takes its first breath. Childbirth begins with labor.e. the differentiation of tissues begins to take place. The first results of this increase are the tenderness and fullness in the breasts and “morning sickness. and is nourished through the placenta. mouth and the beginnings of sex organs. the embryo is about 1 centimeter long and limbs begin to grow. The embryo is enclosed in a sac called amnion. i. Early in a woman’s pregnancy. The amniotic sac breaks. At this point the embryo is called a fetus. After 5 weeks. By the time the baby is ready to be born. It respires. By the 27th week. or fertilization. Pregnancy usually takes nine months from conception. nose. when the muscles of the uterus repeatedly contract and relax. the fluid is released.5 centimeter long. which is filled with amniotic fluid. All the cells in the embryo look no different. eyes. and the movement of the fetus can already be felt. 2.HUMAN EMBRYO AND PREGNANCY 1. By the 20 th week. the embryo is about 2. it has become a many-celled human embryo. the weight of the uterus is about 20 times what it was before conception. or zygote. 3. and when to stop producing it. the movement of the fetus can also be seen. the baby is blue because it has stopped taking oxygen through the umbilical cord. Immediately after birth. undergoes cell division as it moves along the fallopian tube. From this point. and its blood is refurnished with . The uterus increases in size as the fetus grows. 5.” during which the woman is experiencing dizziness and vomiting. which tells what tissue to produce.
Other examples of abnormalities brought about by the failure of a pair of chromosome to separate are harelip.oxygen. Sometimes accidents happen. The woman should seek parental care from an obstetrician in order to ensure safe childbirth. Cellular reproduction may not always proceed normally. For example. 7. This can happen if the said pair did not separate during meiosis I and the said egg is fertilized by a normal sperm cell. The type of abnormality depends on which particular gene is in excess or lacking. When this happens. To initiate the baby’s first breath. if this does not happen. This condition is known to occur in the pregnancy of women above 35 years old. which result in one less or more chromosome in the nucleus. or mongolism. the doctor or nurse may hold the baby upside-down and give a slight tap at his back. polydactyl (having one more finger or toe). retardation and other abnormalities may occur. 8. 9. 6. Blood and urine tests are among the important medical tests made. the baby turns pink. and defective eye movement. Sometimes. occurs when an egg acquires both members of the pair of chromosome 21. Ultra sound imaging is also necessary to “see” the position and condition of the fetus. . What remains of it will dry up and fall after a few days. The baby’s first cry is his fist breath. Pregnancy should not be taken lightly. the doctor or nurse may have to suck out the fluid from the baby’s nose. The umbilical cord is tied and cut off. Down’s syndrome.
Leukemia results from the loss of one of chromosome 22. Losing chromosome 5. Sometimes a piece of chromosome breaks off and gets lost. . 11. for example. and is physically and mentally retarded. tranquilizers. such as antihistamines. and hallucinogens during pregnancy has been known to cause chromosome failures.10. results in an individual with a round and moon-like face. The use of drugs and other medicines.
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