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城中村：深圳等城市迅速的发展进程使其面临大量外来务工 涌入，从而形成“城中村”这样的廉价住宅。几十座被曾经 的农民的私产扩建出的超过3以上容积率的低层高密度居住 区散布于城中，数以百万计的劳工和服务业人员聚居于此， 高度的流动和缺乏城市管理，使得许多城中村出现严重的社 会问题和安全隐患。
House for Security Guards, Janitors and Babysitters
Urban village: The rapid development of Shenzhen and other areas has led to massive inﬂuxes of workers from other regions, bringing about the formation of “urban villages” – low-cost housing. Here, inside the city, lie densely-clustered areas with plot ratios of more than 3, formed by homes extended by former peasants. These are home to millions of laborers and employees in the service industry; the high mobility of residents and lack of urban administration in many of these urban villages have led to severe social problems and security concerns.
三幕戏：都市实践以土楼公舍为引，发生在空间边缘与时间交 替所在 人物
P: 客家祭司，风水先生，打工仔 M: 客家村民，打工仔 U: Urbanus 都市实践建筑设计，合伙人为孟岩、刘晓都和王
In three acts: Urbanus and the Roundhouse Housing Project; Interactions between spatial boundaries and time Dramatis Personae P: Hakka priest, geomancer, day laborer M: Hakka villager, day laborer U: Urbanus architect, partner of Meng Yan, Liu Xiaodu, and Wang Hui. ACT I M: (reciting scripture) “If Bodhisattva have the semblance of me, of man, of all life, of the long-lived, then it be not Bodhisattva.” So what is the Bodhisattva like then? P: We Hakka blend Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism together – Bodhisattvas and Transcendents sitting down together to eat; ancestors and devils offering up sacrifices together. But the Diamond Sutra is definitely required reading. U: When I was little I lived near Ox Street in Beijing – that was a real neighborhood. It was most bustling near Tianqiao – that’s where the people were poorest. They didn’t have anywhere to play inside their houses, so they took the fun outside. When I was working in New York, my friends are all in Manhattan, and they don’t invite people over either... P: The memorial temple is the clan’s ancestral temple – and a microcosm of the clan’s fortunes over the years. The upper and lower halls are the main part of the construction: the upper hall enshrines the spirit tablets of the ancestors, the altar, and desks and chairs in cubicles to the left and right of the hall, which are maintained by the descendants. At New Year, we invite opera troupes to perform in the temple, and at the Lantern Festival we light lanterns for the ancestors. U: We’d often arrange to meet up at MoMA after work – especially on Fridays, when it was free to get in and we’d look at the exhibits and then get dinner somewhere nearby. The richness of city life is related to the wealth of the city: if you don’t have enough, then you have to share with others. It’s like being dislocated in time: I was reading a book about city life in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties recently, and they had very rich lives too –sitting down over a pot of tea in a teahouse and chatting away the mornings. M: The Tomb-Sweeping Festival is a big event for Hakka clans. The day before, we prepare steamed rice buns, chicken, pork, bamboo shoots and other foods, and incense, candles, firecrackers, ghost money and ghost papers. Inside the hall, we arrange seats for the patriarchs and matriarchs of
ACT I M:（一段喃喃诵经）“若菩萨有我相、人相、众生相、寿者
热闹，因为那里人们最穷，家里房子没地方玩，其它地方自然 发达。我在纽约工作，朋友圈都集中在曼哈顿，也不会引人到 家里……
为主体建筑，上厅供奉列祖列宗的神位牌、祭台，而左右厢房 放置桌椅，由族人指定专人保管。祠堂供奉春节请戏班演戏、 元宵迎龙灯给祖宗神灵看。
场，看看展览，在附近晚餐。城市生活与资源的丰富有关，自 己不足就必须和别人分享。时间错位——我最近在看一本关于 明清时期中国城市生活的书，那时他们生活也很丰富，在茶楼 一壶茶坐上一下午，谈天说地。
备粳米馒头、鸡、猪肉、春笋等；香、烛、鞭炮、冥钱、冥纸 等。祠堂上厅依次列放祖公祖嬷灵席椅，祭台上放供品。由主 祭人、监祭人、司香人、司爵人、司礼人、司茶人主持。
P: 放鸟统（注：旧时火药枪）！ M: 早晨三声鸟统把每家男丁召集到祠堂集中，祭拜列祖列宗。 P: 请你在阿妈身后、M之前给祖公祖嬷祷告跪拜。
P: 此后顺序沿小院环绕，脚步徐徐。 U: 不由自主向心性。一定是一个均匀对称的几何体。 M: 我会莫名其妙感到卑微。 U: 我也有过集体感受。1976年唐山7.8级地震后，北京人民搬到
户外度过了夏天秋天。 灾难下家庭的界限打破了，我家楼上的 老奶奶我家合盖一个地震棚，合住，互相体贴照顾。
M: 住在土楼却不是这样。 P:《增广贤文》在我们这里非常流行，都是有关为人处事的实
用哲学，推崇 明哲保身 。
满了，原来的公共空间不论大小功用都派上用场，形成临时的 城市。现代住宅楼的垂直联系当然不如水平的，小孩子当时在 邻里间串来跑去，可高兴了。不少临时建筑的地震棚越修越齐 备，最后变成永久建筑——我作为建筑师的初步实际训练就是 这么得来的。
不得，借不得，几多内亲外戚，谁肯雪中送炭？看今科，头 二三场，文章正合适，高中五金魁，名也香，姓也香，不管张 三李四，都来锦上添花。”
M: 这让人怎么依恋集体生活？ P: 你想走出土楼，走出故乡风水？ “人因宅而立，宅因人得
our lineage, and we place our offerings on the altar. The head and assistant priests, the incense-bearer, the wine-bearer, the gift-bearer, and the tea-bearer preside. P: Fire! M: At three in the morning, the sound of the cannons would call the men of every family to the temple to worship their ancestors. P: Stay behind Mama and in front of M as you kneel and pray to the patriarchs and matriarchs. U: After you’d lined up and prayed according to your generation, you’d have the wonderful feeling of being the part of a family line. P: Afterwards, we’d file out and circle around the courtyard slowly. U: It was an unconsciously concentric, perfectly symmetrical figure. M: That would make me feel really insignificant. U: I’ve had the feeling of being part of a crowd before, too – in 1976, after the magnitude 7.8 earthquake in nearby Tangshan, people in Beijing moved outside and spent summer and autumn outdoors. The disaster broke down all the divisions between different families – we lived in an emergency tent with the old woman from upstairs, sticking together and looking after one another. M: That’s not what it’s like in roundhouses. P: The Text on the Worthies is popular here – all practical philosophy about how to handle matters and comport oneself. U: After the 1976 earthquake, something interesting happened: Beijing filled up. People put all of the public spaces, to work, no matter how big or how small they were, and they built a new, temporary city. The verticality of today’s apartment buildings isn’t as good as a level city: back in those days, the children could run around through the neighborhood to their hearts’ content. And there were plenty of temporary disaster tents that people kept
ACT II U: 对于我，客家土楼不是宗族社会的范本，而是集体生活文
P: 你们自己做得也不见得好吧？ M: ——他是说，你自己也不满于所见所闻吧？ U: 我对北京二环内四合院改造嗤之以鼻，搞得富丽堂皇作为独
户高价租出去，而租户谁能没有车？都从车库进出，没有人走 大门。街道死气沉沉。我喜欢的四合院的魅力在于大杂院 （注：在文革时期多户分配到原来私有的四合院），一种活跃 的集体生活方式。清朝也一家一户一四合院，可是当时没车 呵，胡同里总见得些人气。
building up until finally they were permanent structures – actually, that was how I first got my start as an architect. P: “Back then, all year round, when we were out of food and hadn’t a pair of coins to rub together, when we couldn’t get credit and couldn’t borrow anything, out of all of our relatives, who came to our aid? And now, I got promoted by chance, everybody comes to flatter me.” M: How are people supposed to like group living after that? P: You want to leave the roundhouses and leave your hometown? “The home makes the man; the man keeps the home; thus do they naturally conform to heaven and earth.” If you leave, where’ll you conform to? ACT II U: For me, Hakka roundhouses aren’t just a model copied from clan society – they’re the product of a culture of group living and high population density. And I think that low-income demographics need group living. P: And you weren’t so good with it yourselves, were you? M: --He means, you weren’t satisfied with the things you’ve seen so far, right? U: Oh, I don’t approve at all of the way courtyards were converted in the heart of Beijing – changed into individual pleasure-domes and rented out for ridiculous prices. And of course the owners all have cars, so they enter through the garage, not through the front gate. The streets are dead. The courtyards I like are the knocked-together “mixed yards” – the ones that were converted from courtyards to housing for lots of different families during the Cultural Revolution. There’s a really lively side to life there. During the Qing dynasty it was one family, one household, one courtyard – but then, there weren’t any cars then. There’s something more human
M: 初到大城市，我们压根不敢想像拥有自己房子的滋味。 P: 不要说初到大城市，十年也飘飘零零。 U: 最近好多人津津乐道，做了各种北京四合院改造方案，要我
说这些建筑师沦为地产商的走狗——舆论给公众造成这些是合 理的之假象。与其这样还不如拆了四合院盖高楼；同时认真保 存几个传统的好四合院。——说话间有报道说福建土楼被正式 列入《世界遗产名录》了。
P: 这倒耸人听闻，还好我们家乡里没有这潮流。 M: 我们到大城市打工，还是和同乡的人在一起。没有路可走的
P: 我们一天工作之后回家看看电视也挺好…… U: 你家住了几口人？ M: 他家一居室四对人。我家三对，上下铺。所以我还是比较喜
想，无人鼓励。我们给某地方政府设计过一个广场，心想广场 要聚人，椅子设计得又长又宽，足以躺下人。地方政府着急 了，说这广场不让人呆住才好。不然就有人琢磨贴点什么东 西，私下鼓捣点什么。同样去观察北京最繁华地段的西单广 场，一天到晚人来人往但没有喘息，细看之下发现绿地边缘设 计成三角形体，让人想坐也不得容身。……理念不同，公共意 识不同。 （P不做声，回到一天的工作中：墩地洗碗……）
M: 他这样也挺好。 U: 我还喜欢在老楼里走楼梯。在纽约住时就在四层小楼的顶
M: 我们从土楼公舍的窗子里可以看到什么？ U: 你去看，可以看到什么？ M: 城市远远的。（陷入沉思） P: 你又在窗边发呆了，我们从这里只能看到后面高档楼盘的高
about life in the hutongs. M: When I first got to the big city, I never dreamed of having my own house. P: Never mind when I first got to the big city – even now, ten years have gone by. U: People have made a big fuss over courtyard renovation plans in Beijing lately, but if you ask me the architects are just the running dogs of the real estate developers, putting on a show about how they’re doing this all for the ordinary people. They might as well knock down the courtyards and put up skyscrapers, if they could just do a proper job of preserving a few traditional courtyards. – Meanwhile there are reports that the Fujian Roundhouses have been listed as a World Heritage Site. P: They’re just trying to drum up publicity. Fortunately we don’t do that where I’m from. M: When we come to the big cities to work, we come with other people from home. When we’re in trouble, we can at least turn the mirror to each other. U: We’ve always focused on working with public spaces. In China’s development, the conversion of public to private has become a particularly pressing issue, and people are still just trying to learn enough to figure out what to do about it. Anywhere you go, you can see that people fix up their own little spaces nicely. When I was little, everyone would go see open-air movies together; nowadays, even the newspaper notice boards you used to see on the streets everywhere have almost all been torn down. M: The general store near me moves their television out onto the street sometimes so we can all watch football games together. P: It’s nice to watch television at home after a long day of work... U: How many people live with you?
M: He’s got four couples in the one room; I’ve got three. We sleep on bunks. So I like going out to the park in the evening. U: You see, people still use public spaces and public facilities, but there’s nobody at the top paying attention to that, much less encouraging it. One time we designed a plaza for a local government with nice long, deep benches so people could lie down on them. The government panicked and said it’d be better if people couldn’t stay in the park. They were worried about people posting notices or meddling with the benches. If you go to Xidan, one of Beijing’s biggest hotspots, it’s no different: people come and go all day with nowhere to catch their breath. If you look closer, you’ll see the lawn bars there have been designed as little triangles so people have nowhere to sit. Different considerations, different conceptions of public spaces. (P silently returns to the task that occupies his days: cleaning and washing dishes) M: This is good for him too. U: I like climbing the stairs in old buildings. I lived on the top floor of a fourstory apartment building when I was in New York – a tiny little closet of a place, but it had a window that looked right out onto Manhattan. M: What do we get to see from the windows in the Roundhouse Housing Project? U: Take a look. What do you see? M: The city, way off in the distance. (He pauses, deep in thought.) P: Spacing out by the window again! All we can see from here is the tall buildings in the high-class buildings in back. M: What’s wrong with spacing out? It’s my space. P: It’s not at all like home was – but being able to live in a good building for low rent is fantastic. I don’t know what the apartment owners in those other
URBANUS都市实践 URBANUS都市实践是由刘晓都、孟 岩和王辉主持的建筑创作团体, 创建 于1999年，目前有深圳公司和北京 公司。 URBANUS 源于拉丁文的“城市”， 它表述了事务所的设计主旨在于从 广阔的城市视角和特定的城市体验 中解读建筑的内涵。URBANUS都市 实践 努力继承现代主义先驱的理 想，认为建筑是使生活变得更加美 好的主动力。因此，建筑师应超越 其传统的角色，站在社会进步的前 列，力图为新世纪建筑和城市所面 临的新问题提供新的解决办法。 URBANUS Architecture & Design, Inc. Under the leadership of partners Xiaodu Liu, Yan Meng and Hui Wang, URBANUS is a think tank providing strategies for urbanism and architecture in the new millennium. The name of “Urbanus” derives from the Latin word of “urban”, and strongly reﬂects the ofﬁce’s design approach: reading architectural program from the viewpoint of the urban environment in general, and the ever changing urban situations in speciﬁc.
M: 发呆多好，这空间是我的。 P: 它长得太不像家乡，不过低价住上好房的事太美了。不知这
P: 从来没有离他们这么近 。你给他们做保安是吧？ U: 穷人太弱小了，从别人身上获得力量，尤其是外地到大城市
打工人群。 这些人沟通得很厉害，好像需要互相参考，住在一 起才方便沟通工作、梦想。西方人乌托邦式制造了大量廉价住 宅却大多不成功，因为建筑师本质上认为打工人群不想居住在 一起。
M: 不过我早晚会再走出去。 我在学开车，先给这里的管理人
buildings think of us, though. M: Why think about them? You spend whatever chance you get staring at the poster of the starlet you’ve got on your wall anyway, not out the window. P: I’ve never been this close to them. You’ve got security guards for them, huh? U: Poor people are too weak: they have to get their strength from others – especially people who come to the cities from the countryside to work. These people stay in close communication with one another, as if they needed to be able to refer to one another constantly and stay in close touch for their work, for their dreams. Western utopian low-income housing projects failed for the most part because the architects seemed to think that workers didn’t want to live together. M: I’ll leave sooner or later, though. I’m learning how to drive – first for managers here, and then for a big company somewhere. ACT III U: A lot of architecture isn’t about architecture anymore. Urban development poses so many questions that sometimes we have to face ridiculous, bizarre questions. M: Nobody asked us what we want. If you’re so stressed, why not just go home? P: Cities are the centers of the world – I can’t leave. U: What we’re testing with the Roundhouse Housing Project is the concept of “roundhouse cities” – of taking roundhouses into the cities. What format will work best? We’ve tested roundhouses with diameters
100米的我们都实验过，最后选定72米六层高的单位。内部形态 也做过各种实验，有十字交错的等等，关键是要打通土楼封闭 的状态。最后决定了e字型台阶式螺旋形结构。
P: 要知道现在不是农村包围城市了。我们走走看。 U: 土楼如何与城市结合。现在的土楼公舍处在城市边缘，附属
高档楼盘社区。但是它如果在城市中间也是对的，实际像城中 村。当时万科给出这个命题研究时，我们便画在城市中心，公 园旁，架在湖上，巨型立交桥上，甚至像蜘蛛穿入结合大商城 的，与城市产生更紧密关系。
M: 我曾经住这右手边的外环，四五人一间的单身公寓。 P: 我还住在左边方块的公寓，两对夫妇分享两室一厅，比你那
ACT III U: 建筑好多东西已经不成建筑，城市发展到现在不断发问，我
M: 没有人问我们想要什么。你这么紧张，为什么不回家乡去？ P: 城市是世界的中心，我离不开。 U: 我们借这土楼公舍实验， 关键是一个理念：“土楼城市”，
P: 我孩子从家乡过来可高兴了。 M: 你捉迷藏肯定玩不过人家。闭上眼睛！ U: 想像空间很重要。我喜欢古代园林，是中国文化传统之理想
ranging from 50 meters to 100 meters, and in the end we settled on 72-meter, six-story units. We’ve experimented with interiors as well – with cross-paths and the like. The key here is to break through the closed nature of roundhouses. In the end, we selected an “E”-shaped, stepped spiral construction. P: What Mao said about the countryside surrounding the city isn’t true anymore. Let’s go look. U: How will roundhouses interface with the city? Right now, the Roundhouse Housing Project is located on the outskirts of the city, near a high-end apartment development, but it would work in the middle of the city as well – just like a urban village. When Vanke gave us the topic of urban villages to work from, we did plan it in the downtown, near parks, by lakes and overpasses – even spider-webbing through commercial developments, to allow it to develop an even closer relationship with the city. M: I used to live on the outer ring here on the right – a bachelor apartment with four or five people living in it. P: I live in the square building on the left: two married couples sharing a two-bedroom apartment, much more private than your new development. But looking up to see a towering, spiraling building with winding corridors stacked on top of one another is even more dizzying than living in a high-rise. U: With the ferocious pace of urban development there a lot of wasted spaces, which you might not see at first, that can still be used. That’s why we adopted a theme of “filling in cities.” With further development and consolidation of resources, architects have more
生活方式的简化，有山，房，院，敞轩，溪流，峰回路转，上 上下下，是一个更大空间的原型——在这里要借助想像，很 妙。有一定知识背景，就看得有滋有味，不然，则也热热闹 闹。
M: 捉迷藏要从每层的公共空间开始…… P: 这里四通八达。你是向左去了？向右去了？我说我们得规定
M: 我们都挺好。 U: 土楼公舍中有很多不同的人，也像城中村一样。其实早上经
过深圳的城中村总能看到西装革履的白领 ，深圳住房不像北京 有高低层次，新公寓普遍很贵，初到深圳根本住不起 。
以工作，有网吧，打扑克的地方，院里可以打球，有自行车 库。在内围部位考虑若干间招待所以备亲友来访时临时租用。 每层四方角作为公共空间，有独立楼梯上下穿插，设计上保留 空白，看住户们自己怎么来用。
M: 楼可以改变我们的生活状态。 U: 但是建筑师不能改变社会，建筑师只提供一个外壳。
（三人各执一面镜子，兀自从中探寻不同的东西去了） 2008年7月 广州，深圳
space to work with. M: Turning, turning, turning along the inside ring – there aren’t any colors or signs so you can’t tell where it ends. You can get lost here. P: My kid was so happy to come here from the countryside. M: There’s no way you’ll beat him at hide-and-seek. Close your eyes! U: Imaginary spaces are very important too. I like the old-fashioned artificial forests people used to have in their courtyards – it’s a distillation of the traditional ideal lifestyle: mountains, homes, a courtyard, a spacious study, streams, hills and winding little paths – like a miniature landscape. This requires exquisite imagination to create, and with the right background you can see the full beauty of it. Otherwise it’s just a place to play. M: Hide-and-seek starts in the public spaces of each level. P: From this spot you can go in any direction – left? right? I think we should limit the scope of the game – we can’t do it on different floors of the building. U: When I was in college, I thought about stage design for a long time – and boat-making and archaeology. All of these are related to space, in some way. In the end I decided that architects made more of a contribution to society! When I signed up for architecture, other people didn’t understand what it was – they thought it was about carpentry and construction. P: Sanitation workers have it a lot more comfortable than construction workers. (To M) Your old security guard job was nice, too – good and stable. Nowadays you have to run around everywhere. M: We’re pretty well-off, both of us. U: There are a lot of different kinds of people in the Roundhouse Housing Projects, just like in an urban village. When you walk past one of the urban villages in Shenzhen in the morning, you can see young professionals in western suits and leather shoes on their way to work. It’s not like Beijing, where places are either upper-class or lower-class – new apartments are mostly very expensive, so people can’t afford to live there when they first get here. P: I’ve seen the skyline you were talking about too. I wash the floor-to-ceiling windows in an apartment up above the 20th floor every week, and from there I can see all the way to Guangzhou. M: You could see if you can go higher up – work for one of the skyscrapers downtown, move into one of the proper apartment buildings there. P: That’s awfully...utilitarian. The roundhouses are beautiful too, you know. In my home, I’ve turned the mirrors to face the sky. (Pause.) U: Yes – the different homes in the roundhouses face in different directions, but you can always see the sky. People can work in the Roundhouse Housing Project; they can open internet cafes or places to play poker. In the yard they can play ball or lock up their bikes. They could think about opening some rented rooms inside for friends or relatives to stay in when they visit. The four corners of every floor are a public space with stairs going up directly to them: we designed the empty space in and we’ll see what the residents do with it. M: Buildings can change the way we live. U: Architects can’t change society, though. All we can do is provide a shell for it. (The three men each take up a mirror and stand still looking in each one for something different.) July 2008 Guangzhou, Shenzhen
项目地点：广东 设计时间：2006-2007 年 建设时间：2007年 建设设计：URBANUS都市实践 土楼是客家民居独有的建筑形 式。它是介于城市和乡村之间 一个集合体，即用集合住宅的 方式，将居住、贮藏、商店、 集市、祭祀、公共娱乐等功能 集中于一个建筑体量。土楼具 有巨大凝聚力。 将土楼作为当前解决低收入住 宅问题的方法，不只是形式上 的承袭。传统土楼将房间沿周 边均匀布局，和现代宿舍建筑 类似，但又具有现代板式宿舍 所缺少的亲和力，有助于保持 低收入社区中的邻里感。
Vanke -Tu-Lou Program
Project location: Guang Dong Design period: 2006-2007 Architect: URBANUS Architecture & Design, Inc Tulou is a dwelling type unique to the Hakka people. It is a communal residence between the city and the countryside, integrating living, storage, shopping, spiritual, and public entertainment into one single building entity. Traditional units in tulou are evenly laid out along its perimeter, like modern slab-style dormitory buildings, but with greater opportunities for social interaction. Although this type is very much suitable for low-income housing, simply copying the form and style of the tulou would not be a good solution for the design of low-income housing. However, by learning from the tulou, one can help preserve community spirit among low-income families.
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