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Natural Environment Research Council INSTITUTE OF TERRESTRIALECOLOGY

Distribution and status of bats in Europe

R E Stebbings and Francesca Griffith
Monks Wood Experimental Station Abbots Ripton Huntingdon Cambs PE17 2LS

the collective knowledge of the 14 sister institutes which make up the Natural Environment Research Council. ITE contributes to. E. is fundamental research supported by NERC. The results of thiS research are available to those responsible •for the protection. R. from the former Nature Conservancy's research stations and staff. Distribution and status of bats in Europe 1. ITE's expertise is widely used by international organizations in • overseas projects and programmes of research. Ill. composition and processes of land and freshwater systems. Griffith. C5 ISBN 0904282 94 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was funded in part by the Nature Conservancy Council and in part through the NCC by an EEC contract (No. The Institute studies the factors determining the structure. Title II. U 81 524). spanning all the environmental sciences. Dr R E Stebbings Institute of Terrestrial Ecology Monks Wood Experimental Station Abbots Ripton Huntingdon PE17 2LS 048 73 (Abbots Ripton) 381 2 . such as the Department of Environment. and of individual plant and animal species. management and wise use of our natural resouráes.Printed in Great Britain by Cambrian News (Aberystwyth) Ltd C NERC Copyright 1986 Published in 1986 by Institute of Terrestrial Ecology Administrative Headquarters Monks Wood Experimental Station Abbots Ripton Huntingdon PE17 2LS DATA BRITISH LIBRARY CATALOGUING-IN-PUBLICATION Stebbings. the Nature Conservancy Council and the Overseas Development Administration. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology 599. COVER ILLUSTRATION Eptesicus serotinus — serotine bat (All photographs by R E Stebbings) The Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE)was established in 1973. The remainder . Bats I. F. joined later by the Institute of Tree Biology and the Culture Centre of Algae and Protozoa. One quarter of ITE's work is research commissioned by customers. It is developing a sounder scientific basis for predicting and modelling environmental trends arising from natural or man-made change. and draws upon. the Commission of the European Communities.4 OL737.

nattereri M. mehelyi Myotis bechsteinii M. mystacinus M. nilssonii Vespertiliomurinus Nyctalus leisleri N. emarginatus M. brandtii M. blasii R: euryale R.CONTENTS Introduction Methods Distributional areas Interpretation of maps Species accounts Nomenclature Habitat Populations Threats Conservation measures Recommendations Acknowledgements References Summary of the bats of Europe Species accounts Rhinolophus ferrumequinum R. hipposideros R. kuhli P. austriacus Miniopterus schreibersii Pipistrellus pipistrellus P. capaccinii M. myotis Barbastellabarbastellus Plecotus auritus P. blythi M. sayii Eptesicus serotinus E. nathusii P. daubentonii M. dasycneme M. lasiopterus Tadaridateniotis Bibliography Page 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 10 11 12 14 15 18 18 23 28 30 33 36 40 44 47 52 56 59 63 67 71 74 79 83 87 91 95 99 103 106 109 113 116 119 123 127 130 133 3 . noctula N. nathalinae M.

á .

Over half are quoted in the bibliography and readers should additionally consult the 2 European bat journals. However. An arbitrary assessment was made as to whether the details were valid and. Despite one third of the indigenous terrestrial mammal species in Europe being bats.INTRODUCTION National and international agencies. The EEC had become aware of its commitment to international conservation in 1979 when the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats was published and presented by the Council of Europe to its 21 Member States for signing and ratification. how 5 . However. which contain many more papers and references. often in obscure journals. Brink in the early 1950s (1967) was one of the first to attempt a compilation of distribution maps for the European bats and these have been reproduced many times. although much has been published. particularly in Poland and the USSR. I hope it will also stimulate more systematic recording and detailed ecological research. societies and individuals are increasingly seeking information on the current distribution and status of bats in Europe.This was needed so that there could be a co-ordinated approach to the conservation of these biota. which are necessaryto establish conservation requirements for each species. Thus. if so. ecology or status. present knowledge is much improved and new maps are needed. little is known of their detailed distribution and numbers. This report is an attempt to summarize the present status of bats in 27 countries in western Europe and provides sources where more detailed information can be found. Many bats move between summer and winter roosts and these may be separated by large distances. A few species have significant populations in EEC countries in winter (eg Vespertilio murinus) but in summer these bats form nursery colonies in north-east Europe. Roer 1971). METHODS A draft was prepared by consulting about 450 papers giving information on distribution. Myotis and Nyctalus. The stimulus to produce this report came in 1980 when the Environment and Consumer Protection Service of the Commission of the EuropeanCommunities (EEC) requested information on the threatened flora and vertebrate fauna within the EEC. it is widely scattered. accumulation of knowledge has gathered momentum and. it is vital to consider the range and migrations of a species when preparing conservation strategies (Strelkov 1969.

held at Bonn. Poland. and some providing details for 2 or more countries. Opinions about status are inevitably subjective. particularly regarding status and distribution of individual species. Thirty-nine scientists from 17 States (see Acknowledgements) provided corrections.the information should be presented. Partial information is given for Rumania and Bulgaria. Hungary. but for many a large proportion of their range is included. especially for those species which are difficult to find. there were contradictory opinions. but Pipistrellus nathusii (map 22). Some of the 120 scientists from 16 Europeancountries provided comments at the meeting and 38 copies of the draft were sent to scientists in 17 countries for more detailed comments and additions. observers often have the impression that declines are far larger than is apparent from recent studies. Within Europethere are only a few small areas where detailed work allows quantitative statements. The draft was presented at the first EuropeanSymposium on Bat Research. eg. Historic records are usually lacking but sometimes former colony size can be estimated. INTERPRETATIONOF MAPS The maps show the areaswhere bats may be caught either roosting. However. We have used our judgement in presenting the information here and we are entirely responsible for any errors. Decisions were derived from the sum total of knowledge at the time. for example by measuring the area covered by guano piles and relating that area to measured densities of bats in clusters. and hence re-assessment was constantly necessary. detailed assessment of the status of bats was confined to western Europe to the eastern borders of Finland. 16-20 March 1981. No species is totally limited to within western Europe. Czechoslovakia. However. and 6 . Although most information was complementary. although found widely in countries bordering the Atlantic and North Sea. in many highly agricultural and urbanized areas. Species which are widely distributed may differ greatly in abqndance. some collectively. SPECIES ACCOUNTS Since 1960. may total only a few hundred bats. Yugoslavia and Greece. feeding or migrating. DISTRIBUTIONAL AREAS Distributions have been plotted in all European countries east to the USSR. such as tree-roosting bats. Pipistrellus pipistrellus (map 21) is a common bat over most of Europe with numbers probably totalling several millions. 3 new bat species have been identified and described.

Dutch (N). HABITAT Little is known of the habitat requirements of most species. Usually the cause of a population change is unknown. German (G). bats are found in all types of habitat. but one colony of 7000 Miniopterus schreibersii present in 1950 in the west of France virtually disappearedin 10 years due to human disturbance (Brosset 1966). NOM ENCLATURE The classification and scientific nomenclature follows Corbet (1978) and selected. Additional local names were published by Roer and Hanak (1971). we can assume similar declines would have occurred elsewhere. many successfully adapted to and probably became more abundant in man-made habitats and particularly adopted buildings. mixed habitats.A large survey in Britain of house bats showed a decline of over 50% between 1978 and 1980 (Stebbings & Jefferies 1982. Italian (I). A few of the easily found species were studied from the 1930s and these projects often led to the disappearanceof those bats. Greatest abundance and species diversity are found in sheltered. Spanish (S) and Greek (H). Stebbings & Arnold 1982). Generally. even in a single site. Population recovery can only be slow because most bats produce a . or are occurring today. Changesin climate may also affect distribution and abundance. Although formerly living in natural habitats. With the present level of bat observation in most countries. and knowledge about the others is very limited and patchy. The sensitivity of bats to disturbance has only been well known since the early 1960s. even very large changes in population sizes will remain undetected. often showing immense declines. It was thought that adverse weather in late spring was the major cause. Despite intensive study of some species in local areas. including woodland. These species are morphologically very similar to other well-known forms.others are awaiting description. However. we have no precise information on overall population trends. pasture and riparian habitats. POPULATIONS About half of Europe's species have not been studied. but we do not have any reasonableidea of what changes happened historically. tunnels and mines for roosting. excepting the extreme arctic regions and alpine peaks. from our sparse ecological knowledge of these bats. In other areas of the Palaearcticwhere many of our species occur. widely used vernacular names are given when available in English (E). even less is known of their systematics and no doubt other species remain to be identified. Danish (D). French (F).

colony :n Aales totalling aeout 400 :DEC'S occupies an annua! area of 2500 km. killing by vandals and collectors. catas:rophes to breed nd colorces .For example a qr-noloprfas ferfameLT.iSfeboings' data) Thus.Anere almost all adult females congregate can remove oafs from w de areas instantly Trss applies equally to colonies •n natural s. re gree. :felon es may Sorre conta n ng thousands of hats :rev may represent Ire ent. eg caves and hollow trees. eg buldings ano mines Gatastrohnes can be accidental. A very large P1500 bats) colony was killed with the insecticide dieldrin The pile of droppings was 49 cm deep 8 . •nun. the estimated number of dwellings treated annually rose from Plate 1 Greater horseshoe bat nursery colony.tes. eg flooding or collapse of caves ane mines. and man-made sites.ri ng s-fick covering rhousanas of km. trees plowing down or burning down of buildings. out almost certainly of greater significance today is remerial timber treatment •n buildings This latter practice has been increasing since 1950 and is probaOlv the most important factor killing bats and reducing breeding success in Bntain.al and 3lthough a rev.THREATS are n driy colo.

natai Many chemicals used in the treatment imostly gamma HCH Lincanei and dieldrini are extremely lethal to bats (Plate 11 They remain on the surface of treated timber for many years and volatilize slowly. Other major threats to bats involve their food and feeding habitat. VoUte 1981) but there is little documentation elsewhere Many bats roost in hollow walls of buildings. IL: _ _ Plate 2 St Pietersberg stone mines on the Netherlands/Belgium border are being destroyed by open cast mining of limestone for cement manufacture. 9 . changing agricultural practice and insecticides must be having significant effects on survival and breeding 1. and cavity wall insulation must be both killing bats and preventing access. The reduction in insect abundance due to water pollution. and.35 000 in 1972 to 100 000 in 1979 and 500 000 in 1983 I. and generally we know little of their requirements European bats are insectivorous.Steboings. Tunnels contain one of the most important hibernating populations of bats in Europe. others feed largely on the ground or in free air. mojth and lungs Bats are now so dependent on buildings that their future existence may be under threat. unless different methods of timber preservaton are adopted Bats in the Netherlands have probably suffered most in this way (Daan et aL 1980. the chemicals are absorbed through the skin. and are found in almost all habitats. v-7. because bats roost on these surfaces. Some catch insects emerging from water. and still others glean food off bark and foliage. well away from trees.

eg caves'. Bats are also protected in all other Europeancountries. to general habitat on which significant bat populations depend. and this sort of protection is now being afforded to some dwelling houses. Adoption of this measure should be a priority task in each country and is likely to have greatest benefit to the long-term conservation of bats. but again we have no precise measure of such effects. or casual disturbance by tourists or speleologists. Many countries have schemes to provide bat roost boxes (artificialtrees holes) and these are 10 . A most urgent need is to find new methods of dealing with insect and fungal infestatioi of buildings. Commercialization of caves often leads to depopulation of bats and more mines are now being developed as shelters from nuclear attack. Racey & Swift 1986). for example by the tidying up of ancient monuments where small gaps are infilled and cellars or tunnels have their entrances blocked by doors rather than grilles. Clark 1981). agricultural and riparian habitats with minimal use of pesticides. or destroyed by open cast quarrying (Plate 2). Also variable is the degree of implementation and public awareness in each country. In many States. but it does not act as a deterrent to prevent andalistic killing. From experimental work. new chemical preparations should be formulated which will be less damaging to bats. Research has already shown that the insecticide Permethrin is effective at controlling wood-boring beetles and does not appear to harm bats (Berry 1983. Legal protection is most useful for its educative value. exceptionally. Legislation will be required in all countries making these formulations mandatory in remedial timber treatment. Mines which have often been used by bats for hundreds of years are being blocked or capped. More insidious changes include loss of roost sites. All new timber used in buildings should be pre-treated.success in bats. providing it is publicised. Such formulations will involve some research but they could probably be produced with little difficulty and probably little more exPensethan existing products. The recent change from hay making to silage prevents the maturation of some insects and is probably reducing insect abundance and variety. mines and ancient monuments. which in the long term is much cheaper and more effective than remedial treatment. Also. CONSERVATION MEASURES Legal protection of bats is afforded to all species in all EECcountries. but the level of protection varies greatly between States. hollow trees and. we know that bats may be more sensitive to organochlorine pesticides than some other higher vertebrates (Jefferies 1972. individual bat roosts have been specifically protected. ie remedial timber treatment. Effective\ conservation will best be assured by careful management of forestry.

superstitions and hostility that is often directed to bats by the general public.very successful in attracting and possibly increasing bats in some habitats. to find what are the critical habitats and causes of declines. All countries should implement measures to protect bats. and this will help to ensure their long-term conservation. RECOMMENDATIONS An education programme is required in each country to explain the value of bats and to dispel the fear. Blocked caves and mines are being re-opened for bats and digging new tunnels is being suggested. Research should be done to develop treatments for insect and fungal infestations of buildings which are not harmful to roosting bats. and these treatments should become mandatory for all remedial timber work in buildings. The programme needs to create awareness in all levels of society of bats' requirements. Priority should be given to endangered and rare species. Disused railway and other tunnels can be made into suitable bat hibernacula by management of the internal climate. More research is required. particularly for the endangered species. 11 . Adequate protection should be given to all breeding colonies. especially the prevention of disturbance of cave colonies by speleologists and tourists.

advice and information during the preparation of this report. EEC countries Belgium Dr J Fairon Dr R Jooris Denmark Dr Hans J Baagoe Dr Birger Jensen Federal Republic of Germany Dr Friedel Knolle Dr Anton Kolb Dr Alfred Nagel Dr Hubert Roer Karl-Hans Taake France J F Noblet Jean-Louis Rolandez Dr Yves Tupinier Italy Dr Edoardo Vernier Netherlands Dr Gerhard H Glas E De Grood J M van den Hoorn P H C Lina Dr Aldo M Voûte Other European countries Bulgaria Dr P Beron Czechoslovakia Prof Jiti Gaisler Dr Vladimir Hanák Dr Ivan Horkek Dr Petr Rybåt Democratic Republic of Germany Dr Joachim Haensel Hungary Dr Gyorgy Topál Norway Dr Jorgen A Pedersen Poland Wieslaw Bogdanowicz Dr A Krzanowski Dr Andrzej L Ruprecht Dr B W Woloszyn Rumania Dr P Barbu Sweden Dr Ingemar Ahlén Dr Rune Gerell Dr Olof Ryberg 12 . Rosemary Parslow kindly collated information on some of the endangered species. whose help is gratefully acknowledged.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people kindly provided help. The following provided detailed comments and information.

Republic of Ireland Patrick O'Sullivan Patrick Warner Switzerland Prof Villy Aellen Dr Peter E Zingg Yugoslavia Prof Beatrica Duliá Comments in reports or letters from correspondents are referred to by name. 13 . followed by month/year.

E. 1969. Lutra. Wildl. M.an insecticide under threat? Nat. Stebbings. Paris: Masson. R. A. E. 1982.REFERENCES Berry. Glossarium vespertilionum Europae. Corbet. 22. Strelkov. & Hanak. Recent developments in the remedial timber treatment of wood-boring insect infestations.. 166. Brink. 154-165. 1978.. P. 1986. M. H. J. 35. 1971. B. S. Rep. Acta zool. RaceY. J. La biologie des Chiroptères. Brosset. eds.. Weitere Ergebnisse und Aufgaben der Fledermausberingung in Europa.S. Myotis. (First published in 1955 in the Netherlands). Clark. A. H. 41-44. Barry. Chichester: Wiley. 393-439. cracov. W.P. Stebbings. Glas. Vane. London: British Museum. & Arnold. G. 9-27. F. edited by T. U. 1981. H. G. Conserv. 1967. S. Roer. A. 18. A.. Devon. A field guide to the mammals of Britain and Europe. De Nederlandse vleermuizen: Bestandsontwikkelingen in winter-en zomerkwartieren. Jefferies. Organochlorine insecticide residues in British bats and their significance. no. Serv. 1-118. Spec. R. The conflict between bats and wood preservatives. Zool. Focus on bats: their conservation and the law. 1983. & Vane. scient.. 3. A. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. D. 235. 1982. In: Biodeterioration 5. Bats and environmental contaminants: a review. van den. 121-144. 18-19. D. V. The mammals of the Palaearctic region: a taxonomic review. Decheniana . R. 1966. 1980. 1971. 14 . P. Roer. J. R. London: Nature Conservancy Council. 14. 205-214. Fish Wildl. Biol. London: Collins. Bats . 245-263. Migratory and stationary bats (Chiroptera)of the Europeanpart of the Soviet Union. H. 1972.. Daan. Oxley & S. & Swift. The residual effects of remedial timber treatments on bats. 7-26.Beihefte. & Jefferies. Myotis. H. 8. D. 1981. R.

It should be remembered that some species fly long distances between roosts (hundreds of kilometres) and all species will cross State boundaries. 15 .the European countries covered by this report. A blank space indicates the species does not occur.SUMMARY OF THE BATS OF EUROPE E = Endangered R = Rare K = Insufficiently known V = Vulnerable NT = Not threatened Tables 1a and b show the occurrence and overall status of each species in . or at least it is unlikely and there is' no positive information.

V = Vulnerable X = Extinct N = Not threatened E = Endangered K = Occurs but there is no exact information as to status ? = Where bats probably occur—butthere are no records (M) = Migratory R = Rare .

hipposideros R. emarginatus M nattereri M. . E '`..g0 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Ft.'''='... serotinus Vespertilio murinus (M) Barbastella barbastellus Plecotus auritus P. nathusii (MI P. blythi (M) M daubentonii M. euryale R. mehelyi R. austriacus Miniopterus schreibersii (M) Tadarida teniotis NNR K R V K V K NNV K R V V V V RR VR V RR V VV V V V V V VR ? R V V R V V VR V V VV V V V V V V VV ? V V VR R RNV V RERR VNV R ER ER VNN ER V E E ? V V V V K R ? K K K K V ?R V V NNVVV ? X V X ? X ER V V V V R R V ER NNVVV V K ?V EEE V V RR EEEEEE EEEE V ?R X E EEK K K R NNK NNK K K K K K VNNV V ? E E E E E X EV EEEE EEEEK EEK EER V VV V V V V E E V ? V ? K R ?KK RK EE EE V V K K K K K s Z al .s t.Table 1b Occurrence and status of bats in non-EEC countries . bechsteinii M myotis (M) M. blasii Myotis mystacinus M. kuhli P. brandtii M.-. 6E .. nathatinae M. capaccinii M. noctula (M) N."'''.9_ -F. savii Nyctalus leisleri (M) N. dasycneme Pipistrellus pipistrellus P. c 2 '6' 0 -0 -.6 g 2 cA — En -2) 2 oct2 g :F 6. lasiopterus (MI Eptesicus nitssonii E. Cr E E K K EEE E X E ?EE ? ? ? V ?V ?EX ?V ?RR VR EEEE V R EV EV E ER VNNN RER NNR R V VRRR R V V VNVER V NNV K EEE R R EVNN 17 .2fa-EiL.

S Korea. Rumania. Now probably extinct in Netherlands where it was formerly found in the South Limburg Province (Glas. 18 . pers. Albania.. Bogdanowicz & Ruprecht. Hokkaido and Honshu. personal communication). Kirgizia. Italy. Grote hoetijzerneus S. Caucasus. and occasionally in north Slovakia. central Germany. Grand rhinolophe fer a cheval G. Algeria and Tunisia. Europe: Found throughout Hungary. 114). Kopet Dag. Sardinia. Austria. pers. Spain and Portugal. Palestine. SE Belgium. The southern boundary includes Morocco. Corsica. Rumania: Found in limestone caves in the Rumanian Dobrogea adjacent to the Black Sea (43). France. Greece. Greater horseshoe bat F. Afghanistan and through Himalayas to Yunnan.SPECIES ACCOUNTS EEC World CHIROPTERA: RHINOLOPHIDAE Status: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum . Gros Hufeisennase Ferro di Cavallo maggiore D. S Germany. Rhinolophos i megali DISTRIBUTION EEC: SW Britain. Luxembourg. comm.. comm. Murciélago grande de herradura H. found throughout the year in south Slovakia. Crimea. Bulgaria. World: Occurs in the entire southern Palaearcticfrom Britain to Japan with the northern boundary through S England.especially in the Slovak Karst. Stor hesteskonaese N. Czechoslovakia: Northern boundary of species distribution. Yugoslavia. Poland: Only one known record from the Nietoperzowa cave near Ojcow in the Krakow-Czestochowa Uppland (1962) (Bogdanowicz. Switzerland.Schreber 1774 E. Iran. Moravia and Bohemia (182). Sicily.

..... I .......... ........... ................. .......................................Rhinolophus ferrumequinum 00 (. ................ .... s.................................. C I 0 : I 1 —S......... 19 .......... • st--.......... .......... ... / ...... I I l I I .........................

pers. icehouses and mines. comm. but occasionally up to 20-100 bats in groups. nursery colonies of 50-100 individuals are found. Large colonies are still found in southern and SE Europe. Feeds on a wide variety of mostly large insects in woodland and low over old pasture. In the Isère department. scrubland and grasslands. but have been observed during the winter in dense colonies of more than 100 individuals (disused mines in Beaujolais) (219). usually only isolated individuals. particularly in southern areas. Britain: It has become extinct in several counties in central southern and SE England. but also in caves and mines. Europe: Czechoslovakia: In summer. Exceptionally. POPULATION EEC: Very large declines in numbers have been recorded (eg Britain 98%) in the past century and the species range is also reduced. often near water. in winter. and in 1983 the British population numbered about 2200 (a decline of over 98% in a century) (202). 1415 were ringed between 1936 and 1960 (157). Netherlands: A total of 516 individuals were ringed between 1936 and 1951 in the South Limburg mines. Generally. The species is now extinct (23). although they too are declining.HABITAT Associated mostly with woods. 5/1981). some have been captured in cracks in trees during spring (219). 20 . A breeding cluster was found in St Pietersberg mines in 1939 numbering 75 bats. and 80 in 1940. eg cellars. France: Widespread in Isbre department (157) and Ain region (southern zone of the Jura Mountains) (Rolandez. found throughout the Rhône-Alpes region (219). as well as other areas in the north. bats have been seen individually or in small groups of about 10. Nursery roosts in summer are mostly in buildings. It is declining rapidly in southern Belgium and Luxembourg. A slight decrease in population numbers is occurring (182). and it mostly hibernates in caves and similarly humid places in winter.



killing, habitat change involving the loss of large insects, particularly the beetles Melolontha and Geotrupes, are -the major threats and causes of declines. Also, because the bats hang conspicuously in easily accessible roosts, they are more prone to disturbance by man than the Vespertilionidae (Tupinier, pers. comm.).

CONSERVATION MEASURES Europe: It is protected in all countries. In Britain 4 of the 6 major breeding roosts (all buildings) have been given special protection and one was rebuilt just to accommodate the bats.
Caves in several countries have also been protected by legal agreement and gated to prevent unauthorized disturbance (Fairon, pers. comm.). All breeding roosts need protecting as well as a large range of hibernation roosts which seem vital for the species' survival. Individualsfrom one colony were known to live in areas up to 2500 km2 (205).

ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 2, 14, 17, 25, 32, 33, 35, 49, 50, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66, 73, 77, 79, 80, 84, 86, 87, 95, 112, 126, 127, 130, 143, 145, 166, 172, 209, 211, 218, 224, 227, 232, 239




2. Rhinolophus hipposideros - Bechstein 1800 E. Lesser horseshoe bat F. Petit rhinolophe fer a cheval G. Klein Hufeisennase I. Ferro di Cavallo minore D. Dvaerghesteskonaese N. Kleine hoefijzerneus S. Murciélago pequeno de herradura H. Rhinolophos i mikra

DISTRIBUTION EEC: W Ireland, Wales and W and SW England, France,SE Belgium, Luxembourg, S Netherlands, S Germany, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Greece. Europe: Throughout Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Rumania, Spain and Portugal. Also southern East Germany. Poland: Localized to 3 areas, the largest population being in the south around Krakow, and also near Prizemysl and Nysa (Bogdanowicz, pers. comm. 1982, Bogdanowicz & Ruprecht, pers. comm.). World: From Ireland, Iberia and Morocco through S Europe and N Africa to Turkestan and Kashmir.

HABITAT Found in woodland, scrubland and grassland often near water. Hibernates in caves, mines and cellars mostly close to nursery sites, and usually forms breeding clusters in buildings in summer. Often cellars and roofs of the same building are used in winter and summer respectively. POPULATION EEC: This species has disappearedfrom northern areas of its range since 1950, and colonies appear to be declining (often up to 90%) over the entire range. Britain: Observation of the area of guano piles of 10 nursery colonies in Devon and S Wales suggests that they have 23

o 24 .Rhinolophushipposideros .

Netherlands: It is now extinct in Dutch caves where up to 300 used to hibernate in the early 1940s. Belgium: It is now limited to the southern part of Belgium. especially in the north. A survey from 1959 to 1977 showed that this species completely disappeared from a former population of 325. 120 were ringed in the Isère department — representing 1. The species has declined substantially in 35 years to 1979 in caves of the Krakow-Czestochowa Uppland (114). 80% of the decline had occurred by 1955 and most of the remainder by 1970 (233). France: This is one of the most commonly encountered species but its decline is very marked. In winter it is found hibernating underground singly or occasionally in small groups. Between 1936 and 1960. Tupinier. a hibernating population was monitored over 30 years with the following results (236). 73. pers. comm. Germany: The species is almost completely extinct (Roer. 93). Europe: Poland: In the Raclawicka cave. and was virtually gone by 1970 (244). the last record being in October 1973 (69. comm. although some colonies remain in buildings over winter. eg a colony found at Arvillard which numbered several hundred bats.declined recently by over 50% but no cause is known (Stebbings' data).. 6/1982). 25 . and numbers are greatly reduced.4% of all Rhinolophus hipposideros ringing in France (157.). Colonies once numbering hundreds are now extinct or down to a few tens. pers. A population numbering many hundreds in 1958 was halved by the mid-1960s. 219.

In NE Bohemia and Moravia. Tupinjer. the decrease is relatively less. summer colonies of females number between 10 and 100.t is found in the majority of provinces Two breeding colonies occur at Arredondo and Linares de Hof no (221.Rhinolophus h/pposideros . being 10-50% Generally. and hibernating colonies of both sexes total up to 300 However. pers comm WorldNo population trends are known elsewhere THREATS There is no known cause of most of the observed declines but httle work has been done on th's species CI mat c change s not thought to be responsible but rather habitat or land use changes and perhaps organochlonne pesticHes As wit Rhinolophus ferrumequinum this species is found in conspicuous roosts during the summer and so Is highly susceptible to 26 . it is one of the most threatened bat species 11823 Spain: A marked decline has occurred in Spain.lesser horseshoe bat Czechoslovakia: In favourable areas. a large decrease in population has occurred recently. H Bohemia. but .

pers. In Poland. 79. 76. 84. 232. pers. CONSERVATION MEASURES Europe: Protected in all countries. 69. 5. 170. Disturbance of bats in hibernacula and reductions in available food are also major causes of decline (182. 77. 33. pers. 86. 95. 43. 129. 145. It has also been suggested that fox and badger gassing may be killing roosting bats in France (Noblet. Research is urgently required to ascertain causes of declines and to find solutions.). 196. 78. 80. 126. 17. 1981). 87. 31. 211. comm. 120. 209. 27. 130. 112. 172. A few colonies have been specially protected in several countries. 14. 83. 23. 49. 62. 168. comm. the main cause of the disappearance of the hibernating bats in the Raclawicka cave was thought to be the frequent speleological expeditions causing sustained disturbance to this very sensitive species (Bogdanowicz. 4/1981). 192. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. 35. Tupinier.human disturbance. 25. 166. 224. comm. 143. 57. 59. 81. 239 27 .

and in Israel fumigation of caves with organochlorine pesticide (152) are main threats.EEC CHIROPTERA: RHINOLOPHIDAE 3 Status: World Rhinolophus blasii . Morocco and Tunisia. Blasius' hoefijzerneus S.). POPULATION Rarely found. This fumigation aims to kill the fruit-eating bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. World: THREATS Collection.Peters 1866 Rinolofo de Blasius I. Blasius' horseshoe bat F. comm. HABITAT Little known. Tupinier. Bulgaria (Beron.). pers. N. Europe: World: Yugoslavia. north to the Kopet Dag and Caucasus. Sicily. 62. 146. 1981)). Breeds in clusters in caves and mines. Blasius-Hufeisennase DISTRIBUTION NW Italy (though not recorded in Marche and Emil Romagna EEC: regions (Vernier. 28 . EEC: Europe: Bulgaria: Relatively common in Bulgarian caves (Beron. pers. Europe: ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 25. 145. 173. pers. comm. Murciélago dalmata de herradura E. comm. Rhinolophe de Blasius G. In Israel it is on the verge of extinction (152). disturbance and loss of caves and habitats. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. pers. Greece. comm. From Italy through SE Europe and SW Asia to E Afghanistan. 61. and very little known. Albania.

..... ... ' 0 I 1 1 J I I I 1 I I I.. I / St ..e co.. • / I A • . \ 0 p '•s i l \ / - giCIP3) - 0 (.Rhinolophus blasii . ° 29 . ' i' I ... • I i / tk...• 1 • / t) ri ) CZb (?..J) \ I I k Ay....

However. The total . World: HABITAT Little known. comm. eg in the Grotte de Saint-Marcelmore than 1000 individuals (219). W Rumania. Italy. Europe: 30 Czechoslovakia: Recent large declines in populations are reported. Uncommon in Rhone-Alpes region. one ringed in 1958. Extinct in Ain but breeds in small numbers in the Jura (Rolandez. Paarse hoefijzerneus S. Status: EEC World V E Rhinolophus euryale . Murciélago mediterraneo de herradura H. Sardinia. in the Ardèche used to form important colonies. France: Only 2 records in the Isère department.) suggests this species is extinct in France. Declines noted in breeding colonies but little EEC: exact information available. Sicily. comm. comm. Rhinolophe euryale G. POPULATION Little known. Mittelmeer-Hufeisennase Rinolofo euriale I. Bulgaria (Beron. Austria. pers. Rinolophos i mesogiaki E. DISTRIBUTION Central and south France. Tupinier (pers.CHIROPTERA: RHINOLOPHIDAE 4. N Iberian peninsula. and one captured in February 1971 in Balme-les-Grottes (157). Europe: SE Slovakia only (182). Yugoslavia. Mediterranean horseshoe bat F. Corsica and EEC: Greece.Blasius 1853 N. Hungary.pers. Mostly found in wooded country and generally roosts in caves.). 5/1981). Albania. although some colonies of 100-200 remain. Mediterranean zone of S Europe and N Africa and east to Turkestan and Iran.

a 1 44:13. t9) I I i / I l I I •/‘ / US C.Rhinolophus euryale 014. /*/ '--.../ '---C-‘ 01 t I I I I 31 . ..

112. 25. 1981. Spain: A serious decline is occurring. 57.measures. 84. 50. pers. 56. 17. 218. comm. 59. pers. though no figures are available (Tupinier. pers. comm. World: THREATS No information is available. 126. It is considered the most threatened bat species (182). pers. Tupinier.). Disturbance in caves and loss of habitat. 32 . 87. Switzerland: Used to occur but lack of any recent records suggests it is extinct (Aellen. Some are already gated.. comm. 145. comm. Total protection of all cave roosts is urgently required. 54. 127. and fumigation of caves with pesticide (152). Researchis required Europe: to assess status and find conservation. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 14.). Vernier.number of bats remaining in SE Slovakia is about 1000. 62.

Sardinia and Greece. NW Africa. pers. World: HABITAT Little known.and the Zagreb Mountains. but in summer 1979 a colony of only 100-150 was recorded at the same locality. Portugal. SE EEC: Italy. the Caucasus. Europe: Rumania: This-species has been recorded•in the Rumanian Dobrogea both in summer and winter (63. In 1974. Mehely-Hufeisennase Rinolofo di Mehely I. Sicily.. POPULATION Small isolated colonies. but little is known. Mehely's horseshoe bat F. 33 . Found in caves in summer and winter.CHIROPTERA: RHINOLOPHIDAE Status: EEC World R(?E) E 5. Iran. comm. pers. Asia Minor. comm. Mehely's hoefijzerneus S. N. collecting and habitat loss are probably the main threats. Known from few localities in S Europe. It has definitely disappearedin the south-west (221) and is practically extinct throughout (Noblet. 6/1983). Spain. Rinolophos i mehelios DISTRIBUTION Mediterranean coast of France (Tupinier. Rumania.). Corsica. Rhinolophe de Mehely G. Europe: Bulgaria.Matschie 1901 E. Murciélago mediano de herradura H. the Mediterranean islands. Rhinolophus mehelyi . 43. EEC: France: There are no recent records of this species. comm. Perhaps a relict species. pers. No information. World: THREATS Disturbance. 64). 221). a large nursery colony of 500 was found in the Rumanian Dobrogea. Yugoslavia (Beron.

.. a t Ia 34 . L 1 1 I ......1 . _„ I ... i — . / -...1 s .. ocj . . I....e 1 a__..& e-.ef...' . „ -. / •/%.. / Cf‘..- 7.'--. -• 5 / C ..Rhinolophus mehelyi ..... __L. „.. ... -' ( % -. .. N '' ..'.s. --...— — —.. ' 0 i % I 1 % / / ..011 gQ) tt: . I -- 1 . ...

ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 7.CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. Research into habitat and roost requirements is needed urgently. 35 . 145.

182). Feeds by gleaning insects from foliage and around and amongst trees. Spain. Europe: Bulgaria. 36 . Noblet. 148. World: HABITAT Woodland. 1982).Austria. Now found and breeds in artificial roost boxes. POPULATION EEC: Generally very rare. but it is usually solitary in hibernation. Hungary. Rolandez. France. Italy (except south). the Caucasus. comm. Switzerland. Rumania. comm. Czechoslovakia. S Sweden east to W Russia. 5/1981. pers. Corsica (22. England. southern tip of Sicily. pers. tunnels and mines in winter. comm. 6/1983. Portugal and Poland (29. 1981). Europe from Spain and France. pers. Bogdanowicz. although there is some archaeological evidence that it was much more abundant 2000+ years ago (Stebbings' data. woodland edge and parkland. pers.pers. Germany. particularly in Germany and Czechoslovakia. Italy: Records are scattered throughout the country except in extreme south and north-east (Vernier. Usually roosts in hollow trees in summer and additionally found in caves.). SE Belgium and Netherlands. comm. Luxembourg. E Germany. Tupinier. comm. Yugoslavia. Probably still declining and may be endangered throughout range.DISTRIBUTION EEC: Central S England. It forms small colonies in summer. S Sweden.

/ 1 i °t. . 37 .. 1 p % .Myotis bechsteinii . .

This species has been identified in Corsica from skulls in owl pellets 122. there are only a small number of authenticated records for this species (202) France: Very few records and is regarded as very rare. pers comm .. ‘ • • II .3 ' Myotts bechstemo . this species is rare and usually only isolated individuals are observed (182). pers.). Tupinier.- Netherlands: First recorded in 1938 when 2 bats were found in South Limburg. Czechoslovakia: Found infrequently throughout. . but found throughout to Black Sea coast (Beron. if 41 es • .: . pers. pers comm I Germany: comm. Europe: Bulgaria: Rare.).r 4A "re 4? 7 . 186. 1 1. w 1 1. . There are a number of isolated records from the mines of S Limburg but none recent (23. ) a. It has been ringed in Ardeche and the Rhene (157.% •r-al t a .N.Bechstein's bat Britain: Very rare. 38 .tokt--. Tupinier. 148. pers comm. 219). kf 7 M. 1. Glas.471‘1! ‘.). comm.. 1 1 iy. Small populations occur throughout (Roer.1.

Iberian peninsula: There are only 5 records from Spain and Portugal.Hungary: Minute population (Topál.). comm. but little known. World: No information. THREATS Loss of roosts and also particularly of high forest are probably the most important causes of declines. 39 . but because of its extreme rarity this would be difficult. pers. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Research is required to critically Europe: establish habitat and food requirements.

Kopet Dag. and additionally caves. POPULATION EEC: Known to have declined in some areas. Ireland. Korea. SE Siberia.DISTRIBUTION EEC: Throughout France. East Germany. Norway (near Oslo) (Pedersen. Feeds along forest edges and around trees. Corsica. Spain. 1981). Sicily. Austria. pers. Poland.Palestine. especially in the south.). Most colonies are small. S Sweden. but occasionally forms colonies up to a few hundred. Appears to be rare over large areas of Europe. up to 30. Kyushu and Honshu. CaucasUs. British Isles: Widespread but more abundant in the south and in Ireland (202). World: HABITAT Lives in forest. Italy. Great Britain. Hungary. south Netherlands. Denmark (south of the Limfjord and Bornholm) (Baagoe. Morocco. pers. Roosts in hollow trees and buildings in summer. Crimea. Europe (except south-east and most of northern Scandinavia) but including S Norway and Sweden. Belgium. comm. Britain and Ireland. Europe: Bulgaria (Beron. mostly in buildings. Czechoslovakia. Portugal. parkland and urban areas. often close to water. mines and tunnels in winter. pers. Germany (except NW). comm. Tadzhikistan. SE Finland (Kotka area and Imatra) (193). 40 . but generally little known. Switzerland. Luxembourg. comm. 4/1981).

Myotis nattereri 41 .

á .

THREATS Known to be killed in remedial timber treatment. Poland: Populations in Koralowa cave in the Krakow-Czestochowa Uppland declined substantially in 35 years (114: 140). 43 . 242). but populations have also probably been reduced by loss of hollow trees.). comm. cgves and mines. Iberian peninsula: It has been recorded occasionally throughout the peninsula but only one colony is recorded (241.Hungary: Very small populations (Topál. but little is known about its habitat or food requirements. pers. CONSERVATION MEASURES Europe: Protected in all countries. World: No information. Hibernation sites in several countries have been protected. One of the most widespread species.

Rolandez. comm. S Asia Minor and Palestine.).). 219). comm. Yugoslavia. HABITAT World: THREATS Vulnerable to disturbance and loss of cave roosts. Greece (157. comm. Rolandez. It has been collected. Europe: World: Bulgaria (Beron.5% of the mixed population (15. Often lives in multi-species colonies where Miniopterus schreibersii dominates. Riparianwoodland and scrub habitats. Forms large colonies. and killed by vandals. pers. Vespertilio de Capaccini S. the northern limit now being a strictly Mediterranean area (157. 44 . Sardinia. Murciélago patudo H. pers. 5/1981. Sicily. France: Has disappeared in parts of south-east France. including most of the Mediterranean islands. Vespertilion de Capaccini G.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 8 Status: EEC World V(?E) K(?E) Myotis capaccinii. pers. S Iran lower Amu-Darya. Greece: Present on Thassos and Crete (Beron. Myotis capaccinii only representing 0. 221). Long-fingered bat F. pers. pers. 5/1981. 145). 4/1981. 4/1981. sometimes mixed with other species. comm. Spain (221). Langfuszfledermaus DISTRIBUTION EEC: • SE France. POPULATION EEC: Little known. both in summer and winter. Nothing known. Europe: Spain: Very few known captures are all limited to the Mediterranean zone. 1981. comm.Bonaparte 1837 I. comm. Corsica. Uzbekistan. comm. Usually roosts in caves and mines. Noblet. pers. Mediterranean zone of Europe and NW Africa. Aellen. pers. comm. Italy. Vernier. 219. pers. Nycteris i macropus E. Noblet. S Iraq.

1 -... .. ..„.'.-.. .5 as. %/N. 1 7. .1 .. r 4 „. •.-.. ... .1 r . I C / 1 0 : I 1 i 1 1 I 1 .: ........AA ..... % 1 i \ r.. ... 1 0:4 - 1 e 0 . ../. r • 1 i I-. I .Myotis capaccinii "al „..e r %.. -...... :11-• 45 .-.1' r t /...!.. 1.

62. Known colonies need adequate protection from disturbance. 25.CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. 146. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. 59. Research urgently required to assess status and habitat requirements. 50. 46 . 24.

East Germany. comm. Voûte. NE Hungary. pers. Netherlands. Denmark. Moldavia and east Slovakian lowland (182). pers. extreme NE France. pers. HABITAT Prefers riparian habitats and usually feeds over waterways (197). 1981). pers. comm. World: NE Europe and W Siberia. comm. Czechoslovakia:Mainly in west.. Denmark: Found in Jutland but no recent records elsewhere (Baagoe. comm. Sluiter et al. pers. Also in south-west of Holland (Glas.DISTRIBUTION EEC: Germany. Nursery roosts and hibernacula are often 200-300 km apart. 1981). the scarcity of records makes it difficult to assess numbers and distribution. The species is known to migrate (Horkek. It is found between latitudes 48-60°N. Belgium. Netherlands: Present in Friesland and north Holland provinces. NE France and Germany. 1972. via Horkek. N Rumania. N and NW Bohemia. comm. north of Stockholm) (Gerell. east to River Yenisey. mines and cellars in winter. Poland: Scattered records throughout the country (Bogdanowicz & Ruprecht. Sweden: Recently recorded in south Sweden (in Uppland.. In eastern Europe and western Siberia. It roosts in buildings in summer and caves. pers.Poland. pers. probably Luxembourg (but not yet recorded). Bulgaria. comm. Czechoslovakia.). 3/1982).). 47 . Europe: Sweden. comm.

Cato 48 .Myotis dasycneme oc.

pers.POPULATION EEC: It appears that there are 2 centres of population in western Europe. total numbers in western Europe may be less than 3000 bats (Baagoe. Tingbaek and Monstead (12. cornrn. Netherlands: In the Friesland province 3 nursery colonies are known in churches. Marking individuals has shown bats migrate between adjacent countries (94). Europe: Czechoslovakia: Previously recorded in 10 localities mostly in winter. Germany: Occasional visitor for hibernation. Recently found in small numbers in Moldavia (226. comm. pers. Denmark: Found only in the chalk mines in Jutland (Baagoe. 2/1982). Voûte. pers. pers.). comm. Hungary: Occasional records with probably no breeding colonies (Topál. Belgium and Germany. comm. Horkek. In the Netherlands many nursery roosts have been lost and large declines have occurred (231). comm. 1982. 3/1982). 1981 and 1982). This species probably breeds in mid-Jutland.). Bats from the remaining nursery roosts in NW Netherlands hibernate in SE Netherlands. pers. N France. comm. in Denmark and the Netherlands. comm. in summer about 1700– 2000 adults are present in the Netherlands (Voate. with the exception of the Tisza basin where it was found during the summer of 1980 (Horkek. comm. Tjerkwerd Berlikum Oosterlittens — colony of about 400 adult females — colony of about 170 adult females — colony of just a few adult females and in north Holland: Kwadijk — colony of about 150 adult females Wieringerwaard — colony of about 150 adult females Assuming equal numbers of males.). pers. Although exact numbers are unknown. Some may travel further east. In 1981-82. pers. pers. There are no known breeding colonies (Roer. Smidie. comm. pers. up to 800 bats were found in 3 mines.). Jensen. 49 .).

s aiso a decline in the awfroal cave •Sablinskye other mass hibernacula in te Leningrad Other Lifeeding areas include the pestcherynear basins of the R.vers Volga and Don.pond bat Tre species :s very rare h cemral Europe centres are known in the USSR Other populapon USSR: n 1969. pers carom where The species may total fewer tan 7000 bats pers comm should be cons dered as Hghly endangered worldwide and THREATS Major declines have been caused by remedial t moor treatment •n bu•IrIngs containing nursery colon•es out collecTing. as weH a:. aH while in ftiternzitian Isturbance PoHu::en e yvaterways reduces food.1 There . rine loss of roosts nacc. special [yrotection beind afforded to every breeding roost dna major Hbernation •-site 50 . it is considered rare OCurskov.ater pollution is required.Myaris casycneme World . over 1000 hibernat•rig baTs recorded in the Smol nsKa cave near Kamensk-UralsK 1211L but !n 1974 only a few individuals were 'ound 212. contrbw.ed CONSERVATIONMEASURES Europe Protected in aH countr•es wnere it oecurs Control o' v. and in White Russia — Horadek.

comm. pers. 1981). 51 .). especially in the Netherlands (Vernier. comm. Some sites are already protected. Smidie cave in Denmark was protected in 1978 (Jensen.The most important known roosts are in the Netherlands and Denmark (231. pers. 12).

F. Czechoslovakia. I. S. Portugal. Feeds over water often on emerging insects. N Yugoslavia. World: Europe and S Siberia. S Scandinavia.Hungary. often roosting under rock ledges or in scree. Perhapsone EEC: of the most abundant of all species. Austria. 52 . as well as in cellars. Summer and winter roosts may be widely separated. but it is not known whether these are due to a real increase in abundance of the species or greater congregation in fewer availableroosts (49. under bridges. Vandflagermus Watervleermuis Murciélago de ribera Nycteris i hydrobios DISTRIBUTION Throughout. Switzerland.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: EEC World ?NT ?NT 10 Myotis dautientonii . but are usually solitary during the winter. In summer the females often form large nursery colonies of 100+ females in buildings. and EEC: Greece. POPULATION Appears moderately common throughout Europe. Populations are generally stable but some declines have been recorded in long-known nursery roosts (Stebbings' data). in tunnels. N. east to Vladivostok. H. in buildings and hollow trees. Britain and Ireland. Poland. mines. tunnels and bridges. Europe: Spain. HABITAT Found primarily in riparian habitats and around ponds and lakes. G. Some increases have also been recorded in hibernacula in the last 20 years. Stebbings' data).Kuhl 1819 E. Koreaand Manchuria. caves. Britain: Widespread north to Inverness and probably including all mainland Scotland. except possibly the extreme N of Scotland. Sakhalin and Hokkaido. E Germany. Bulgaria and possibly Rumania. Kurile Islands. S Scandinavia. Daubenton's bat Vespertilion de Daubenton Wasserfledermaus Vespertilio di Daubenton D. Finland: South of line from Jakobstad to border near Lieksa (193).

• ) f‘' ° 53 .Myotis daubentonii de -) t“.

Netherlands: •r`l • i f •` Czechoslovakia .

Rumania: Apparently very rare with only 6 records. but is thought to occur throughout. as well as pollution in rivers. 125). The main threats are disturbance in hibernation and loss of roosts. lakes. 2 localities in the Cantabrique Mountains.Iberian peninsula: Rarely observed. pers. Ramales and Arredondo. World: As above. secondly. Cabezarubias where almost 100 male bats were found distributed in small groups -up to 12 in a tunnel. where the bats were found in cracks in bridges in groups of 2 oe3 (221). Nursery roosts in buildings are threatened by remedial timber treatments. THREATS CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Is the observed increase of hibernating populations in north-west Europe a true pattern overall. especially while hibernating. Bats have been killed by vandals. etc. Sweden: Very abundant in south Sweden (Gerell. Recent records come from 2 regions: firstly. comm. 2 from the Black Sea coast (44. 1981). Studies are required to assess status in most countries and to define habitat requirements. or is it due to bats crowding into fewer available roosts? 55 . Many caves have been protected in several European countries in which this is the dominant species.

comm. DISTRIBUTION EEC: France and may occur in other countries. pers. France: Isère and Indre departments.EEC World CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: 11. 178). . Salamanca region. 4/1981. Spain: Ciudad-Real province. 6/1983).Tupinier 1977 E. Tupinier. caves and trees. Malopolska upland. Bialoweiza and the Lubuskie lake district (30. tunnels. Kleine Wasserfledermaus Described as new to science in 1977 (222) but differentiation remains unclear. Polnd. Myotis nathalinae . Europe: Recorded from Spain. Lesser Daubenton's bat F. also in Corsica (Noblet. POPULATION EEC: Unknown. Poland: Includes Pomeranian lake region. World: As above. 131). but distribution poorly known. Wielkopolska-Kujawy and Masovian lowlands. west Pyrenees (23. Petit vespertilion de Daubentoni (Murin Nathaline) G. Unknown. living in ripahan habitats and roosting in buildings. comm.. Probably similar to Myotis daubentonii. Switzerland. Europe: World: 56 Unknown. Probably feeds over water. HABITAT Unknown. pers.

b51-3 •r c). . 00 0 V74 f Z sr) t • t 0 . • 0 . •t t. .'%.

239. Water pollution and pesticides are likely to be the greatest threats. 222. daubentonii. as well as loss of roosts. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 5.THREATS Presumably similar to M. 58 . CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it has been found and will be protected by current legislation in most other countries if a wider distribution is found.

Notch-eared bat F. scattered in Bohemia.5 and 9°C (82). Kopet Dag. World: Southern Europe (north to Netherlands and Czechoslovakia). Switzerland. Europe: Austria. as well as cellars and caves. S Netherlands. parkland. Soria. Vespertilion a oreilles echancrées G. east to Tashkent and E Iran. 59 . all France EEC: except possibly the north-west. Huesca.Geoffroy 1806 E. Used to occur in S Polandbut not seen there since 1962 (Bogdanowicz. Vespertilio emarginato N. mines and cellars in relatively warm places between 4. Myotis emarginatus . Crimea. Wimperfledermaus I. Italy. Belgium: Very rare in low-lying districts — ie northern parts where only 2 nursery colonies are known (Jooris.EEC World CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: 12. Corsica. Nycteris i blephardoti DISTRIBUTION S Germany. Nursery roosts are mainly in buildings and probably trees. scrubland and pasture. Rumania. Sicily. Spain: Ebre a Pons basin. Bulgaria. Hungary. Hibernates in caves. 1981). Greece.Santanderand Bilbao regions. pers. Palestine and Morocco. pers. POPULATION Rareand patchily distributed in northern areas but locally forms EEC: large colonies in caves in the south. Luxembourg. Caucasus. Ingekorven vleermuis S. Yugoslavia. Czechoslovakia:Mainly in southern and central Moravia and Slovakia. Czechoslovakia. HABITAT Feeds in woodland. Belgium. Murciélago de Geoffroy H. Albania. comm. Sardinia.

0 gQ) a g 60 .Myotis emarginatus tk. .

In Ardeche a nursery colony of 1000 bats was found.) In the summer of 19803 colony numbering about 100 bats was found in Durbuy. with which this species is often associated.notch-eared bat comm. France: Population declines have been reported together with horseshoe bats. lsem department — hibernating individuals are in disused quarries in the RhOne valley. this was one of the most abundant hibernating species Between 1942 and 1951.Myotis emargmatus . but records are mainly of isolated individuals Ain region has some small breeding colonies Italy: No recent records from the south-east coast. 2062 were banded (24) A nursery colony occurred in the mines Large declines occurred in the hibernating populations from about 200 in 1945 to only 20 in the 1970s (233) 61 . Netherlands: During a 15-year survey in South Limburg mines from 1936 to 1951.

Spain: Recorded for the first time in 1964. 62 .Europe: Czechoslovakia: Generally very rare. World: THREATS Unknown. but since then only one adult male was found (44). Some cave-roosting populations in several countries have been protected. critical habitat or status of this species. Poland: It is extinct in Poland (Bogdanowicz. with larger numbers being found in Moravia and Slovakia (182). Rumania: A nursing colony in the Rumanian Dobrogea was present in 1955 and 1958. At all these localities M. pers. Vulnerable to disturbance and loss of roosts. comm. Four breeding colonies have been found at Arrendondo. 1981). Saja and San Leonardo. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Little is known of the ecology. particularly those in caves. emarginatus was found roosting with Rhinolophus spp. (243). Cueva de la Abegas.

) DISTRIBUTION EEC: Probably throughout. comm. H. scrubland and riparian habitats. N. Whiskered bat Vespertilion a moustaches Kleine Bartfledermaus Vespertilio mustaccino D. Myotis mystacinus . Status: EEC World V ?NT Skaegflagermus Baardvleermuis Murciélago bigotudo Nycteris i mystakophoros (Becauseof former confusion with M. pers. It is a rare bat over much of Europe. but others are possibly increasing slightly. mystacinus and M. HABITAT Woodland edge. POPULATION EEC: Little known. brandtii. Only a few scattered records from most countries but will probably occur in the area shown on the map. BRITAIN: Positive records from southern half. Its apparent absence from Denmark (excepting Bornholm. and additionally caves. (10)) is interesting because M. north to Iran and the Himalayas. Entire Palaearcticfrom Ireland to Japan. eg Belgium (Fairon. it is not yet clear what details refer just to this species. S. 63 . In SW Wales. Europe: World: Throughout. I. F. but again only a few scattered records. north to about 65° in Europe and west Siberia. mines and cellars in winter. but probably found throughout Englandand Wales. Roosts mostly in buildings but also occurs in hollow trees in summer. Some populations are known to have declined. one of the most abundant species forming nursery colonies in buildings. brandtii seem to be sympatric over the remainder of their range.Kuhl 1819 E. but forms small scattered colonies.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 13. except most of Denmark and northern Scotland. G. 73). south to Morocco..

\ .

pers. Poland: Widespread in cellars and caves. Rumania: During a survey of the Rumanian Dobrogea in 1974 and 1979 this species was not found. Rolandez. France: Rarely found. A hibernating colony was found in 1956 (44. eg Valencia and Murcia (Tupinier. It is found in bat boxes in the Lyonnaise region (157. pers. Italy: Patchily recorded in many areas but there are no observations for the south or east peninsula regions. comm. a few ringed in Ardèche. Small numbers are found throughout the Ain region.. pers. and it has been captured at Bretolet. In a 15-year survey (1936-51) in South Limburg. comm. 64). comm. 219. comm. but had been recorded until 1958. pers. 65 .eg they have been found in 2 caves in the Krakow-Czestochowa Uppland —the Ciemna and Nietoperzowa — between 1954 and 1979. pers. 63. Netherlands: An abundant species in hibernation in South Limburg mines.Belgium: A survey of the Grand Carrière de Romont from 1957 to 1980 showed M. 5/1981. 1981). comm. and the proportion appears to be increasing (93). Does not appear threatened in France. Hungary: Very rare (Tot:4. but it appears to be on the decline and has disappeared from some regions. 1378 bats were ringed. Tupinier. comm. although it is assumed to be present (Vernier. showing this species to be very common (23). . Europe: Czechoslovakia: Populations appear stable. with only 2 records from Isère. Usually the nursery colonies contain only a few individuals but they can number up to 30 (182). 4/1981). mystacinus constituting about 30% of the hibernating bat population.). but no detailed information on the population is available.) Norway: Stable population (Pedersen. 249). pers. Spain: There are very few records for this species. A hibernating population in the Dobsinska Ice Cave (Slovakia) numbers 300 bats.

13. 83. 120. pers comm World 1981) Nothing known THREATS Disturbance in caves treatment in buildings loss of roosts and remedial timber CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries In Poland. 192. 209. 49. 28. 103. 58. 190. 2. 95. 129.Myoris mystacinus . 239 66 . 130. 145. 143. 126. 224. 160. 11. 101. 232. 84. 32. 88. 87. 36. 80. 211. 65. 34. 156. 166. 110. 81. 77. 115. 62. 138. 5. 191.whiskered bat Sweden: Not threatened. 79. 196. 91. 236. 92. 235. 12. widespread and common IGereH. 33. 86. 181. the Nietoperzowa and Ciemna caves in the Qcowski National Park nave been protected for this and other species ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 137.

Vespertilion de Brandt G. Mostly small colonies in summer but occasionally forms colonies up to a few hundred. pers. Some known to be in decline. Brandt's vleermuis S. Iberian peninsula: Not yet recorded (Tupinier. east to Urals and south to Spain. It may occur in Ireland but not yet found. Myotis brandtii . mystacinus.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 14. mystacinus in hibernation in caves and mines.). Brandt's flagermus N. . Nursery colonies in houses have up to 50 bats. mystacinus. comm. agricultural and rural areas. POPULATION EEC: Little known. Poland: Said not to occur in the north (Bogdanowicz. except Ireland and Scotland. Groszbartfledermaus I. Norway and Sweden north to 64°. pers. 67 Unknown. Murciélago de Brandt (First recognized in 1971. comm. Brandt's bat F. 1981). Britain: Found roosting touching M. but already found more or less throughout region together with M. Vespertilio di Brandt Status: EEC V World ?NT D. with which it was confused. 1 herefore details are little known. World: HABITAT Found around woods. Roosts in buildings and hollow trees in summer and mostly caves and mines in winter. Few records from most countries but will probably occur as shown on the map.Eversmann 1845 E. It appears to be a rare bat over much of Europe and more so than M. but generally occurs in small numbers. Often roosts in cool moist areas. Europe: Much of Europe.) DISTRIBUTION EEC: Throughout.

csf A \•-„.Myotis brandtii ) . 0 010 ° 68 .

but Menstead cave had 50-70 bats of this species (circa 2% of hibernating population) (12). World: THREATS Colonies known to have declined substantially in Wales due to remedial timber treatment (McOwat.). comm. comm. pers.). and apparently very rare in France as a whole (Tupinier. Switzerland: Appears to have been found in 2 caves in the Jura Mountains (223).Brandt's bat Denmark: Smidie cave on the Jutland east coast had 50 M brandtii out of a total of 700 hibernating bats counted in the winter 1981-82. pers.y a • Myotts brandtii . Tingbaek caves had no M. comm Europe: Hungary: Apparently rare (Topal.). brandtii out of 500 bats (Jensen. pers. Loss of hollow trees and caves and habitat modification are other major threats 69 Unknown. . France: Recorded at Chantilly in Aisne (223). comm. pers.

70 .CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Some populations have been protected by grilles and special reserves in a number of countries.

pers. often large. colonies are now much reduced or absent. HABITAT Feeds in woods. Iberian peninsula. In the Isère department there were few records. Italy.EEC World CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 15. A single specimen was found in England (Stebbings' data). Hungary. Switzerland. Czechoslovakia. Asia Minor. Palestine to Kirgizia. Himalayas. Europe: Austria. Petit murin G. World: Whole of the Iberian peninsula (163) and Mediterranean zone of Europe and NW Africa. Sicily. In summer. Yugoslavia. in winter extends into central Slovakia and Moravia (182). In 1966 a small colony of 71 . Corsica. Nycteris i oxygnathos E. but former. Crimea. Lesser mouse-eared bat F. comm. Albania. Sardiniaand Greece. Czechoslovakia: Northern boundary of distribution. France: In Ain colonies numbering several hundred bats have disappeared following disturbance of the colonies during cave excavations (Rolandez. roosts are mostly found in buildings and warm parts of caves but the species is also occasionally found in hollow trees. Shensi and perhaps Inner Mongolia. in summer occurs in south Slovakia only. Does not occur in Germany (Roer. pers. Status: Myotis blythi . In winter it usually hibernates in caves but may occur in hollow trees. Vespertilio di Monticelli H. Afghanistan. Kleines Mausohr DISTRIBUTION . parkland and on the edge of rural areas. Caucasus. POPULATION EEC: Little known. Bulgaria.). 5/1981). Rumania. but breeding colonies are known to be present. comm.partly migratory EEC: SE France.Tomes 1857 I.

.• ... Y r ... 72 . •-..Myotis blythi da A ..... i ...... ..•...

Nursery colonies are known in the Jura (Rolandez. World: THREATS It is collected and disturbed in caves. comm.150-300 bats was found near Cremieu. excluded from buildings. Nothing known about critical habitat. 62. 146. 143. Research is urgently required. pers. it is thought that a slight decrease in population is taking place (182). comm. 17. 84. 86. and killed during remedial timber treatment. 111. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 16. 224. In one cave a nursery colony of 4000-5000 recorded in 1974 numbered only 150-200 by 1979 (44). blythi was found at Sagone and again in the Galeria region (23). However. with colonies numbering a few hundred. Europe: Czechoslovakia: In some areas of south Slovakia this is a relatively abundant species.). CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. 5/1981). 227. pers. killed by vandals. In Corsica M. In Israel it is on the verge of extinction (152). 239. Switzerland: Apparently rare being recorded only in Valais. 145. Tessin and Vaud (Aellen. 50. 83. 73 . 126. 22. 59. Rumania: A large decline is reported in the Rumanian Dobrogea on the Black Sea coast. There are also records of this species in barn owl pellets (eg at Barraux) (157). with up to 40% of the bats being Myotis myotis. Loss of large insects as a result of habitat changes is further threatening this large bat. 26. 87. 211.

F. Rumania. G. Myotis myotis . Asia Minor. pers. Yugoslavia. Murciélago ratonero grande H.partly migratory EEC: Not in Denmark or Ireland and is now essentially extinct in Britain. and mainly caves. Bulgaria.). HABITAT It is found in open woodland. the Netherlands and northern Belgium. comm. roosting in buildings and warm parts of caves and occasionally hollow trees in summer. Britain: Two colonies were known. but it occurs throughout the rest of the region. Nycteris i pontikootos Status: DISTRIBUTION . Albania.EEC World CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 16. S England. Hungary. Switzerland. World: Central and S Europe east to Ukraine. Only one male is now known to survive (Stebbings' data. Poland: Found throughout except extreme NW and NE (Bogdanowicz & Ruprecht. Mouse-eared bat Grand murin Grosz Mausohr Vespertilio maggiore N. The first was found in the 1950s but it had died out within 10 years. The second colony was discovered in 1969 but it appeared that the nursery cluster was killed in 1974. Summer and winter roosts may be widely separated. 74 . Poland. mines and cellars in winter. January 1986). probably mainly due to disturbance and collecting. Europe: E Germany. I. POPULATION EEC: Very large colonies were known totalling many hundreds or thousands of bats.most of the Mediterranean islands. Austria.Borkhausen 1797 E. Many of these throughout the region have declined substantially and the species is virtually extinct in northern areas. Lebanon and Palestine. Its whereabouts was unknown. It is often associated with marginal urban areas. Czechoslovakia. parkland and in areas of old pasture. Vale vleermuis S.

LC) N .

comm. Several very large breeding colonies numbering many hundreds of bats have been found in the Ardèche region. This colony had used the same spot for over 35 years and it had probably been there for several hundred years. comm. Another breeding colony of about 100 bats was found in an old church near Hertogenbosch.). but is usually isolated in winter. 5/1981). The number of juveniles produced 76 . In the Grand Carribre de Romont. the last record for this species was October 1961. France: Widespread in small numbers throughout most of France. A few breeding colonies are known (219).pers. but these have declined due to disturbance. and some of these hibernated in the South Limburg caves over 100 km to the south (24). A few bats have occurred in church lofts in southern and south-eastern Netherlands (Glas. over 3000 bats were ringed in the South Limburg mines and in one there was a breeding colony of 300-400 bats.Belgium: No population data from northern areas where the species is virtually extinct (Jooris.). Other colonies disappeared in the 1950s and 1960s. in summer. In the rest of the Rhône-Alpesregion. In Ain and south Jura Mountains it is found in breeding colonies often with Myotis brandtii. pers. and most recent records of isolated animals in hibernation come from the South Limburg caves. Germany: A population in the south numbering 4500 in 1961 had fallen 90% by 1976. Netherlands: Between 1936 and 1951. Many of the bats stayed in the same cave both in summer and winter. Both these long-established colonies had died out by 1950 (49). most of the observations are isolated hibernating individuals in mines and caves and one isolated record from Bretolet. pers. even though it was regularly surveyed till 1980 (94). comm. The small population has remained relatively stable for the past 20 years (Rolandez.

especially in agricultural and industrial areas 11821 East Germany: Large populations numbering 400-500 bats in chalk tunnels around Berlin declined about 85°/0 in 30 years (1011.mouse-eared bat annually in 3 small nursery colonies was 112 in the 1950s.Myotis myotis . 77 . Large declines have occurred in the last few years. and nursery roosts formerly containing 800-1000 bats now have less than 250 181 Europe: Czechoslovakia: Summer colonies number 50-2000. and in winter up to 200 in the areas of highest population in central Bohemia and southern Moravia. but by the 1960s only 13 were born (170) In another area in southern Germany. bats hibernating in caves declined from about 300 to 50 between 1968 and 1977 (81).

a nursery colony declined from 200 in 1962 to 25 in 1978 and only 12 in 1979 (236). At Malogoszczy in the Kieleckie province. comm. Spain: It occurs throughout the Iberian peninsula (221). as well as agricultural pesticides. particularly in caves. 1981). Switzerland: A large nursery colony of several hundred bats in a building in the north-west was lost between 1945 and 1947. Hibernating bats in the Koralowa cave near Czestochowa declined from 100 in 1951 to 10-20 in 1966. Reductions in numbers of large beetles in grassland. apparently due to building alterations (5). CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected .as well as the 78 . and it is probably now extinct. In the early 1950s there was a large nursery colony of 3000 in a Krakow church but this is now extinct (Bogdanowicz. Some roost sites are specially protected in most countries. THREATS It has been collected and greatly disturbed. All nursery roosts should be protected both in buildings and caves . churches and other large buildings.Poland: There are several records of declining populations in Poland. are probably reducing bat survival and breeding success. pers. World: In Israel it is on the verge of extinction (152). Colonies have been killed by remedial timber treatment in buildings and others have been deliberately killed or excluded from their nursery sites. especially those in castles. Populations in 4 large caves in the Krakow-Czestochowa Uppland have decreased substantially in the last 35 years (114).in all countries.

In winter. Sicily. and often feeds low over water. E Germany.central Spain. mines.Wales and S Scandinavia. Denmark: Zealand. N. Barbastello DISTRIBUTION EEC: England and Wales. Barbastelle d'Europe G. Morocco. Roosts in hollow trees behind loose bark and in outer areas of caves. Britain: Little is known about the population. except the south. S. Switzerland. Czechoslovakia. Caucasus. POPULATION EEC: Little known. Most common in forest and riparian habitats. Lolland and Falster only. World: HABITAT Prefers cool areas — uplands in southern Europe. 79 . It is very rarely found and appears to be one of Europe's rarest bats occurring widely but sparsely. In north-west Europe and Britain the species is probably in decline but there are few figures. also forms nursery clusters in buildings. usually solitary but some tight large clusters of several hundred are known. Sardinia. Mopsfledermaus I. lower altitudes in north. H. Germany to Italy. Barbastelle bat F.Schreber 1774 D.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 17 Status: EEC World V(?E) V Barbastella barbastellus . In summer. Only one or 2 specimens are found each year. Bulgaria.to the Volga. Corsica. SE Norway and Sweden. Denmark. Europe: Austria. N Yugoslavia. W Europe including England. Crimea. Rumania. Not found in Greece. and the large Mediterranean islands. but probably occurs throughout England and Wales. Brederet flagermus Mopsvleermuis Murciélago de bosque Nycteris i mikromolossos E. cellars and tunnels. Hungary.

Barbastellabarbastellus 80 .

pers comm . but is more frequent in 81 . In Ain a few small winter populations are known.barbastelle bat Belgium: A considerable decline in population is recorded1731 nearly all are of isolated individuals.1981 i Ths species is reported to be declining ITupinier.) France: Very rarely recorded. pers comm . with a group of about 20 bats in one tunnel. pers. A considerable decline in the population has occurred (Boer. pers comm. but there are no summer records (Rolandez. comm 5.Barbastella barbastellus . pers comm I It is now a very rare species Germany: In the South Limburg mates only 49 bats were 1936 to 1951 Only 4 records have been made from recorded in the rest of the country IGlas. Una. 24) Netherlands: Europe In central and east Europe it is relatively much more abundant and colonies of up to 2000 bats are found Czechoslovakia Found throughout.

No colonies are known (221. World: Unknown. 49. pers. THREATS Changes in land use and particularly loss of hollow trees are probably most important threats. 14. 211. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 190. but there are records of winter populations numbering tens or hundreds. 11. 5. There have been very few summer observations. A decrease in numbers has been noted with some large declines taking place recently (182). comm. 86. 166.). 209. 224. 2. Research is urgently required to find status and critical habitat and to find the necessary conservation measures. 130. Sweden: A very rare species whose status is unknown (Gerell. 34. 232. 57. 1981). 191. 103. together with pollution in riparian habitats. 83.Bohemia and Moravia than Slovakia. 43). comm. 120. 126. only a few records from the Oslo area (Pedersen. 129. pers. 181. 12. 16. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. 84. 112. 239 82 . 4/1981). Hungary: Apparently very rare (Topál. 17. Spain: Few summer observations but winter records from hibernating caves are more numerous. pers. 13. 33. Norway: Extremely rare species. 36. 81. comm.

Usually solitary in hibernation. Braunes Langohr Orecchinone D. N Bulgaria and extreme N of Spain. Yugoslavia.Linnaeus 1758 E. World: HABITAT Found in buildings. E Germany. SE Siberia and NW China. Lives in forests. 12). Hungary. Britain: Probably the second most abundant bat (after P. Sicily. S. H. Hokkaido and N Honshu. POPULATION EEC: Forms small scattered colonies in summer containing up to 50 bats (occasionally over 100). Czechoslovakia. Rumania. Ireland and S Scandinavia. Sweden and Finland. Sardinia and probably Greece. central Italy. pers. Sakhalin. cellars and mines in winter. It is a rare bat in much of southern Europe. Switzerland. W Europe including Britain. comm. except S Italy. Denmark: Only about 0-5% of about 4700 bats hibernating in the Smidie.south to the Pyrenees. Poland. especially in S Europe. Plecotus auritus . Oreillard brun G. 83 .CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 18. Status EEC World V V Langøret flagermus Gewone grootoorvleermuis Murciélago orejudo Nycteris makrootos i europaiki DISTRIBUTION EEC: Throughout. hollow trees and artificial roost boxes in summer and additionally caves. auritus (Jensen. Brown long-eared bat F. Tingbaek and Monstead mines in Jutland were P. central Spain (43). woodland and parkland and at high altitude. but little is known about overall population changes. Europe: Austria. N.. Corsica. Crimea and Caucasus and east to Mongolia. S Norway. pipistrellus) occurring everywhere except perhaps exposed regions of NW Scotland and offshore islands (202).

. Qb c• itpo: 84 .o1 •.. '4.• Plecotus auritus . It 0..


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Norway: It is fairly abundant throughout its range and the population stable (Pedersen, pers. comm. 4/1981). Spain: Considered abundant at the beginning of the century but since then there have been few records (221, 43, 243). Sweden: Very abundant in southern Sweden, frequently using artificial roost boxes (Gerell, pers. comm. 1981).
World: Little known.

Loss of hollow trees and remedial timber treatment in buildings have killed many colonies of these bats (37).

CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Banning the use of toxic chemicals in buildings would be the most important conservation measure for this and most other species. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1, 2, 5, 11, 13, 14, 17, 24, 26, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 50, 58, 60, 65, 68, 73, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 84, 86, 87, 91, 96, 101, 103, 107, 109, 112, 120, 124, 126, 129, 130, 135, 137, 138, 143, 145, 147, 164, 166, 170, 172, 175, 181, 190, 191, 192, 198, 209, 211, 224, 232, 235, 239.




EEC World V V

19. Plecotus austriacus - Fischer 1829 E. Grey long-eared bat F. Oreillard gris G. Graues Langohr N. Grijze grootoorvleermuis H. Nycteris makrootos i mesogiaki

DISTRIBUTION EEC: S Britain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Germany except north, Italy, except south, Corsica and Greece. Archaeological material from northern England shows former more northerly range c 5000 years BP (Stebbings' data). Europe: Austria, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia,Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, central and N Iberian peninsula and southern E Germany and Poland. S Europe and N Africa through the Caucasusand Palestine to the Himalayas, Mongolia and W China, S England, Jersey, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands.


HABITAT Mostly found in urban lowlands and highly wooded areas, especially in southern Europe. Roosts in buildings and hollow trees mainly, but also caves, cellars and mines in winter. POPULATION EEC: Little known. Widespread and abundant in southern areas but rare in north-west Europe where P. auritus is most abundant. Forms nursery• colonies of up to 50 individuals. Britain: Found only in Dorset, Hampshire, Sussex and Devon. One colony in Dorset numbered 22 in 1961, fell to 4 in the cold winter of 1962-63, but has since increased (202). Belgium: Only record of this species was of remains found in a tawny owl pellet in 1979 in the Soignes forest (234). France: The distribution appears to be closely linked with altitude, with it preferring lowlands. 87

Plecotus austriacus 88 .

Plecotus austriacus . with summer colonies numbering up to 30 bats They hibernate singly. World: Unknown. In Corsica. comm. eg at Dombes. but it is most often seen in autumn (Tupinier. In Ain it is regularly found in roof s in summer in small colonies. auntus. THREATS Loss of woodlands. Rolandez.grey long-eared ba Nearly all the records are of hibernating bats found in caves either on the plains or at low altitudes. 219.. bats previously identified as P auntus were corrected to P. comm. 250-300 metres. Europe: Czechoslovakia: Slightly more f requently found than P. 220. hollow trees and remedial timber treatment in buildings pose greatest threats and causes of declines. pers. 157. The winter population is decreasing (182). 230 metres. 89 . pers. 511981). at Cremieux. austriacus but its status is unknown (27).

CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 . Banning the use of toxic chemicals in remedial treatment of timber in buildings will have greatest conservation value.

Murciélago de cueva H. most of Oriental region. comm. Does not . Italy and southern France.Kuhl 1819 E. World: S Europe and Morocco through Caucasusto China and Japan. Corsica.). Austria. Switzerland. Hungary and southern Czechoslovakia. Sicily. New Guinea. Miniopterus schreibersii. SYSTEMATICS Little known. but recent work worldwide suggests that a number of separate species will be identified eventually. Switzerland: Recently reported from west and south only (Baagoe. France: Substantial declines have occurred in France.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: EEC World E ?E 20. Rumania. Yugoslavia. 1982). In Europe all bats will probably conform to a single species. Mostly found in hilly areas and feeds over open country. Bulgaria. Schreibers' bat F. and occasionally occurs in buildings in summer. Known to migrate 200 km from winter to summer roosts (5). Czechoslovakia: Southern Slovakia only (182). POPULATION EEC: Little known in western Europe. Schreiber's vleermuis S. Bent-winged bat. pers. Europe: Iberian peninsula. HABITAT Roosts in subterranean sites in winter and summer. Lanflugelfledermaus I. Sardinia. comm. occur in Germany (Roer. pers. Miniottero N. one colony numbering 7000 became virtually extinct in 10 years in 91 . Nycteris i macropterys DISTRIBUTION . Albania. Australia and Africa south of Sahara. Minioptere de Schreibers G.partly migratory EEC: Greece.

Miniopterusschreibersii he. ° 92 .

eg France to Spain (15). In 1974 a nursery colony of 2000-3000 had declined to 100-200 bats by 1979 (44). in some cases travelling through the Col de Perthus. eg a cave colony numbering 2000 bats was recorded from 1950 to 1960 but it became extinct in the following 10 years (5). Some caves still contain colonies numbering between 100 and 1000 bats.the 1950s (40). It was found to migrate from the Barcelona region to the Baux de Provence on the French side of the Pyrenees. especially in SE Europe. Virtually all the records for this species come from underground habitats (221. Declines in the east have also been recorded. but little systematic work has been done and few population trends are known. declining and threatened species (182). Czechoslovakia: Northern boundary of its distribution is in south Slovakia. 43). Rumania: A survey of the caves in the Rumanian Dobrogea showed serious declines in numbers. The species is very sensitive and vulnerable to disturbance. 5/1981). Europe: A few large colonies of several thousand individuals gathered from wide areas are known. This decline was due to frequent disturbance. Switzerland: Very substantial declines in population have been recorded. but the species still breeds in Jura. but generally it is a very rare. World: THREATS Loss of caves and mines by infilling and mining and disturbance in caves by speleologists. . comm. and probably does in Ain even though the caves there are mostly used in winter. pers. Currently the population appears stable (Rolandez. 93 It is on the verge of extinction in Israel (152). biologists ringing bats and tourists are the most important known threats. Many bats migrate between states. Spain: Some migratory movements of this bat have been discovered through ringing.

17. 143. 209. 224. 168. 62. 14. 239. 26. 151. 61. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. 59. 94 . 87. but individual sites are generally not specially protected. All cave roosts require protection from disturbance. 50. 48. 86. 227.CONSERVATION MEASURES The species is protected in all countries where it occurs. 112. 84. 126. 218. 211.

Large nursery colonies occur in caves in eastern Europe. Britain: It is thought to have declined substantially since 1960. including southern Scandinavia. Pipistrellus pipistrellus . Pipistrelle commune G. pers. France: Abundant with breeding roosts in buildings and occasionally caves.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: EEC V World V 21. Turkestan. Europe: World: Throughout. but it is rarely found in caves in the west.Schreber 1774 E. H. From W Europe including British Isles and S Scandinaviato the Volga and Caucasus. S. Belgium: Populations appear stable (Fairon. N. Asia Minor and Palestine. Annual surveys from 1978 to 1983 of between 78 and 214 colonies showed declines totalling 55% (206). comm. Zwergfledermaus I.). Pipistrelle bat F. Colonies of many thousands are known but there has been a general decline throughout the area since 1950. D. Average colony size fell from about 119 to 53 bats. . 219). POPULATION EEC: Probably the most abundant bat in Europe. Morocco. Dvaergflagermus Dwergvleermuis Murciélago comün Nycteris i kini HABITAT Found mostly in urban areas and agricultural and lightly wooded areas. Afghanistan and Kashmir. Iran. Pipistrello nano DISTRIBUTION EEC: Throughout. Occurs predominantly in buildings throughout the year but also roosts in hollow trees and artificial roost boxes. eg Bourne valley (157. Europe: Czechoslovakia: Dependent on buildings and so is most common in urban areas —some towns having a density of 30 95 .

) 1 c=3. 96 .Pipistrelluspipistrellus _ e. 'tr.

4/1981).). Total number is estimated to be between 80 000 and 100 000. pers. with moderate-sized populations which are reported to be stable (Topal. linked with short migrations between summer and winter roosts. Summer and winter colonies usually number between 10 and 300.Pipistrellus pipistrellus . comm. This species is rare in some areas (182. Sweden: Very abundant in the south (Gerell.pipistrelle bat km-2. comm. pers. 1981). Hungary: Widely distributed. World Unknown 97 . pers. It is thought that these bats migrate to spend the summer in central Russia (64. Norway: The population is apparently stable and may be increasing (Pedersen. 211). 202). Sudden invasions of roosts by up to 800 bats in August and September have been recorded. comm. Rumania: In 1962 a large population of hibernating Pipistrellus pipistrellus was found in a limestone cave.

CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries.THREATS Remedial timber treatment in buildings is probably the greatest threat. Devising new methods of remedial timber treatment of roof timbers will probably be the most effective conservation measure. Accidental deaths are often caused by bats becoming trapped in ventilation ducts and rainwater pipes (171. as well as banning the use of existing toxic chemicals. Stebbings' data). 98 . together with agricultural pesticides and loss of tree roosts. Cavity wall insulation and deliberate killing are also important.

the longest flight being over 1600 km (211). There are several records of over 1000 km. especially in the east. Increasingly found in bird and bat boxes placed in woodland.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE Status: EEC World V R 22. A dead female bat was found in Hoevenen in September 1980. Europe: Throughout except Scandinavia—though may be present in Sweden.a highly migratory species Throughout except Ireland. Belgium: Two records only. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat F. It is very rare in west Europe where only single EEC: specimens have been recorded. Pipistrelle de Nathusius G. The injury was caused by a ring and the bat died a few days later. S. Iberian peninsula — only N and central Spain. From W Europe to the Urals.Keyserling & Blasius 1839 E. However. Two. Sardinia. It may be more abundant than is apparent but it is known to be strongly migratory in some areas. Caucasus and W Asia Minor. 18). often in riparian habitats. It had been ringed at Teufelssee (Muggelsee area of Berlin) and had travelled a 99 . POPULATION Little known. the records may be of migratory animals as both were found in the autumn. summer and winter. and an injured male was found a month later in a building in Ruette. apparently EEC: vagrants. Rauhhäut Fledermaus Pipistrello di Nathusius D. World: HABITAT Lives in parkland and mixed light woodland. Troldflagermus Ruige dwergvleermuis Falso murciélago comUn Nycteris i trachydermos DISTRIBUTION . and southern Portugal. with some evidence that there may be more (199. Britain: Only 2 records. N. caught in Britain. H. Sicily. Pipistrellus nathusii . Roosts in hollow trees and buildings.

o ° 100 .Pipistrellusnathusii .

pers comm 1981).Nathusius' pipistrelle bat distance of around 670 km in 36 days from ringing. comm. It seems likely that this species overwinters in Belgium regularly (75) Denmark: Last recorded in 1957. pers. France: Rarely recorded. pers comm ). 6/1983) Netherlands: Rare. but may still occur as a rare species (12. pers 101 . Nob let. including Corsica (157. Europe' Czechoslovakia: It is very rare. 219. hibernating at Biviers in January 1976 in a hollow tree These may have migrated from NE Europe The only other records are of individuals found in various areas.) Rarely found.Pipistrellus nathusil . with only isolated individuals being -recorded throughout the country in summer. with unknown status (Topal. Baagoe. It is thought to occur in the warmer south Slovakia lowlands throughout the year 1182) Hungary: comm. Only one colony has been found. but in recent years there has been an increase in records in bird and bat boxes (Glas.

Sweden: Two specimens were recorded in bat boxes in August 1982 in a pine forest 20 km east of Lund (90). Nothing is known about the ecology of this species and therefore no knowledge of what conservation measures are required. World: THREATS Loss of hollow trees and remedial timber treatment in buildings are likely to be the most significant threats. comm. but more plentiful in central and eastern Europe. 102 . CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. 1981).Iberian peninsula: There are no recent records but this species probably occurs in small numbers in winter (221). There are only 4 earlier records but from recent observations using a bat detector it is thought to be more widespread (Gerell. pers. Little known.

pers. Albania. Sicily. Pipistrello albolimbato DISTRIBUTION EEC: Southern half of France. pers. Kuhl's dwergvleermuis S. Corsica. Europe: World: Very little known. and Portugal except NW (215). Tupinier. pers. Europe: Switzerland. Sardinia and Greece. but status is unknown (Vernier. POPULATION EEC: Very little known. Murciélago de borde claro H. Nycteris i leukogyros E. Roosts primarily in buildings. comm. Caucasusand Turkestan to Pakistan throughout SW Asia and N Africa. HABITAT Found in urban areas and agricultural habitats. 103 . Italy: It has been recorded throughout except in the Basilicata region. Crimea. but is also found in hollow trees.). Spain.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 23 Status: EEC World V V Pipistrellus kuhli . Italy. but there are very few records with only one from Isère and 2 localities in the Rhône-Alpes region — Dombes and Lyon (157. 1981). Pipistrelle de Kuhl G. France: In some areas it is considered abundant. W Yugoslavia. Switzerland: Reported to occur only in the west and south (Geneva and Tessin) (Aellen. S Austria. and west to Istanbul. comm. much of Africa south of the Sahara. World: Southern Europe. comm.Kuhl 1819 N. 219. Weiszrandfledermaus I.). The most abundant bat in Israel where numbers remain stable (152). Kuhl's pipistrelle bat F.

. .... ' . .-/ Pipistrellus kuhli e . ..410: sKI'D) . .. is . % / 104 ./I 1 . . V.. s . ..e s .. I .. .-.

187. 62.THREATS Remedial timber treatment in buildings and loss of hollow trees will be the major threats. 143. 145. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 50. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. Banning the use of toxic chemicals in buildings will be the most effective conservation measure. We have no knowledge of its ecology and requirements. 239. 105 . 78.

Europe: Spain. Austria. Italy: It has been recorded throughout except for the SE region (Basilicata) (Vernier. Murciélago montãnero H. Roosts mainly in buildings and rock crevices but also in hollow trees. Turkestan and Mongolia to Korea and Japan. Caucasus. pers. Corsica. Portugal. Pipistrelle de Savi G. SW Bulgaria. the Canary and Cape Verde Islands through the Crimea. Albania. Italy. comm.). Nycteris i alpios E. Hibernates in outer parts of caves and in buildings. EEC: France: Generally very rare in France (Tupinier. POPULATION Very little known.Bonaparte 1837 N. and south (Tessin) (Aellen. Switzerland: Found in west (Geneva). Morocco. S Germany and EEC: Greece. Corsica: Probably fairly abundant but few records (23). HABITAT Mostly found in mountainous areas near woodland and buildings. pers. Savi's dwergvleermuis S. 106 . First recorded in Isere in 1978 (Noblet. Pipistrello di Savi DISTRIBUTION SE France. pers. comm.). comm. Savi's pipistrelle bat F. W Yugoslavia. pers. comm. 1981).CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 24 Status: EEC World V V Pipistrellus savii . Alpenfledermaus I. south-eastwards through Iran and Afghanistan to Punjab. the Alps. World: From Iberia. Sicily. 6/1983). Sardinia. Switzerland. Asia Minor.

° 107 . N N ...Pipistrellus savii .' c i . . ' •0 V.00 gQs r-. . --. I I . • . / I .•. . .--"" . 0 . • N.-' -01 .

158. 108 . ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 62. 239. Remedial timber treatment in buildings poses greatest threat. 145. Nothing known.Europe: World: THREATS Very few records. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs.

it also occurs in caves and mines. Status: EEC NT World NT Eptesicus serotinus . comm. mostly in lowlands. especially those with very cold winters. colonies are mostly found in urban buildings but it also occurs in hollow trees. World: HABITAT Winter roosts are in hollow trees and buildings. I.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 25. E.also in N Africa and most of the Mediterranean islands. G.). Population sizes in buildings appear to be stable in much of Europe. S. Britain: Since 1970 it has been found further north and west. N. Thailand and China. In summer.Schreber 1774 Serotine bat Grande sérotine Breitflugelfledermaus Serotino comune D. and in some areas. In the Netherlands it is thought to be found only in buildings (Glas. but this may represent an increase in observers rather than a true extension of range. H. It feeds predominantly on large insects in open sheltered urban and parkland areas. Denmark: Appears to have increased its range northwards (13). From W Europe through southern Asiatic Russia to the Himalayas. pers. F. Britain: Some nursery colonies are known to have declined 109 . Sydflagermus Laatvlieger Murciélago hortelano Nycteris i eurypteryx DISTRIBUTION EEC: From southern Britain and throughout region. Europe: Throughout except Norway and Finlandbut only recently found in Sweden. north to Korea. POPULATION EEC: Most nursery colonies number fewer than 100 bats but some colonies are known containing several hundred bats. near Kristianstad (89).

Eptesicus serotinus or 0 110 .

with colonies usually numbering up to 50 bats (Baagoe. Europe: European populations appear to be stable. pers. Sweden: First recorded in October 1982 near Kristianstad in the southernmost part of Sweden. In northern Northrhine-Westfalia it remains abundant (Taake. comm. Lolland-Falster. pers. France: Rarely found. Rolandez. 111 . but generally small populations. comm. Spain: There are very few records. comm. Czechoslovakia: Found throughout except in mountainous regions. Funnen.). There were.substantially since 1960 (from 100+ to about 25 bats) (unpublished data). Hungary: Widely distributed. Nearly all the colonies number less than 100 bats (Glas. pers. about 10 identified using a bat detector (89).). a movement of 144 km was recorded (Topál. 1981. 13). 202). pers. comm.and has only been recorded in Zealand since 1973. Five nursery colonies showed an average reduction from 45 to 5 bats between the mid-1950s and 1960s (172). During the last 100 years the Serotine has colonized Jutland. World: Little known. Although regarded as non-migratory. Denmark: Dispersed throughout except -north Zealand. 5/1981. Netherlands: A study of 21 colonies in the 1960s and 1970s showed little overall change. pers. Germany: Large declines in numbers have been recorded for nursery roosts in buildings in NW Germany. comm. with only a few isolated records (157. but most abundant in central Moravia (182. Some colonies increased while others decreased or disappeared (96). 202). but it is thought to be widespread and abundant.. 239). 219.

Nothing known about critical habitat and conservation requirements. Changes in land use resulting in the reduction of numbers of large beetles (which constitute the major food) may be causing population declines. 112 .THREATS The species is heavily dependent on buildings and remedial timber treatment is the greatest threat and known cause of death (96). but banning the use of toxic chemicals in remedial timber treatments in buildings will be the most effective conservation measure. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries.

1981). Pamirs and Tibet. E Hungary and north Rumania.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 26. comm. the Elburz Mountains. 113 . Vagrants may occur anywhere. Nursery colonies of up to 40 individuals are known with similar-sized hibernating groups (182). north to beyond the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia. Europe: Scandinavia. with no large colonies known. comm. N.pers.Tupinier. It is thought more likely to be found in Jura than Alsace (219. An arboreal species roosting mostly in trees but also occurring in buildings and occasionally rock crevices and caves. south to Iraq. Austria.partly migratory EEC: South Germany.).E Germany. H. Europe: Czechoslovakia: Generally rare but found throughout in mountainous regions. World: HABITAT Lives in upland regions in central Europe and at lower altitude further north. S.Keyserling & Blasius 1839 Northern serotine bat Sérotine de Nilsson Nordfledermaus Serotino di Nilsson D. Czechoslovakia. E. Central and E Europe to E Siberia. Nordflagermus Noordse vleermuis Murciélago norterio Nycteris i borios DISTRIBUTION . Italy: Only one record near Tret in 1929 (Vernier. G. F. extreme eastern France and northern Italy. Status: EEC World R K or NT Eptesicus nilssonii . POPULATION EEC: A rarely found bat in west and central Europe. I. France: No records except from Col de Bretolet. It probably has a low population density but it may be more abundant than is apparent.Switzerland. Poland. pers.

1 0% 9 .1.

ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 84. comm. comm. 143. It is thought there are no nursery colonies (Topál. pers. 239. 161. Scandinavia: The most abundant species with populations stable or increasing (Gerell. 1981. pers. 230. pers.Hungary: Very rare.). 4/1981). 13. 126. 137. 11. Pedersen. 115 . 216. 2. 12. THREATS Loss of hollow trees and remedial timber preservation in buildings pose greatest threats. comm. Bogdanowicz. 146. Little is known of its status and habitat requirements. 87. pers. 138. 228. World: Unknown. CONSERVATION MEASURES The species is protected in all areas where it occurs. comm. 129. 181. 1981). 156. 236. 211. Some hibernation roosts are protected in Czechoslovakia and Poland (182. 192.

Linnaeus 1758 D. Vagrants may occur in all EEC countries. hollow trees and rock crevices in towns and in mountains. Nursery roosts are mostly in north-eastern Europe. S Scandinavia. From central Europe through S Siberia to the Ussuri region of Siberia. Few bats are likely to breed in western Europe where they hibernate. E Germany and southern Scandinavia. Roosts in buildings. Isolated records from Jutland (12). The bats may breed in northern Europe. Poland. . S. south to Iran and Afghanistan. comm. Sérotine bicolore G. Zweifarbfledermaus I. Albania. Czechoslovakia. H. especially in eastern Europe In Denmark (NW Zealand). Hungary. N Italy and EEC: Greece. Serotino bicolore DISTRIBUTION . Parti-coloured bat F. Ringed bats recovered up to 130 km away suggest movements along the plain of Gresivaudan (157. World: HABITAT Little known. France: There are a few records from Jura and Isbre. Noblet. with only single specimens being found EEC: in southern and western areas. Bulgaria. Yugoslavia. Switzerland. pers. Europe: 116 A widespread species in eastern Europe which migrates long distances between summer and winter roosts (211). Rumania. especially in buildings.EEC CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 27. E France. N. Status: World Vespertilio murinus . POPULATION Generally little known. S Germany. 10/1982). Skimmelflagermus Tweekleurige vleermuis Murciélago bicolor Nycteris i dichromos E. Europe: Austria. Small colonies are found predominantly in upland and northern areas.a strongly migratory species. It is a very mobile species which may turn up almost anywhere. Denmark: Common in N Zealand.

Vespertilio murinus

• 11



Czechoslovakia: Isolated records show this to be a very rare species (182). Hungary: A rare species which probably has no nursery colonies (Topál, pers. comm.). Norway: The population appears stable (Pedersen, pers. comm. 4/1981). Sweden: Abundant in southern parts but status little known (Gerell, pers. comm. 1981).
World: Unknown.

Loss of roosts and remedial timber treatment in buildings are likely threats.

CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. Nothing is known of its food and habitat requirements. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1, 5, 11, 13, 49, 52, 53, 87, 101, 129, 143, 145, 158, 164, 192, 209, 215, 236, 239


CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 28. Nyctalus leisleri - Kuhl 1818 E. Leisler's bat F. Noctule de Leisler G. Kleiner Abendsegler


EEC World R(?V) V

N. Bosvleermuis S. Murciélago nocturno H. Nycteris pterygisti i mikra

DISTRIBUTION - a migratory species, especially in central and eastern Europe EEC: Ireland, Wales, southern half of Britain, S Germany, and central France, Italy and Greece. Vagrants occur widely. There are no records for Luxembourg but almost certainly occurs there. Belgium: Only one record from Villiers-la-Ville but the identification is doubtful (Jooris, pers. comm.). Netherlands: First recorded in 1981 near Nijmegen (VoCite, pers. comm. 3/1982). Europe: Austria, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Albania, W Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Rumania, southern E Germany and Poland. From W Europe to the Urals and Caucasus, Britain, Ireland, Madeira and the Azores, the western Himalayas and E Afghanistan.


HABITAT Found in deciduous and conifer forests as well as parklandand urban areas. Roosts in hollow trees mainly, and artificial roost boxes, as well as buildings. It often occurs in new as well as old buildings. POPULATION EEC: Little known. Usuallyforms small colonies in trees, sometimes up to 100 bats, but when it occurs in buildings colonies of several hundred individuals are known. It appears to be very rare throughout much' of the region. Ireland: One of the most abundant species — perhaps the stronghold in its world distribution. A nursery colony, in a 119

Nyctalus leisleri •011 _ 120 .

The largest colony found contained 17 bats (182). only averaging 2 or 3 records each year. • 4. Czechoslovakia: A very rare bat with few records. pers. Tupmier. Recorded in Isere. comm. mostly from bat boxes in conifer plantations France: There are very few records and it may even be limited to the northern Alps regions. 219. pers comrn Netherlands: First recorded in 1981 when a colony of adult females and juveniles was found near Nijmegen in eastern Netherlands (Voûte. Britain: Recorded in a few buildings with colonies up to 40 bats Otherwise very rare. 121 . 51981.Leisler's bat house. pers comm 3/1982. pers comm Europe: Little known Appears to be a rare species throughout eastern Europe. in the RhOne-Alpes region at the Col de Bretolet and in Ain 1157.a •••. Glas.48stis Nyctalus . Rolandez. of about 500 in south-west Eire declined to about 400 from 1969 to 1981 (StebbingsI data).

It is known in central Spain. 236.and Sierra de Gredos (Noblet. 221.Hungary: Very rare (Topál. 73. Status elsewhere unknown. pers. THREATS Colonies in buildings are threatened by remedial timber treatment. and other colonies by loss of forest. comm. comm. 145. Artificial roost boxes readily adopted. 122 .). Tupinier. 79. 86. and has been recorded at Caceres. Banning the use of toxic chemicals in remedial timber treatment in buildings will probably be an important conservation measure. 239. Spain: A rare species. hollow trees and parkland. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.). 209. 87. 80. 108. Population thought to be stable. 158. 216. probably due to lack of raptors (155). 129. 116. 192. pers. 6/1981. especially in conifer forests. comm. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. 143. Reduction in numbers of large insects may also be affecting populations. World: Azores: A conspicuous species as it tends to fly diurnally. pers.

S. POPULATION Little known. S Scandinaviaand most of the Mediterranean islands. In NW Europe. Feeds on large beetles. Europe. France: Status is unknown.a migratory species. Noctule bat F. SE Asia Minor to Palestine. Observations suggest substantial and rapid declines but there is no adequate documentation.CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 29. but much larger colonies in buildings.Schreber 1774 E. especially in central and eastern Europe Throughout.W Turkestan to the Himalayas and China. Typically forms summer colonies of 30-100 bats EEC: in hollow trees. Abendsegler I. Noctule G. Observations are few with only 2 records in Isère —both from caves. Nottola D. including most of Britain. Roosts mainly in hollow trees but also occurs in artificial roost boxes. EEC: Europe: World: Throughout. moths and crickets. eg Netherlands and Britain. except Ireland and northern Scotland. Japan. post-1978. N Honshu. N. caught both aerially and picked off the ground. Status: EEC World V V(?E in NW) Brunflagermus Rosse vleermuis Murciélago nocturno Nycteris pterygisti i esperobios DISTRIBUTION . to the Urals and Caucasus. and in Ain and at 123 . H. it is now becoming rare with substantial declines since 1950.Morocco. Taiwan. HABITAT An arboreal species preferring deciduous woodland and parkland but it is also found in conifer forests. in buildings and exceptionally in rock clefts and caves. Nyctalus noctula . but only southernmost part of Scandinavia. Britain: No recent records from Scotland except vagrants in extreme north (202).

.... ••• •• ............. •••.............• •• • •• •• •• •• • • • • • •• •• •• ..... ... ....o ..• •• •• ••• • •• • • •• • •• •• •.......• •• •• ...... • 4:0 et_s EZ=>° 124 ....• • • •• • •• •• • •• ............ ... .• • • • • •• -• • •• ................ . ... .... ••••••••••••.......•• •• •• •• ...... .....Nyctalus noctula 0 ....................

hibernating clusters 50-1000 (1821 Hungary: The population is small but widely distributed and apparently stable Cfopal. pers comm 4 1981 Rolandez.219. pers comm I Spain: Rarely recorded but probably occurs throughout small groups (221) in 125 . pers commj It is likely to be much more abundant than records suggest Germany: Large nursery roosts in Bavaria numbering 8001000 bats declined to less than 160 bats within 15 years 181 Europe Hibernating colonies in excess of a 1000 bats are known in several eastern European countries Czechoslovakia: An abundant species with stable populations found throughout.Nycralus noctula . Tupinier. pers comm 5 1981.noctule bat Col de Bretolet and Saleve 1157 Nob let. except in mountainous regions Nursery colonies number 10-100 bats.

Sweden: Abundant in the south. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries. comm. Management of agricultural habitats. Protection of hollow trees and provision of artificial roosts (bat boxes) are also required. eg Melolontha spp. and the reduction in number of large beetles probably contributes to declines. Unknown 126 . 1981). may be the key to this bat's conservation.. pers. to encourage the increase in the numbers of large beetles. such as permanent pasture. World: THREATS Many are killed during the felling of hollow trees and branches. but is regardedas vulnerable because of the rapid destruction of hollow tree roosts (Gerell.

Bulgaria. Tupinier). Grand noctule G. pers. pers.). comm. Sicily. Tupinier.EEC World CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE 30. comm. Nottola gigante H. Europe: Spain. Poland: One record from a barn owl pellet in Krolikow in the Konin district (Bogdanowicz. 10/1982. Iran and the Ust-Urt Plateau. and Tatra (Aellen.. 219.Schreber 1780 I. POPULATION EEC: It is a very rare bat known only from a few scattered records. Albania. Poland.Asia Minor. comm. Riesenabendsegler DISTRIBUTION . 174).Hungary. western Austria and Yugoslavia. World: From western Europe to the Urals. Status: Nyctalus lasiopterus . comm.). Greater noctule F. 1981. Caucasus. Greece and France (very few records). pers. Nycteris pterygisti i megali E. Switzerland. Only known from a few old records in the south. Czechoslovakia: Single records from Slovakia. pers. Spain: One record from Linares de Riofrio (Salamanca)(221. HABITAT Not known. pers. eastern Czechoslovakia. 182). Probably roosts in trees. France: Very rare. comm. and at the Col de Cour on the French-Swiss border (Haute-Savoie) (157. Switzerland: Found only in the Alps and Tessin (Aellen. 127 . Rumania. Bogdanowicz & Ruprecht.migrant EEC: N Italy.

Nyctaluslasiopterus `0° ° 128 .

ds.). World: A very rare bat throughout its range. comm. A very rare bat about which nothing is known. comm. Hungary: Only 3 recoi. about which almost nothing is known. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHYZ None 129 . THREATS Loss of roosts and reduction in numbers of large insects will probably be greatest threats. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in countries where it has occurred. pers.).of which one was a pregnant female which gave birth while in captivity (215. It could not be studied in EEC countries because it is too rare. Europe: Bulgaria: Very rare with a few scattered records (Aellen. Topál. Aellen (pers.) suggests that there are many more records for France. comm. pers.However. No colonies are known in Europe. Italy: It is thought to breed in Italy but there are no positive records.

Sardinia. also eastern Asia from eastern Himalayas through China to N Korea and Japan (3). At ValIon at There are 3 records from the RN:if-le-Aloes the Pont d'Arc several were seen flying. No nursery colonies are known (Rolandez. Murciélago rabudo H. SE France. comm. POPULATION Little known because it has not been studied. Molosse de Cestoni G. 5/1981). European free-tailed bat F. Bulldoggfledermaus I.CHIROPTERA: MOLOSSIDAE 31. 18 bodies were found in a cave in the Bourne valley. Status: EEC World V V Tadarida teniotis . World: HABITAT' Feeds on aerial insects often at great height. Bulvleermuis S. NW and SE Yugoslaviaand southern Bulgaria. Mediterranean Europe and most Mediterranean islands and Madeira. Morocco and Algeria. Nycteris i urophoros E. Greece and Crete. region. rock clefts and occasionally large high caves and mines. 130 . In lsère in 1975.pers. Egypt and Asia Minor/east to Kirghizia and Afghanistan. EEC: Europe: Iberian peninsula except north-west and Pyrenees. Said to form EEC: large colonies in Europe. In summer and winter.Rafinesque 1814 N. no juvenile skeletons were found so it is not thought to have been a breeding colony (163).a migratory species Sicily. W Austria. Molosso di Cestoni DISTRIBUTION . France: This Mediterranean species has only been recorded in the south-east. which is typical for the genus elsewhere. Italy. Corsica. roosts in buildings. one was shot at Villebois (south of Bugey) and a few were netted at the Col de Bretolet (219). Occurs in Corsica but status is unknown (23). Switzerland.

. I \ % I I 4 I :1--... 131 .... _ 4. ... . ..Tadarida teniotis I1 1 0 I t I 4. / ) 1 . . .

158. It is now considered rare (221). World: THREATS Remedial timber treatment in buildings. Researchis urgently required. except in the north-west. 52. Unknown.Europe: Iberian peninsula:Earlythis century it was abundant throughout. 145. disturbance of cave colonies and reductions in numbers of large insects are pr:obably the main threats. CONSERVATION MEASURES Protected in all countries where it occurs. All nursery roosts in caves need protection from disturbance. 132 . but little is known. Nothing is known about status and critical habitat. ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 61. 62.

neuchátel. Upps. 16-18. 19. Miscelénea zool. V. 54-60. Vesp. Status for danske flagermus. 14. V. J. 15. esp. Zur Gefahrdungder Fledermausein Bayern. P. 1983.. Mus. R. -Ocrotirea 20. Barbu. Genoot. 133 . Vidensk. H. In: Status over den denske plante-og dyreverden.Dobrogea. Period biol.. 171-189. Soc. 1839 in farul de la Sf.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 29-36. 211-215. Almaca. H. 1-50.. E. 1978. Dammfladdermus Myotis dasycneme (Boie 1825) funnen i Uppland. 24. Notes sur Tadarida teniotis (Raf. 1. V. Aellen. 73. 9. V. Baagoe. Aellen. Fredningsstyrelsen. Mammalia. 12. Bocage. 1965. Meddr dansk naturh. 1-99. Int.. R. 47. Nouvelles observations sur Rhinolophus mehelyi. G. BoIn R. 1-30. 15-18. 22. Nuevos datos sobre murciélagos raros en cuevas espanolas. Ba!cells. Nat. A second Nathusius' (Pipistrellus nathusii) in Britain. 1981. 1885) (Chir. H. nat. 5. Mammalia. Chiroptera). Baagoe. 74. 1961. 14. The spread and present occurrence of the Serotine (Eptesicus serotinus) in Denmark. P. 35-38. Arq. C. Baagoe. systematics and zoogeographical relationships. 7. 29. Ser. Suisse (Mammalia. M. E. 1980. 1973. 2. 23.. 1974. 365-392. F.) (Mammalia. Neuchatel. Ocrot Nat. Aellen. 2. J.. Schutz Bergwelt.. 1774) in Faleza Lacului Raze 291-297... Captures de Myotis blythi oxygnathus (Monticelli. 1973. B. 21. Antoni. R. Biol. Clark. 1968. Systematique paleontologie et peuplement. E. Atal lah. Ba!cells. 1968. Speleol. 269-278. nat. Ahlen. Mammals of the eastern Mediterranean region: their ecology. 12. 5. J.. C.) en Anjou et en Touraine confirmation de sa presence en Corse. Hist. Myotis. Gheorgie . 1968. 107-109. caught in flight in Hertfordshire. 4th.. 16. Migration en Espagne des Minioptères francais. Herts. & Jensen. 259-262. Les chauves-souriscavernicolesde la Suisse. Aellen. Beaucornu. Les chauves-souris du Canton de neuchatel. C. 2. 136. 5. Mitt. & Newton. C. Paris. Ver. Jahrb. I. Barbu. 1966. Ba!cells. H. H.. Bull. Chiroptera) . 125-127. 191-216. J. 5-26. Ocrot. repartition geographique. 101.0 colonie estivala de Pipistrellus nathusii Keys. Matschie 1901 au Portugal. Congr. 1965. 3. J. 92-98. Soc. 1979. Le baguement des chauves-sourisau Col de Bretolet (Valais). 18. Liliecilor. 167-172. 1970. Soc. & Noblet. 29. 11. La chauve-souris Plecotus austriacus (Fischer) en Suisse. Observatii asupra hibernarii speciei Nyctalus noctula (Schreber Im . Hist. 13. Bol. Aellen. 17-38. 20. 1965. Fauna Flora. P. 75. Nuevas citas de murciélagos y nicteribidos del pais vasco-cantabrico. J. I. Limburg. Fifteen years of bat banding in the Netherlands. 1971. 18. 1. 4.J.1. Banks. Barbu. V. Suisse Speleologie. 26. Launay. S. 66. 8. Nouvelles données sur les Chiropteres de Corse. Baagee. Revue suisse Zool. Ba!cells. 1979. Sancho Sabio. Spelunca. Studii Cerc. Zool. 1983. R... L. 1977 (1978). et Blas. 1961. W. 1952. Saugetierkd. Beaucornu. 44. R. 119-159. 18-19.. Murciélagos del Norte Central Espanol. 360-368.. Proc. 1967. 149-160. status and protection. Sci. nat. 10. PubIti6s natuurh. Taxonomy of two sibling pieces of bats in Scandinavia Myotis mystacinus and Myotis brandti (Chiroptera).Archs GenOve. Foren.capul Dolosman . BeIs. 17. J. Danish bats. Trans. & Sin. 1962. E. 6.Dobrogea.

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