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Advances in Treatment Design and Production Optimization

Get Permeability from Data fracs, Calibrate Fracture Models and 3D Reservoir Simulation of Fractured Wells
Fracture Dimensions and Conductivity For Export to Reservoir Simulator
Layer Properties
Rocktype mudstone Stress (psi) 10000 20000 Modulus (psi) 2e+006 1e+007 Permeability (mD) 0 5 50 100

Fracture Conductivity (mDft)


150 200 250 300 350 400

Limestone Dolomite

Limestone Dolomite Limestone

mudstone

Fracture Conductivity (mDft)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

EBN-TNO Tight Gas Symposium 19 September 2006

Hans de Pater, Josef Shaoul Pinnacle Technologies

The Fracture Engineering Loop

Reservoir Data Optimization


Fracture Design Fracture Model Logs Wellbore Data Mechanical Core Tests

Production Data
Post-Frac Tests
Well Test Rate, Pressure Well Test Rate, Pressure

Treatment Design
Execution
Treatm ent Data Logs Fracture Mapping Fluid/Proppant, Volum ed Stages, Com pletion

Production Forecast
Sim ple 1 Phase 3D reservoir Simulation Well Scenario's

Tight Gas Issues


Permeability and Pressure Poorly Known
After Closure Analysis (Nolte-SPE25425, Mayerhofer)

Need Long Fractures, but Fracture Geometry Cannot be Predicted


Base Models on Frac Mapping

Production Forecast Needs to Consider Transient (Flush Production)


Link Design to 3D Reservoir Simulator

Injection Test Analysis


Perform small injections with treated water and gel Observe pressure decline with high quality gauge Determine closure, match pressure to estimate fracture length Use linear and pseudo-radial after-closure slopes to estimate pressure and transmissibility. Feed back to initial estimate of fracture height

Injection Test Analysis: Fracture Closure Analysis


2000 9500

(Gd/dG) Meas'd Btmh (psi) Meas'd Btmh (psi)

(d/dG) Meas'd Btmh (psi)


BH Closure Stress: 7098 psi Closure Stress Gradient: 0.716 psi/ft Surf Closure Pressure: 2830 psi Closure Time: 24.2 min Pump Time: 10.7 min Implied Slurry Efficiency: 55.1 % Estimated Net Pressure: 1027 psi

3000

1600 7600

2400

1200 5700

1800

800 3800

1200

400 1900

600

0 0

0.00

2.56

5.12

7.68

10.24

12.80

G Function Time

Injection Test Analysis: Reservoir Permeability Estimate (Mayerhofer Method)


Pressure Difference (psi)
Start Pseudo-Linear Flow: 0.189 End Pseudo-Linear Flow: 0.0743 Start of Predicted Pseudo-Linear Flow: 0.171 End of Predicted Pseudo-Linear Flow: 0.118 Start Pseudo-Radial Flow: 0.0467 End Pseudo-Radial Flow: 0.0275

10000

(Td/dt) Pressure Difference (psi)

1000

Pseudo-radial

Pseudo-linear
100 0.010 0.100 Squared Linear Flow Time Function 1.000

Fracture Growth Model Inputs/Outputs


Inputs
Reservoir information (permeability, stress) Treatment schedule (acid, proppant, rate, conc.) Proppant data (permeability vs stress, non-Darcy)

Outputs
Fracture dimensions (length, height, width) Fracture conductivity (pressure dependant) Fluid leakoff profile (filtrate depth vs length)

Fracture Model Output Dimensions and Conductivity


Fracture Dimensions and Conductivity For Export to Reservoir Simulator
Layer Properties
Rocktype mudstone Stress (psi) 10000 20000 Modulus (psi) 2e+006 1e+007 Permeability (mD) 0 5 50 100

Fracture Conductivity (mDft)


150 200 250 300 350 400

Limestone Dolomite

Limestone Dolomite Limestone

mudstone

Fracture Conductivity (mDft)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

Fracture Height and Length


Modeling based on pressure measurement may be non-unique or non-predictive. Measure fracture dimensions independently in selected treatments
Improve models by calibration of key parameters Guide choice of fracture geometry (contained vs. uncontained)

Often, Models Dont Work with our Initial Assumptions


(for the Atoka Shale in Mounds, Oklahoma Drill Cuttings Injection Project, SPE 63032)

1600 1700 Depth (ft) 1800 1900 2000 2100


Inferred geometry from downhole tiltmeter mapping Fracture modeling (no confinement mechanism) Fracture modeling (composite layering effect)

GR log

2200 -400

-200

200

400

Along Fracture Length (ft)

Close the Loop from Treatment to Performance: Production Forecast with Reservoir Simulator Inputs:
Reservoir properties
X, Y & Z Permeability, Porosity, Reservoir Pressure, Initial saturations

Simulation Grid
Fine grid near fracture (LGR), Coarse grid elsewhere

Fracture properties
Conductivity as equivalent permeability Pressure dependence of permeability

Fracture to Reservoir Grid Scheme


Well xf
X

Host Grid

X
1. Layer

Y
2. Layer 3. Layer

3D LGR

hf

4. Layer 5. Layer 6. Layer

7. Layer

Additional Inputs Needed


PVT and Relative Permeability data.
Rel-perms can be different for fracture and reservoir

Production wellbore configuration or lift tables Production constraints for simulation


Minimum bottomhole pressure Minimum surface pressure, Maximum oil/gas/water rates

Examples
Horizontal longitudinal propped fractured well
gas + water oil + water + gas

Horizontal transverse acid fractured well

Longitudinal Propped Fracture Gas + Water

Cumulative Gas Production vs. # Fracs


Cumulative Gas Production
45000 40000 Cumulative Gas Prod (MMscf) 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time (Days) 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

5 Fracs (MMscf) 4 Fracs (MMscf) 3 Fracs (MMscf) 2 Fracs (MMscf) 1 Frac (MMscf)

Transverse Acid Fractured Well Oil + Water + Gas

Acid Fracture Conductivity Transferred to Reservoir Model


Permeability Multiplier versus Drawdown
1 0.9 0.8 Permeability Multiplier 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Drawdown (psi) 5000 6000 7000 8000

Production & Pressure vs Time


16000 8000 14000 7500

Oil Rate, Water Cum, Gas Rate

12000

8000

6000

6000

5500

4000

5000

2000

4500

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (days) 300 350 400 450

4000 500

BHFP (psi)

10000

Oil Rate (STB/DAY) 7000 Water Cum (STB) Gas Rate (MSCF/DAY) BHFP (PSIA) 6500

Conclusions
Advanced Minifrac Analaysis provides Pressure and Perm in cases where Pre-frac PBU are costly or impractical Uncertainty in Fracture geometry can be Relieved with Direct Fracture Mapping Generate reservoir simulator input files for hydraulically fractured wells.
Reservoir simulations run in minutes. Possible to optimize horizontal well fracture designs using full numerical model.