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org InternationalJournalofAutomationandPowerEngineering(IJAPE)Volume2Issue4,May2013

TheKeyTechnologiesofElectricVehicle Charger
XiangwuYan,BoZhang,XiangningXiao
StateKeyLaboratoryofAlternateElectricalPowerSystemwithRenewableEnergySources,NorthChinaElectric PowerUniversity,ChangpingDistrict,Beijing102206,China
*1

Xiangwuy@ncepu.edu.cn;2adam166@163.com;3xxn@ncepu.edu.cn falling 40%~50% in 2020 from 2005. So energy and environment will be common challenges for the international motor industry, and energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the top priority for our countrys auto industry. The electric vehicle development has already been included in our countrystwelfthfiveyearplanfortheautoindustry. Electric vehicleis driven by rechargeable accumulators or other energy storage devices, so electric vehicle itself does not exhaust detrimental gas which will pollute the atmosphere heavily. Even if we switch that toemissionsfrompowerplantsaccordingtothepower consumption, other pollutants reduce dramatically beside sulfur and particulate emissions. Whats more, the location of most plant is far away from densely populated urban, which will doless damage to human beings.Astheelectricpowerplantsareimmovable,its more convenient to carry out the concentrated dispositionwithrelevanttechnology.Ontheotherside, electric power can be produced by variable primary energy, such as Cause we can get power from varies energy, such coal, natural gas, water power, nuclear power, solar power, tidal power, etc, which can reassure peoples concern about the exhaustion of the source of petroleum. Electric vehicles still can make full use of the surplus power during power consumptiontroughs to get battery charged overnight, making the power equipment fully used and increasing the economic benefits significantly. Researches show that the energy efficiency of using equal amount of crude oil will be higher if crude oil is used to produce electricity after crude refining and then use the produced electricity to charge batteries to power cars, compared with the way that crude oil is used to produce electricity after refining into gasoline and then use the gasoline power cars. Therefore the electric vehicle development is conducive to energy savingandreductionofcarbondioxideemissions. Although electric vehicles just use electrical energy in

Abstract The energy and environment issues are common challenges facing the global automotive industry. The development of electric vehicle has become the strategy direction of Chinas automotive industry Five plan. The emerging electric car industry also is full opportunity for Chinas automotive technologytocatchupwithdevelopedcountries.Theelectric vehicle charger is an important part of electric vehicle, the technologies of advanced DC/DC converter, active power factor correction, harmonic suppression, high density magnetic integration, balanced current of parallel converter, communication between charger and battery management system (BMS) and fast charging are the keys for improving response, efficiency, power density, dynamic electromagnetic compatibility and reducing the size and weightofelectricvehicle. Keywords Electric Vehicle; Charger; Power Factor Correction; Active Power FactorCorrection;HarmonicSuppression;MageneticIntegration

Introduction Since the 1970s, the number of global vehicle increases exponentially. According to the World Energy Organizations statistics and forecasting of the demanded energys classification, the proportion of traffic grow up from 45.5 percent to 61.4 percent, and the proportion presents an ascending trend with the development of global industrialization. Since 1995, the proportion of oil import to the countrys total consumption increases rapidly, accounting for more than 50 percent in 2010, and it is supposed to be more than 80percent in 2020. Among the imported oil, the proportion of oil demanded by the transportation and thepetrochemicalindustrytothetotaloilconsumption increase from 46 percent in 2000 up to 60 percent in 2010 and 66 percent in 2020. The global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions has caused the great concern from all over the world. That is China burns more than half of its imported oil in vehicles. China pledged to rein in its carbon dioxide emissions

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stead of fossil energy formally, electric vehicles are becominganewkindofelectricalcustomersinessence; to be more exact, they are classes of loads storing electricity. Charger, which transfers electrical power from grid to electric vehicles, has developed into the onboard charger and the offboard charger because of the movement characteristic of this new electric power load. OnboardCharger The onboard charger is the electrical power conversion device used for the vehicle battery, which installs on electric vehicles and take the form of AC input circuit. The onboard chargers capacitance is usually small (35kW) with the limits of the con structure of vehicles and automobiles load. So the onboard charger is suited to vehicle batteries demanding conventional charging with small ratio current and long time. The onboard charger should meet the following technical requirements: (a) meeting the requirement of vehicles, consisting mainly of high power density to reduce the loads weight and size, highefficiencytoimproveenergyefficiencyandtolow heat rejection, high powerfactorand low harmonicsto minimize the detrimental effects to grid; (b) meeting the requirement of environment, consisting mainly of using static components to improve earthquakeresilient, adopting fully sealed structure to improve waterproof and dustproof, and feasibility for users use requirements at different temperatures; (c) meeting the requirement of security, such as electric isolation, overcurrent, overvoltage and short circuit protection. Therefore, the key techniques for onboard chargerwillbeasfollows: High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter technique; Single phase power factor correction and harmonicsuppressiontechnique; Highdensitymagneticintegrationtechnique; The property to adapt chargers sealed structure and thermal design under operating condition; Communication between charger and battery managementsystem(BMS).

input circuit, including dedicated offboard charger, dedicatedchargingstation,universalcharger,charging station used in public places and so on. The power, volume and weight of offboard charger are relatively large in order to satisfy varieties of batteries and charge modes requirements. The offboard charger should meet the following technical requirements: (a) meet the requirement of vehicles, consisting mainly of high power density to reduce the space and the cost of chargingequipment,highefficiencytoimproveenergy efficiency and to reduce running cost, high power factor and low harmonics to minimize the detrimental effects to grid; (b) meet the requirement of environment, consisting mainly of adopting fully sealed structure to improve waterproof and dustproof, and feasibility for users use requirements at different temperatures; (c) meet the requirement of security, such as electric isolation, overcurrent, overvoltage and short circuit protection. Therefore, the key techniquesforoffboardchargerwillbeasfollows: High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter technique; There phases power factor correction and harmonicsuppressiontechnique; Balanced current of parallel converter technique; Highdensitymagneticintegrationtechnique; Modulesseriesparallelconnectiontechnique; The study on fastcharging technique and its applicability; Communication between charger and battery managementsystem(BMS).

It can be seen that the technology perspective and the emphases are not exactly same when we design the onboard charger and the offboard charger. Below is the further elaboration about the advanced technologiesofelectricvehiclecharger. High Efficiency Isolated DC/DC Converter Technique The theoretical analysis and the experience indicated: The volume and mass of electromagnetic devices, such as transformer, inductance and capacitance, are inversely proportional to the square root of the power supply frequency. So when we increase the frequency from 50Hz up to 20 kHz, improving 400 times, electromagnetic devices volume and mass will be downto5%~10%ofthepowerfrequencydesignvalue.

OffboardCharger The offboard charger is the electrical power conversion device used for the vehicle battery, which is installed above ground and take the form of AC

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High frequency which can make power source equipment with high efficiency, low noise, small size, good dynamic and low cost is the inevitable developingdirection. DC/DC converter can be classified as several topologies according to its different operating principle, such as forward converter, flyback converter, pushpullconverterandbridgeconverter.Symmetrical flyback converter is very suitable for low power applications for its simple structure, low cost, good transient response and other advantages. Pullpush converter has a simple structure, however, its switch tubes will bear double input voltage combining with pulse peak voltage caused by the leakage inductance of highfrequency power transformer. Bridge DC/DC converter, which can realize the needed highratio and meet requirements for various power levels, is suited tobeusedinlargepoweroccasion. In the traditional PWM control mode, the switch devices of DC/DC converter work in hardswitching mode.Thatistosay,whentheswitchingdevicesopen, the voltage of switching devices has a process of decline instead of step change. At the same time, the current of switching devices also has a process of increase not increase up to the load current immediately. During that time, current and voltage have a crossover region, which can generate turnon loss. Current and voltage still have a crossover region to generate turnoff loss when breaking the switching devices. The switching loss of switching devices in each switching period is constant under certain conditions. The total switching loss is proportional to the switching frequency, thus, the higher switching frequency, the larger switching loss, the lower transformers efficiency. The existence of the switching loss limits the increase of the converter power density, and limits the miniaturization and lightweight of the converter at the same time. In addition, the switch stress of switching devices will increase while switchingtubesworkinhardswitchingmode,causing highdi/dtanddv/dt,resultinginlargeelectromagnetic interference (EMI), bringing electromagnetic pollution oftheenvironment. Improve DC/DC converter do good to the voltage and current press of switching devices, leaving switching devices working in softswitching mode, so that it can reduce switching loss, improve the converters efficiency, give the probability to converters high frequency conversion, narrow down the converters

volume and size further, improve converters power density and dynamic performance, and improve converters electro magnetic compatibility. In recent years, the study on isolated soft switch DC/DC converter arouse peoples concern and attention increasing, and several typical isolated soft switch DC/DCconvertersappeared. ActiveSnubberDC/DCConverter Active snubber DC/DC converter can achieve zerovoltagetransition or zerocurrenttransition throughaddingauxiliaryactivesnubberintoconverter, and what they have in common is the same way of generating PWM pulse. The active switch and auxiliary resonant network introduced additional just work a short time before main switches turn on or off, thus can make main switches work in softswitching mode, reducing the electrical stress of components. The disadvantage of these converters is that they need the same amount auxiliary switches as main switches, and that auxiliary switches usually work unsatisfactory in hardswitching mode and softswitchingmode.ThehalfbridgeDC/DCconverter withactivesnubberisshowninFig.1.
Cr1
VS3
VS1

Lr

U in Cr2
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(a)
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CS
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U in
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(b) FIG.1ACTIVESNUBBERHALFBRIDGEDC/DCCONVERTER

ActiveClampDC/DCConverter Active clamped technique is used widely over recent decades. By joining with active clamped branch, it can effectively clamp the main switchs voltage after turnoff, remove the voltage overshoot and oscillation, reduce devices voltage press, and achieve soft switching in certain condition [12],[13],[14],[15]. The active clamp fullbridge DC/DC converter is shown in Fig.2.
Lf VS5

Csnub

VS1

VS2
N:1

U battery

AC 165~277 V
C

VS4

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DC 200~430 V

FIG.2AVTIVECLAMPFULLBRIDGEDC/DCCONVERTER

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FullBridgeZeroVoltageSwitchPWMConverter Fullbridge zerovoltageswitch PWM converter adopts constantfrequency working pattern, while left and right upper bridge arms work in complementary way by 180, left and right lower bridge arms work in complementary way with PWM pulse. The output voltage or current can be changed by changing the pulse width of lower bridge arms. Fullbridge zerovoltageswitched PWM DC/DC converter use the energy reserved in power inductor or the leakage inductance of the high frequency isolated transformer to realize bridge arms zero voltage switching (ZVS). However, the converter has large internal circulation energy, which will effect the improvement of converters efficiency of energy transfer, especially in light load the converter can hardly achieve soft switch. Fullbridge zerovoltageswitch PWM converter is shownasFig.3.
VQ1 VD1

traditional fullbridge phaseshift zero voltage switched PWM converter and its typical orthography. An improved full bridge phaseshift ZVSPWM DC/DC converter which can achieve ZVS in the range ofanyloadconditionisshowninFig.4. QuasiResonantandResonantDC/DCconverter
VQ1
VQ 2
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Lf Cf
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I2

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FIG.4FULLBRIDGEPHASESHIFTZVSPWMDC/DC CONVERTER
t
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t3 t1 t2 t4
t5 t6

VQ3

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VQ 4

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FIG.3FULLBRIDGEZEROVOLTAGESWITCHPWM CONVERTER

FullBridge PhaseShift ZeroVoltageSwitched PWM Converter Converters upper and lower bridge arms work in complementary way by 180(taking the turnon time into consideration properly ). It can adjust the output voltage or current by changing the overlapping commutation angle of converters left and right bridge arms. Bridge DC/DC converter can achieve soft switching easier by phase shift control. The converter hasthevirtueofsimplecontrolandconstantfrequency control, and it can achieve soft switching without auxiliary devices. The current and voltage press are relatively low, so the converter is suitable for high voltage occasion. The converter use the energy reserved in power inductor or the leakage inductance of the high frequency isolated transformer to realize bridge arms zero voltage switching (ZVS). This kind of converter also has large internal circulation energy, and the converter can hardly achieve soft switching in light load. But by takingsome improvement measures, the working range of the lagging leg can be enlarged and the reverse recovery loss can be minimized. The

Feed LC resonance circuit into the PWM switching circuit, making switching devices parasitic capacitance and circuits inductance become one part of the resonant tank, placing the capacitance of in parallel with switching device. When resonant switches are turned on, the capacitance resonant with the series inductance, the capacitance voltage rise slowly according to sine wave, and the voltage of switching device appearing oscillation becomes partial sine wave. While the capacitance voltage falls to zero, switches dissolve offstate into onstate and achieve the zerovoltageswitching, avoiding the power loss and voltage spike while switching device switches. The combination of LC resonance circuit and PWM switches is called resonant switch, and this kind of converter is called resonant converter. While converters resonant time only occupies a part of the switching period and the rest of working time is in nonresonance state, the resonant converter is also called quasiresonant converter. LC series resonant converter is the simplest and most prevalent converter speaking from the working principle. Its resonant inductanceandresonantcapacitanceareserieswound, consisting of the resonant network, and the converterload network is in parallel with the resonant network. In this circuit structure, resonant network and breaking load consist of a diverter. The resistance of resonant circuit will be changed if converters pulse frequencymodulationischanged,andtheloadvoltage will be changed consequently. The application of

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resonance can efficiently eliminates the overlapping phenomenon between converters voltage and current generated during the switching devices switching process, and reduce the switching devices switching loss. However, this converter demands working with variable frequency, making the optimization design of the converters filter and closedloop controller difficult. Whats more, there exists defect in converter, such as large current and voltage press. At present, most resonant DC/DC converters are mainly used for lowtomediumpowerconversionapplications. LLCResonantConverter LLC resonant converter is generated by improving the traditional series or parallel LC resonant converter. It not only, but also can make the resonant tank current changewithloadbywayofvariablefrequencycontrol. The converter can achieve ZVS operating modal in full rangefromnoloadtofullload,reducingtheswitching loss efficiently, decreasing the transient overvoltage and overcurrent, overcoming the puzzle that zerovoltageswitching method or phaseshifted control and zerovoltage switching PWM switching method can hardly realize soft switching for the lagging leg, achieving ZCS for the secondary rectifier diode. So the resonant converter topology is ideal and ofgreatapplicationvalue.Thedisadvantageisthatthe resonant process is relatively complicated, and the characteristic that the converters working station is closely related to load increase the difficulty of design and control. LLC resonant fullbridge converter is showninFig.5.
VT1
U in
VT3

electromagneticcompatibility. Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Suppression Technique TheDefinitionofPowerFactor Power factor ( ) is the ratio of the AC input active power (P) to the input apparent power (S), which is expressedas
PF P U1 I1 cos I1 cos cos (1) S U1 I I

Where, I1 is the rootmeansquare of the input fundamental current, I is the rootmeansquare of the I input current, 1 is the current distortion I coefficient, cos is the displacement factor between fundamentalvoltageandfundamentalcurrent. It can be seen that power factor is up to the current distortion coefficient and displacement factor
cos . The electrical equipment that has low power

Lr

Cr
Tr

VD5
Cf RL Lm

VT2

VT4

VD 6

FIG.5LLCSERIESRESONANTFULLBRIDGEDC/DC CONVERTER

From the above comprehensive analysis of various typical power converters advantages and disadvantages and the understanding of the domestic and international researchs actuality and the development trend, it is easy to see that phaseshifted zerovoltage switching PWM DC/DC fullbridge converter and LLC resonant DC/DC converter are the hot research areas. Because they can achieve highefficiency, isolated DC/DC power conversion, improve converters conversion efficiency, power density and dynamic performance, reduce converters volume and weight, and improve converters

factor against the full use of the grid transmitted power, and the harmonic content of the devices input current is higher, while high harmonic will produce conducted interference and radiated interference, affecting the security and economic operation of other devices, such as producing additional power loss to generator and transformer, causing interference and bringing malfunction or miscalculation to relay, automatic protective device, electronic computer and communication equipment. So it has been a global issue of common concern about how to reduce and prevent current harmonics pollution on grid and restrain the electromagnetic interference. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Institute of ElectricalandElectronicEngineers(IEEE)bothsetupa special working groupand enacted harmonic standard (IEC6100032 and IEEE 5191992) of power system andelectrotechnicalproducts.Thetwostandardshave had the force of law since 1996. China already enacted harmonicstandardGB/T145491993in1993. The Harmonic Problem of Highfrequency Switching ChargingSupply The first stage of highfrequency switching charging supply usually adopts singlephase diodebridge rectifier or therephase bridge rectifier. In normal operation, the input current will distort, and the phenomenon will be worse along with the increasing oftheload.Theinputcurrentdistortintopeakedwave,

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containingabundantharmoniccomponent. Power Factor Correction and Harmonic Suppression Technique The power factor and harmonic suppression technique of highfrequency switching charging supply system usually adopt passive power factor correction (PFC) or active power factor correction (APFC). The LC filter is installed on rectifiers AC side or DC side in the PFC method, to improve power factor and reduce the current harmonic. Though the method is simple, the electric circuit is big and bulky , and not suitable for some occasions, such as electric vehicle charger. Because the compensation characteristic will be easily affected by the change of power line impedance and load, and it is easy to produce current resonance and voltage resonance. So for a charging power supply whose load is changing, it is difficult to design a filter that can cover the whole load range. The APFC circuit consists of highfrequency inductance, capacitance, power switches and other devices, which can convert ACmainstohighdirectvoltageabout380V.TheAPFC system has the features of small volume, light weight and high efficiency. It can make the input voltage and current close to sine wave, and filter out highfrequency harmonic in passive filtering method after transferring from low harmonic component. APFC can make dynamic tracking compensation for the changing harmonic, and its compensation characteristic is not influenced by power grid interconnection and external load, andits powerfactor can reach up to 98%, but its cost is relatively high. The Basic principle diagram of traditional APFC is shown inFig.6.
L1
u

D1 will bring over rate current strike to Q1 at maximum power, which can generate large firing current press and switching loss, causing Q1 uselessordamageeasily. 2)Theproblemofspineripplenoise The reverse recovery of diode D1 also brings spine ripple noise to input current and voltage. Through the lasting time of spine ripple noise is short, its peak value is significantly larger than the common ripple noise, and it will bring electromagnetic interference, thus affecting the normal work of otherpowerconsumingdevices. B. A. Miwa discuss the method about solving the problems like the current rush in three ways, that is separately adopt new devices containing highvoltage silicon carbide schottky diode, inductance with center tapandactivesnubbersoftswitchingtechnique. L. Balogh has already raised an interleaved paralleled APFCstructureintheearly1990s.Thecircuittopology has high efficiency, small input current ripple, and small current stress of the many advantages, so it is suitable for medium to high power applications. The interleaved paralleled APFC technique has achieved rapid development in recent years, and it has a good development prospect in the application of high frequency power supply. The main power topology of interleavedparalleledAPFCcircuitisshowninFig.7.
L1
VD5

VD1
uin
VD3

VD 2

L2
VS1

VD 6

VS2

VD 4

VD1
Cd R1

FIG.7THEMAINPOWERTOPOLOGYOFINTERLEAVED PARALLELEDAPFCCIRCUIT

VS1

FIG.6THEBASICPRINCIPLEDIAGRAMOFTRADTIONAL APFC

The traditional APFC still has many applied problems when meeting the active power factor correction of 35 kWormorepower: 1) The Problem Caused by the Reverse Recovery of DiodeD1 When the inductance L1 is kept in continuous currentmode,theswitchingfrequencyofswitching tube Q1 is very high, and the DC side output voltage will be up to 400V. The reverse recovery of

Busse AlfredHoltzJoachim first proposed the control stategy for threephase fullbridge PWM filter and the amplitude and phase of grid current based on turnoff devices in 1982, and they achieved the sinusoidal current control over unity power factor of currentsource PWM rectifier grid side . Akagi Hirofmni accompany with others proposed the control strategy for reactive power compensation based on PWM filter topology in 1984, which is the early thought of voltagesource PWM filter design. By the 1980s, the research level of the PWM filter was elevated to new height after putting forward the continuous, discrete dynamic mathematical model and the control strategy of PWM filter based on coordinate transformation.

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PWM rectifier is always being one of the research hotspots in electrical technology academic. With the developmentofthePWMrectifiertechnique,thestudy on related applications based on PWM filter topology and control strategy also develops, such as active power filter,superconducting magneticenergystorage, activecurrenttransmission,highvoltagedirectcurrent transmission, unified power flow control and the like. The application of these techniques advanced the progress and perfection of PWM rectifier and its control technique. The outstanding features of PWM rectifierareasfollows: Grid side current closes to sinusoidal wave with lowharmoniccontents The grid side power factor can be controlled, such asunity power factor control,andtaking part in the reactive power compensation of common connection point(PCC) as needed, absorbingorissuingreactivepower Voltagesource fullbridge PWM rectifier can achieve bidirectional energy transfer and implement automatic transfer based in keeping the direct voltage constant without changethecircuittopology. Fastdynamictransmissionresponseability.

frequency power supply to realize energy storage and conversion, filtering and electrical isolation. The volume, weight and loss of the magnetic element also occupy a significant proportion in the complete machine. According to some statistics, the weight of magnetic element usually account for 30%40% of the total weight, and the volume account for 20%30% of the total volume. So in order to improve supplys power density, efficiency and output quality, it is need to do further study on how to reduce the volume, weight and loss, and magneticintegration technique can effectively reduce the volume, weight and loss of magneticelement. Magneticintegration technique is just wind two or more discrete magnetics in a pair of magnetic cores, and achieve concentration from the structure. The concentrated magnetic elements are called integrated magnetics. The technique can effectively reduce the volume and loss of magnetic elements, and improve the output dynamic performance, using certain bound modes and rational parameters design. For example, Cheng puts forward the method of achieving decoupling integration by offsetting coupled effect, and shows the integration among inductance and inductance, induction and transformer, transformer andtransformer.ChengWputsforwardthemethodof achieving decoupling integration by providing low reluctance magnetic circuit, and shows the integration method of two inductances in interleaved circuit, as is shown in Fig. 9. Bo Yang puts forward the method of applying the magneticintegration technique to the LLC resonant converter, to achieve the magnetic integration between resonant inductance and transformer. Some papers review, exposition and summary systematically on high density magneticintegration technique, such as the development history of magneticintegration technique, the modelling approach of equivalent magnetic component model, thecharacterofmultiplemagneticcircuit,theobtainof magnetic core, the universal method of magnetic decoupling integration, the typical application of magnetic integration, the characteristics of magneticintegration technique, the pattern of magnetic integration, the limiting factors of magneticintegration techniques application, the development tendency of magneticintegration techniqueandthelike. It is not difficulty to predict that magneticintegration technique is the key technology of highfrequency

It is expected to has quiet good development foreground if PWM rectifier is applied to high frequency power supply. Fig. 8 (a), (b), (c) respectively showsthetopologyofsinglephasehalfbridgerectifier, singlephase fullbridge rectifier and threephase unit powerfactorrectifier.
VS1 L VD1

C1

VS1 L

VS3 VD1

VD3
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VS2

VD 2

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aSINGLEPHASEHALF bSINGLEPHASEFULL BRIDGECIRCUIT BRIDGECIRCUIT

VS1

VS3 VD1

VS5 VD3

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C1
R

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VS4 VD 2

VS6 VD 4

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cTHREEPHASEUNITPOWERFACTORRECTIFIER

FIG.8THEMAINTOPOLOGYOFUNITPOWERFACTOR RECTIFIER

High Density Magnetic-Integration Technique The magnetic element, including inductance and transformer,istheimportantfunctionelementforhigh

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switching supply system, while the magneticintegration technique is applied in highfrequencyswitchingsupplysystem,itwillreduce the volume, weight and loss of the supply system effectively, and obviously improve the power density, efficiencyandoutputquality. Balanced current of parallel converter technique, fastcharging technique, communication between charger and battery management system (BMS) and the like are all significant techniques for ensuring the highperformanceofelectricvehiclecharger,whichare notbeendescribedbecauseofthespacelimitation.
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improve electromagnetic compatibility, the key techniques are advanced DC/DC power conversion technique, high density magneticintegration technique, balanced current of parallel converter technique,fastchargingtechniqueandcommunication between charger and battery management system (BMS).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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This work was supported in primarily by the National Hightech R&D Program (863 Program) of China underGrant2011AA11A279,inpartbytheKeyProject of the National Research Program of China under Grant 2011BAG02B14, and in part by the National NaturalScienceFoundationofChina.
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aTHEINTEGRATIONOFTWODISCRETEINDUCTANCES

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LLC Resonant Converter. APEC. Seventeenth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,March1014,2002. BLu,W Liu,Y Liang,F C Lee,JDvanWyk.Optimaldesign methodology for LLC resonant converter. Paper presentedatProc.IEEEAPEC,August1416,2006. B Yang, F C Lee, A J Zhang, G Huang. LLC Resonant Converter for Front end DC/DC Conversion. Paper presentedInProc.IEEEAPEC,March1014,2002. Cai Xuansan, Gong Shaowen. High Frequency Power Electronics.Beijing:SciencePublishingHouse,1993 Cheng, D K W, Leung Pong Wong, YimShu Lee. Design modeling and analysis of integrated magnetics for power converters. 2000 IEEE 31st Annual Power Electronics

Conclusion The electric vehicle development has already been included in our countrys twelfth fiveyear plan, and theelectricvehiclestrategicemergingindustryprovide a opportunity for China automotive technology to pursuit developed countries technology. The infrastructure construction for electric vehicles is an important part which will affect electric vehicles development. Among these techniques, which can improve switching efficiency, power density and dynamic performance of electric vehicle charging devices, and reduce their volume and weight, and

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SpecialistsConference,June2223,2000. Chen Jian. Power Electronic Conversion and Control technique.Beijing:HigherEducationPress,2002. Chen Liangliang, Zhang Peipei, Zhou Bin. Development of Charging Module of Offboard Charger for Electric Vehicle.AutomationofElectricPowerSystems35(2011): 8185. Chen Qianhong. Research on the Application of the MagneticIntegration Techniques in Switching Power Supply. Nanjing: Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,2001. Chen Qianhong, Ruan Xinbo, Yan Yangguang. The Application of the MagneticIntegration Techniques in Switching Power Supply. Transactions of China ElectrotechnicalSociety19(2004):18. Chen W, Lee F C, Zhou X. Integrated Planar Inductor Scheme for Multimodule Interleaved Quasi Squarewave (QSW) DC/DC Converter. IEEEPESC, June 27July 1, 1999. Chen Zhixin, Wang Xiaojian. Research on Electric Vehicles Industrial Development Strategy in China. Shanghai EnergyConservation8(2010):16. C Jung Goo, J A Sabate, H Guichao. Zero voltage and zero current switching full bridge PWM converter for high power applications. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics11(1996):622628. D M Sable and F C Lee. The operation of a full Bridge zerovoltageswitched PWM converter. Paper presented atProc.VPEC,1989. Duarte,CludioManoelC,BarbiIvo.Animprovedfamilyof ZVSPWM activeclamping dctodc converters. IEEE TransactionsonPowerElectronics,17(2002):17. Du Shaowu, Zhong Anming. The Development and Prospect of MagneticIntegration Technique.

2010. GuanChyun Hsieh, JungChien Li, MingHuei Liaw, JiaPerng Wang, TsaiFu Hung. A study on fullbridge zerovoltageswitched PWM converter: design and experimentation. Paper presented at Proceedings of the IECON 93, International Conference on Industrial Electronics,November1519,1993. H A C Braga, I Barbi. A3kW Unitypowerfactor Rectifier Based on a Twocell Boost Converter Using a New Parallelconnection Technique. IEEE Trans. Power Electron.14(1999):209217. Hua G, Lee F C, Jovanovic M M. An improved fullbridge zerovoltageswitched PWM converter using a saturable inductor. Transactions on Power Electronics 8 (1993): 530534. Jangwanitlert A, Olejniczak K J, Balda J C. An improved zerovoltageandzerocurrentswitchingPWMfullbridge DCDC converter. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, November26,2003. J G Cho, G H Rim, F C Lee. Novel zerovoltage and zerocurrentswitching fullbridge PWM converter using asimpleauxiliarycircuit. IEEETransactionsonIndustry Applications,35(1999):1520. Jinhaeng Jang, Minjae Joung, Seokjae Choi, Youngho Choi, Byungcho Choi. Current Mode Control for LLC Series Resonant dctodc Converters. Paper presented at TwentySixth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition APEC 2011, March 611, 2011. L.Balogh,R Redl.PowerfactorCorrectionwith Interleaved BoostConvertersinContinuousinductorcurrentMode. Paper presented in Proc. IEEE Appl.Power Electron. (APEC)Conf.,March711,1993. Lee F C, ShuoWang, PengjuKong, ChuanyunWang, Dianbo Fu. Power Architecture Design with Improved System Efficiency, EMI and Power Density. Paper presented at 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, June 1519,2008. Mao, Hong, Deng Songquan, AbuQahouq Jaber A, Wen Yangyang, Batarseh Issa. An ActiveClamp Snubber for Isolated Halfbridge DCDC Converters. Paper

HighTechnology&Industrialization8(2009:8588. F C Lee, J D van Wyk, D Boroyevich, G Lu, Z Liang, P Barbosa. Technology Trends Toward A System inamodule in Power Electronics. Circuits and Systems Magazine2(2002):422. FuZen Chen, Maksimovic D. Digital Control for Efficiency Improvements in Interleaved Boost PFC Rectifiers. 2010 TwentyFifth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition APEC 2010, February 2125,

presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the IEEE

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IndustrialElectronicsSociety,November26,2003. Ma Yu, Wu Xinke, Xie Xiaogao, Chen Guozhu, Qian Zhaoming. A new ZVSPWM buck converter with an active clamping cell. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial ElectronicsSociety, November58,Taiwan,2007. Nussbaumer T, Raggl K, Kolar J W. Design guidelines for interleaved singlephase boost PFC circuits. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 56 (2009): 25592573. R Giral, L M Salamero, S Singer. Interleaved Converters Operation Based on CMC. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 14(1999):643652. Ruan Xinbo, Yan Yangguang. The softswitching techniques for DC switching power supply. Beijing: Science Press, 2000. Sabate J A, Vlatkovic V, Ridley R B, Lee F C, Cho B H. Design considerations for highvoltage highpower fullbridgezerovoltageswitchedPWMconverter.Paper presented at Fifth Annual Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition. Conference Proceedings, March1116,1990. W A Tabisz, Gradzki, F C Lee. Zerovoltageswitched Quasiresonant Buck and Flyback Converter

Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Delft,August2527,2010. Xiaodong Sun, Xuansan Cai. A novel softswitching PWM converter with active energy recovery snubber. Paper presented at Third International Power Electronics and MotionControlConference,August1518,2000. Xinbo Ruan, Yangguang Yan. A novel zerovoltage and zerocurrentswitching PWM fullbridge converter using two diodes in series with the lagging leg. IEEE TransactionsonIndustrialElectronics48(2001):777785. Xu Liping, Wang Zhongyi, Gu Shenhui. Research of Equivalent Circuit Model of Magnetic Component in Magnetic Integration Technology. Journal of Xian JiaotongUniversity39(2005):11061110. Yungtack Jang, Jovanovic M M, YuMing Chang. A new ZVSPWM fullbridge converter. IEEE Transactions on PowerElectronics18(2003):11229. Zhu J Y, Daohong Ding. Zerovoltage and

zerocurrentswitched PWM DCDC converters using active snubber. Source: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications35(1999):14061412. ZhangYanjun,Xu Dehong,Chen Min,HanYu,DuZhong. LLC Resonant Converter for 48V to 0.9V VRM. Paper presented at IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference,June2025,2004. Xiangwu Yan received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from Hunan University, Hunan, China, in 1986, the M.S. degree from North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China, in 1990, and the Ph.D. degree from Harbin InstituteofTechnology,Heilongjiang,China,in1997. He was an Honorary Fellow of the Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium (WEMPEC) at the University of WisconsinMadison, Madison. Then, he returned the North China Electric Power University as a Faculty Member, where he is currently a Professor at the Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering. His current research interests include electronic power conversion,powerquality,andrenewableenergygeneration. BoZhangwasborninHebei,China,in1981.Hereceivedthe B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering form the North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China, in 2005and2008respectively. He is currently an Instructor at the Department of Electric Power University. His research interests include application of power electronics in power system, electronic power

Experimental Results at 10MHz. IEEE Transaction on PowerElectronics,4(1989):194204. W A Tabisz, P Gradzki, F C Lee. Zerovoltageswitching Multiresonant TechniqueA Novel Approach to Improve Performance of Highfrequency Quasiresonant Converters. Paper presented at IEEE Power Electronics SpecialistsConfRec,1988. Watson R, Lee F C. A softswitched, fullbridge boost converter employing an activeclamp circuit. Paper presented at 27th Annual IEEE Power Electronics SpecialistsConference,June2327,1996. Wang Yuning, Yao Lei, Wang Yanli. The strategy for foreign electric vehicles. Auto Industry Research 9 (2005): 3540. Wang Zhaoan; Huang Jun. Power Electronic Conversion Technique,Beijing:ChinaMachinePress,2001. Wu Chen, Xinbo Ruan, Qianhong Chen, Junji Ge. A Novel Clamping Diode Current Reset Scheme for ZVS PWM FullBridge Converter. Paper presented at 2010 IEEE

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converter,andrenewableenergygeneration. XiangningXiao wasborn inXining,Ningxia, China,in1953. He received his M.S. degree in electrical engineering from NorthChinaElectricPowerUniversity,in1981. He is currently a Professor in the department of electrical engineering and head of the department of science and

technology, North China Electric Power University. He is the first author of the books Principle and Application of Modern Power Electronics and Analysis and Control of Power Quality published in P.R. China and has published more than fifty papers in recent years. His main research areasofinterestsarepowergridwithnewenergyandpower qualityofpowersystem.

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