NCP 22

1 2 3 4 Course No Course Title Assignment No Date of Dispatch NCP 22 Construction Personnel Management One August 16,2012

Last Date of Receipt of Assignment at 5 CODE Office August 25, 2012

ASSIGNMENT: You are a Project Manager on site where work for 3 Km long Tunnel has been undertaken.
The site is remote and takes about 2 days travel to nearest town. Supervisors, technicians & skilled workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking are adding to less output of work and chances of accidents on site are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time targets can be achieved. Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of work.

Introduction of Main Problem: 1. Working condition at remote location. 2. Less productivity & irregularity of workman hampering the project progress. 3. Involvement of Dangerous / hazardous activity 4. Absence due to sickness. 5. Absence due to quarrels & drinks. 6. Accidents at site. Reasons of Various Problems: 1. Involvement of High risk construction activity 2. Improper Manpower Management Planning & absenteeism of workmen. 3. Un-Hygienic surroundings & Temporary Accommodation 4. Non availability of Medical facilities at the vicinity of the project Site 5. Availability of Alcohol & Consumption of Alcohol by the Labours 6. Work related risk of rural construction workers.

Needs & Their Fulfilments on Site:

1. Involvement of High risk construction activity Proper construction methodology is to be established prior to starting of activity. Design stability to be ensured for each supporting / enabling works. Identify risk involvement of each project related activity and their impact. Highlight / intimate risk identified and collect the suitable economical suggestion through conducting inter brainstorming or consultancy from out side. Involvement of human resource to be minimized by identifying alternative automated methods. Explore the possibilities of engagement of modern technology applicable for the project work. Ensuring the good condition of the machinery involved. Prepare methodology statement understandable for frontline supervisor / technician who have more practical knowledge but less theoretical knowledge. Recommendation for dangerous and hazardous constructing activity: o o o o o o o Ensure Preparation of proper construction methodology prior to start. Conduct training for the supervisor / technician on the methodology adopted. Identifying more automated method for carrying out the construction activity. Engage more machinery and reduce manpower involvement as much as possible. Keep equipment in good condition. Ensure the stability of the enabling structure. Regular conduct training for workmen engaged for particular activity.

2. Improper Manpower Management Planning & absenteeism of workmen: Preparation of a proper schedule of Project and assign resources to each task i.e. each activity, Assigning resources means identify manpower required for each Task and what is the availability of manpower and how much work has been done till date and how much work is to be done. Identify type of manpower required i.e. Skilled or unskilled. If manpower is in adequate try to get more manpower or try to use the available manpower fully so that maximum amount of work to complete and try to complete the urgent works such that it does not effect our project duration, reschedule the project and update schedule to head office and inform them weekly work progress so that they can help you to overcome the manpower problem or try to motivate the available manpower by giving extra benefits if they complete the project in time or if manpower is very less

than required then immediately inform head office so that they can send some more manpower so that the project can run smoothly Recommendation for Manpower Management Planning: o Manpower planning involved some of steps project manager has to follow the same for engagement of manpower, because the Tunnel project is a large project more number of manpower is involved in the project . o o Developing source of manpower supply for all categories of manpower. Understanding the project in all respect and get all details of the project i.e Site condition, contract conditions, technical specifications, construction techniques, and time frame o Working out the labour component in various parameter of the project, by using consultants to work out labour requirement o Classifying and categorising labour requirement and various jobs by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work etc. o Estimation of manpower required in view of the anticipated of absenteeism and labour turnover and the stability factor. o Ensure the guideline set by the organization for engagement of manpower to be followed.

The guiding principles are as follows: o o o o Care and skill should be exercised in the selection of employees. Introduction to the job should be friendly skilful and adequate. Each employee should be made of feel that his efforts are really appreciated. Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and instruction may have on the feelings of employees. o o o o There should be sense of security and reasonable freedom from worry Employees should have a part in planning those things that affect their working conditions. Management should be absolutely fair in every policy every practice. Each employee should have a feeling of pride in the worthwhileness of his work and his company.

3. Un-Hygienic surrounding & Temporary Accommodation: Before starting of the project management has to well plan because this project is long duration so manpower involved will be more it is the one of the preliminary need for the employees & workers. Un-Hygienic surrounding observed in the project sites are as follows: a. Poor drainage condition – resulting stagnant water causing growth of mosquito, which develop the possibilities of malaria of workmen. b. Shallow tube oil for drinking water – resulting water diseases. c. Improper toilet & latrine facilities for workmen. d. Inadequate space for leaving.

e. Cooking facilities not available towards labour hut f. Canteen for food – not allotted to labours.

g. Cleaning of wast material from the colony area.

Suggestion Methods for Hygiene Factors: Management has to well plan for the temporary shelters in such a way that number of workers will be involved in the project and how many shelters are required and for different category of employees will be working at site and different facility what all materials required for construction any how much time required to construct it so that all those thing should be completed before starting of project, Management should built temporary shelters for the workers who will be working at site because the site is at remote area workers cannot be able to say at there and come for work it is the preliminary requirement for the workers so management has to take extra precautions, A site office also built with all necessary requirements, drinking water should be good because most of diseases are spread by water so it is important step to taken care by management.

4. Non availability of Medical facilities at the vicinity of the project Site Management should send a medical team to site and they should stay there till completion of project, they should be supplied necessary equipment and medical kits so that they can manage any hazardous situation i.e. any sudden accidents they can over come that situation, any epidemic occurred they can over come that

situation. By this work will be smoothly progressed and number of workers absenteeism will be reduced. Worker who is sick will be taken care by medical team he will be recovered quickly and he can start doing the work so that manpower problem is solved.

5. Availability of Alcohol & Consumption of Alcohol by the Labours: This is the major problem with labour because they drink daily after work so that they get some relief from whole day’s work and body pains, but management should try to avoid drinking alcohol or try to get them in limited dose so that they have it in just go for sleep if they get it in excess quantities they will be drinking whole night and next day they will be absenteeism and also after excess drinking they start quarrelling between themselves it’s a big problem for the project manager while quarrelling their may be any accidents that leads to more absenteeism that will also indirectly effect the progress of project. If this quarrelling happens regularly then management has to take some precaution steps to handle that problem. Such as try to avoid the availability of alcohol near the site so that the labour cannot consume much alcohol and this problem is solved and the project may continue smoothly.


Work related risk of rural construction workers.

The workers are vulnerable not only because they are rural workers who do not enjoy the same equal social protection as their urban counterparts. They are vulnerable also because they work in the construction industry which brings with it a set of risks that are particularly serious for construction workers. They are also migrants who are not yet fully integrated into urban life and keep distinctive lifestyles. Therefore, even if the state policy intends to extend the formal social security schemes to these workers, a combination of work related risks, and social risks and personal understanding of the risks, often expressed with their status as rural-urban migrants, may lead to the failure of a simple extension of social security. To understand the challenges better, it is important to distinguish work related and status related risks that affect the livelihoods of these workers. o Some subcontractors deliberately hold the money for a long time to earn interest. When a subcontractor mainly hires workers from his home village or county, he is more likely to behave in a

more responsible way, as he has to face the pressure back at home. Late or missing pay is more frequent when a subcontractor hires people from outside his home county. o Another work related risk is injuries. Construction work involves hard labour and operation of heavy equipment. Industrial accidents are frequent, especially among poorly trained and inexperienced workers

Measures to minimize the work related risk:
o o Ensure time release of labour payment and monitor actual payment towards labour involved. Ensure safety standard for protection against industrial injuries.

Motivation of Employees in Construction Project: Motivation is the driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations. Motivators may be intrinsic or extrinsic. An example of an intrinsic motivator is the self-fulfilment of a worker as a result of performing a task well.

Motivation of labour in Construction Project: Construction labour can be motivated. This is important because dwindling productivity is a major problem confronting construction today. Productivity has decreased every year for the past decade, in part because of increasing design complexity, more rigorous federal and state regulations and socio-economic changes affecting the work force. Our findings indicate that a highly motivated workforce enhances productivity and project effectiveness. In construction, the work itself that is, the building of a structure for all to behold is a key motivator for all levels of management and the work force. Therefore, a well planned project seems to be the first and most important step to achieve good productivity. Unfortunately, on large industrial projects, craftsmen often receive only minimal amounts of information about their work . Duplication of effort, numerous modifications to plans, schedules that consistently slip makes it difficult to maintain a motivated workforce. On large power plant projects, changes in design and

problems with material availability are considered the major demotivating factors. With effective pre-planning, the availability of materials will be checked before workers are assigned to an area so workers do not start in one location only to have to be shifted to another location, Care in this respect should improve worker motivation and productivity and help promote a high level of accomplishment. Most foremen are craftsmen take considerable pride in the work they do. Having to rip out their work and redo it can be extremely discomforting. In fact, if it is extensive, redoing parts of a project may be the worst de-motivator of all. Craftsmen view overcrowded conditions and crew interference due to extensive rework as de-motivating. Worse, such problems can create hostile feelings as a result of the frustration. Design standardization can help to minimize rework and improve morale. Motivational Programs: Although some unique motivational programs were found, the vast majority can be grouped into five primary categories: goal setting, incentives, positive reinforcement (i.e., recognition for a job well done), worker participation, and work facilitation. The following presents a dissertation on each of the five categories discussing first their use in other industries and then their application to construction. Motivational Technique: The motivational techniques are as follows:

1. A letter of praise from a customer shared directly with the employee who delivered the service.

2. Provide training to employees. Offer them opportunities to improve themselves.

3. Involve employees in decisions that directly affect them.

4. Special Wage increase should be given to employees who do their jobs well.

5. Provide better job descriptions so that employees will know exactly what is expected of them.

6. Individual incentive bonuses based upon values that need to be reinforced.

7. Having good equipment to work with. Good working conditions.

8. Being trustworthy and respectable.

9. Job security

10. Feedback should be constructive and timely.

Welfare Amenities: To mitigate desire productivity the welfare amenities should be ensured towards workmen. The following welfare amenities at site for use of workers at scale and standards prescribed below – 1. Canteen 2. Rest rooms 3. Night Shelter 4. Clean drinking water 5. Latrines and urinals 6. Washing facilities 7. First aid facilities 8. Housing 9. Crèche Absenteeism and Turnover: The department of Energy study indicated that the absenteeism and turnover are a relatively minor concern to workmen. Still, they can have a major impact on total project productivity. High rates of absenteeism are a concern, however, to individuals who had to carry extra workloads to compensate for missing crewmembers.

The low job satisfaction resulted in high absence from work and high turnover. Thus absenteeism and turnover can be viewed as effects of motivational activities or de-motivational concerns. The cost of motivational programs is often by the reduced absenteeism and turnover. For example the cost of M2 group Engineering Private Ltd. Big Designing & construction company on eight projects has been more than paid for by the reduction in absenteeism and the reduced costs associated with hiring some amount per employee to process paper work plus two to three weeks of each new employee’s time to learn the job. Again, the figures on attendance and turnover measure the motivational effort that is finally justified. Moreover, awards for good records are perhaps the most effective method to decrease absenteeism. Recommendation to Management: Considering the project analysis and feasibility study made the following recommendation extended towards management 1. Deployment of consultant for construction method finalization. 2. Deployment of Doctor and fast aid centre with adequate medicine facilities. 3. Arrangement of periodic medical check-up for labours 4. Proper screening for labour prior to engage them in risk job. 5. Technical knowledge to be screened for workers. 6. Identifying more resource pull for workers. 7. Promoting motivational scheme for labours 8. Incentive scheme to be implemented for enhancing motivation towards work. 9. Special care to be taken in account of hygienic aspect of labour hut. 10. Separate gang to be deployed for maintenance of labour colony. 11. Remote allowance can be introduce for labours. Bibliography : 1. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. – William R.Duncan 2. Management in organization by Koontz and Odoneal, MacGraw Hill 3. Construction Personnel Management for Construction Industry Managers – SODE, NICMAR.



10. 11. 2. COURSE

: :


13. 14. 3. COURSE TITLE

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT : NCP-24/25 : 211-08-14-9831-2131

16. 17. 4. COURSE No

19. 20. 5. REG No

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

27. A) Overview of Contract: 28. Developing & Constructing New International Airport 29. B) Key Scope of works: 30. Cutting, Excavation & Dozing of 100,000 M3 31. Disposal of surplus earth 20,000 m3 32. Imported materials filling 33. Filling of sand 3000 m3 including spreading & leveling 34. Road work including procurement of 1,50,000 liters of Bitumen 35. C) Main Constraints: 36. The proposed project is 30 KM away from the main city. 37. The project is to be constructed in two Phase, and first phase to be completed i n 100 days. 38. Mobilization of Equipment & proper utilization 39. Identification of agencies for supplying of sand from 20 km and work including s preading & leveling 40. Procurement of Bitumen 1,50,000 liters from Assam which is having lead time of 4 41. 5 days. 42. Storage facility available at site only for 50,000 liters 43. D) Tentative programme for the work: 44. Excavation of 100,000 m3 earth – to be completed in 50 days. Per day approximately 45. -2,000 m3 to be excavated so that we can complete the excavation work in 50 day 46. s

48. E) Cost working for Excavation works 49. Selection of equipment – a) Excavator with bucket Komatsu PC 200 – productivity – 600 50. m3/per day considered. 51. Option -1 - Cost working for PC 200: 52. 1. Hire charges per Hour – Rs.850.00 rate for 10 hrs = 8,500 53. 2. Cost of Diesel 7 litres per hour @ 70 Rs per litre considered for 10 hrs 54. = 4,900 55. 3. Operator wages included 56. 4. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 57. 5. Wages for Banks man – Rs.400 58. TOTAL COST PER DAY = RS.14,100 X 4 Excavators required = Rs.56,400 per day and t 59. otal cost estimated for 50 days is 56,400 x 50 = Rs.28.20 lacs


Selection of equipment – b) Excavator with bucket Komatsu PC 400 – productivity – 800 m3/per day considered. Option -2 - Cost working for PC 400: 1. Hire charges per Hour – Rs.1200.00 rate for 10 hrs = 12,000 61. 2. Cost of Diesel 10 litres per hour @ 70 Rs per litre considered for 10 hr 62. s = 7,000 63. 3. Operator wages included 64. 4. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 65. 5. Wages for Banks man – Rs.400 66. TOTAL COST PER DAY = RS.19,700 X 2.5 (2 + 1 Excavator 10 days) Excavators requir 67. ed = Rs.49,250 per day and total cost estimated for 45 days is 49,250 x 45 = Rs. 68. 22.16 lacs 69. Selection of equipment – c) Excavator with bucket – productivity – 300 m3/per day cons 70. idered. 71. Option -3 - Cost working for HITACHI EX-220: 72. 1. Hire charges per Hour – Rs.600.00 rate for 10 hrs = 6,000 73. 2. Cost of Diesel 5 litres per hour @ 70 Rs per litre considered for 10 hrs 74. = 3,500 75. 3. Operator wages included 76. 4. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 77. 5. Wages for Banks man – Rs.400 78. TOTAL COST PER DAY = RS.10,200 X 6 Excavators required = Rs.61,200 per day and t 79. otal cost estimated for 56 days is 49,250 x 45 = Rs.34.27 lacs 80. F) Cost working for Disposal works 81. Selection of equipment – Dozer – 1 No, Wheel loader – 1 Nos, Tipper truck 18 m3 capac 82. ity considering 800 m3 disposal of surplus earth/per day and completing the work 83. by 25 days 84. 1) Hire charges for Dozer – 1 Nos per Hour – Rs.600.00 rate for 10 hrs = 8,000 85. 2) Hire charges for Wheel loader–1 No per Hour– Rs.600.00 rate for 10 hrs = 6,0 86. 00 87. 3) Hire charges for Tipper–8 No per Hour– Rs.400.00 rate for 10 hrs = 32,000 88. 4) Cost of Diesel 5 litres per hour each @ 70 Rs per litre considered for 1 89. 0 hrs = 35,000 90. 5) Operator wages included 91. 6) Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 92. 7) Wages for Banks man – Rs.800 93. TOTAL COST PER DAY = Rs.84,200 per day and total cost estimated for 25 days is = 94. Rs.21.20 lacs, unit rate arrived for 20,000 m3 is Rs.106/m3 also by using the s 95. ame equipments can be used for removing & stocking the balance required earth at 96. nearby site area.

98. 99. 100. 101.

102. G) Cost working for sand Filling 103. Supply of Sand as per specification by local supplier and spreading & leveling b 104. y dept.(own) considered. 105. 1. Supply of sand including transportation delivery at site 18 m3 Truck – Rs. 106. 6,000.00 rate for 18 m3 =per m3 Rs.6,000/18 =Rs.333/m3 107. 2. Cost of Showel for spreading & leveling the sand – Depreciation cost –Rs.266 108. per day x 15 days considered= Rs.3,990, per day 200 m3 productivity taken, cost 109. per m3 = 19.95 Rs. 110. 3. Operator wages per month – Rs.20,000 per month required for 15 days, cost 111. per m3 = 10,000/200 =Rs.50/m3

112. 4. Diesel charges 4 ltrs per hour x Rs.70/ltr =Rs.280 x 10 hrs = Rs.2,800/2 113. 00 =Rs.14/m3 considered. 114. 5. Water tanker 5,000 gallons –Rs.2,600/trip = 2,600/200 = Rs.13/m3 considere 115. d 116. 6. Compaction using plate compactor/roller = Rs.500/day = Rs.2.50/m3 117. 7. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300/200=1.50/m3

118. 8) Wages for labour for compaction – Rs.800/per day,800/200 = Rs.4.00/m3 119. TOTAL COST = Rs.437.95/m3 x total qty 3,000 m3 = Rs.13.14 lacs. 120. H) BOQ for Bitumen Pavement 121. Surface dressing & preparation 122. Penetration grouting semi grouting/full grouting 123. Premix carpet/Seal Coat 124. Hot mixed bituminous macadam
125. 126.

128. I) Cost Working for Bitumen work 129. Surface dressing & preparation: 130. Considering Total qty of area is 100 m x 20 m width = 2,000 m2 will be started o 131. n 60th day as per programme. 132. 1. Cost of Showel for spreading & leveling the earth – Depreciation cost –Rs.26 133. 6 per day x 10 days considered= Rs.2,660 134. 2. Operator wages per month – Rs.20,000 per month required for 10 days, cost 135. =Rs.6,666 136. 3. Diesel charges 4 liters per hour x Rs.70/ltr =Rs.280 x 10 hrs = Rs.28,00 137. 0. 138. 4. Compaction using plate compactor/roller = Rs.8000/day = Rs.80,000 139. 5. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 140. TOTAL COST = Rs.1.17 lacs. 141. Spraying of metal & bitumen mix in two layers: 142. 1. Supply cost for bitumen to be procured from Bongaingaon in Assam – 1,50,00 143. 0 liters @ Rs.20/liters considered – cost for total qty = 30.00 Lacs 144. 2. Transportation cost per liters Rs.5.00/Litre = 7.50 Lacs 145. 3. Wastages 10% = 30 + 7.5 = 37.5 * 10% = 3.75 Lacs 146. 4. Stocking & shifting to site Rs.1.00/litre =1.50 Lacs 147. 5. Cost of 10-20 mm metal delivery at site for 2000 m2 x 0.2 mtr ht = 400 m 148. 3 @ 600 rs/m3 = 2.400 Lacs 149. 6. Wastages 10% = 0.24 Lacs 150. 7. Cost of Hot mix plant –Depreciation cost = Rs.4500/day x 40 days required 151. -1.80 Lacs 152. 8. Transportation of hot bituminous mix through tipper truck – Rs.4000/day in 153. cluding driver & diesel charges x 40 days =1.60 Lacs 154. 9. Spreading & Laying by using paver – Depreciation cost Rs.8,000 per day – cos 155. t for 40 days is = 3.20 Lacs 156. 10. Operator wages per month – Rs.20,000 per month required for 40 days, cost= 157. Rs.27,000 x 4 operators = 1.08 Lacs 158. 11. Diesel charges 10 liters per hour x Rs.70/ltr =Rs.7000 x 40 days = Rs.2 159. .80 Lacs 160. 12. Compaction using roller 10 Ton Rs.8000/day x 40 days = Rs.3.20 Lacs 161. 13. Operator food, accommodation & transport per day =Rs.300 x 8 = 2,400 x 4 162. 0 days – 0.960 Lacs 163. TOTAL COST = Rs.59.07 lacs. 164. J) Purchase Order Schedule 165. 1. Supply of Bitumen from assam including transportation & delivery at site 166. for the total qty – 1st day – delivery

167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. days 175. 176. 177.

in two lots 2. Delivery of 1st lot will be received on 46th day 3. Delivery of 2nd lot will be received on 60th day 4. Order for supply of sand, metal to be done on 1st week K) Programme Outline Total scope will be executed in two parts 1. Part -1 1. Excavation, Dozing & disposal of surplus earth – 1 to 25th day 2. Imported materials & Sand filling – start from 10th Day – 25th 3. 4. 5. Surface preparation, leveling and compaction – 26th to 46th days Metal spreading – 46th day to 60th day Bitumen pavement – 61st day to 80th day

178. 179. day 180. day 181. days 182. 183.

2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Part -2 Excavation, Dozing & disposal of surplus earth – 26th to 50th Imported materials & Sand filling – start from 26th Day – 46th Surface preparation, leveling and compaction 47th day to 65th Metal spreading – 66th day to 80th day Bitumen pavement – 81st day to 100th day

185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190.
191. 192.

L) Cost Summary: 1. Cost for Excavation works = Rs.22.16 Lacs 2. Cost for Disposal works = Rs. 21.20 Lacs 3. Sand Filling = Rs.13.14 Lacs 4. Cost of Bitumen Pavement = Rs.60.24 Lacs GRAND TOTAL COST = 116.74 Lacs

194. M) Bitumen ordering Plan: 195. Note: Average daily consumption of bitumen is 3750 Ltrs. A safety stock of 3 day 196. s consumption is always maintained.



Bitumen Inventory chart:

200. 201. O) Bitumen Logistic Plan: 202. 1. Bitumen shall be supplied in drums, each drum containing 200 Ltrs. 203. 2. It will be carried in trucks / long trailers from the loading point and 204. shall be unloaded at site with fork lift. 205. 3. Each truck will carry 50 drums x 200 Ltrs = 10,000 Ltrs. 206. 4. For each order qty of 30,000 Ltrs x 5 orders, 3 trucks per order shall b 207. e engaged for bringing in bitumen from refinery to airport site. 208. P) Recommendations / Conclusions: 209. 1. As the project to be executed with in short duration and it is time boun 210. d, all materials and equipments shall be mobilized as per the above plan and HO 211. approvals on resources should not be delayed. 212. 2. As bitumen is brought in from long distance and the lead time is more, i 213. t is better to post a material expeditor and loading point for better follow up 214. and ensuring timely delivery at site. 215. Q) Bibliography: 216. 1. NICMAR Lessson book – Construction Equipment & Materials management. 217. 2. Other miscellaneous hand books on construction equipments & materials.

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