You are on page 1of 23

Inverse Laplace Transform:

If ( ) { } ( ) s f t f L = , then f(t) is called the inverse Laplace transform or inverse


transform or simply inverse of ) s ( f , and is denoted by ( ) { } s f L
1
.
Thus ( ) ( ) { } s f L t f
1
= . (i)
1
L

is known as the inverse Laplace transform operator and is such that


1 L L LL
1 1
= =

.
In the inverse problem (i), ) s ( f is given (known) and f(t) is to be determine.
Remarks: Inverse Laplace transform of ) s ( f need not exists for all ) s ( f .
Some methods for finding inverse Laplace transform are:
Use of partial fractions (Method of Partial Fractions)
Use of some important properties
Convolution
Use of Laplace transform tables

Here we will discuss Method of Partial Fractions only.

3 33 3
rd rd rd rd
Topic Topic Topic Topic
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
Inverse Laplace Transforms
(Method of Partial Fractions)

Prepared by:
Dr. Sunil
NIT Hamirpur (HP)
(Last updated on 20-10-2007)
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

2
METHOD OF PARTIAL FRACTIONS:
To find the inverse transforms, we first express the given function of s into partial
fraction, which will, then, be recognizable as one of the following standard forms:
(1) 1
s
1
L
1
= |

\
|

(2)
at 1
e
a s
1
L = |

\
|


(3)
( )! 1 n
t
s
1
L
1 n
n
1

= |

\
|

, n = 1, 2, 3,....... (4)
( )
( )! 1 n
t e
a s
1
L
1 n at
n

=
(
(


(5) at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+

(6) at cos
a s
s
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+


(7) at sinh
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|

(8) at cosh
a s
s
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|


(9)
( )
bt sin e
b
1
b a s
1
L
at
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+

(10)
( )
bt cos e
b a s
a s
L
at
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+


(11)
( )
at sin t
a 2
1
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|

(12)
( )
( ) at cos at at sin
a 2
1
a s
s
L
3 2
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+


Remarks on Partial Fraction:
A fraction of the form
n
1 n
1
n
0
m
1 m
1
m
0
b . .......... s b s b
a . .......... s a s a
+ + +
+ + +

,
in which m and n are positive integers, is called a rational algebraic function. When
numerator is of lower degree than the denominator, it is called proper fraction.
To resolve a given fraction into partial fraction, we first factorise the denominator
into real factor. These will be either linear or quadratic, and some factor s repeated. We
know from algebra that a proper fraction can be resolved into a sum of partial fractions
such that:
(i) to a non-repeated linear factor a s (occurring once) in the denominator
corresponds a partial fraction of the form
( ) a s
A

.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

3
(ii) to a repeated linear factor ( )
r
a s (occurring r times) in the denominator
corresponds the sum of r partial fractions of the form
( ) ( ) ( )
r
r
3
3
2
2 1
a s
A
. ..........
a s
A
a s
A
a s
A

+ +

.
(iii) to a non repeated quadratic factor ( ) b as s
2
+ + (occurring once) in the
denominator, corresponds a partial fraction of the form
b as s
B As
2
+ +
+
.
(iv) to a repeated quadratic factor ( )
r
2
b as s + + (occurring r times) in the
denominator, corresponds the sum of r partial fractions of the form
( ) ( )
r
2
r r
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
b as s
B s A
..........
b as s
B s A
b as s
B s A
+ +
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
.
Then, we have to determine the unknown constant
1 1
B , A , A , ..etc.
To obtain the partial fraction corresponding to the non-repeated linear factor a s in the
denominator, put s = a everywhere in the given fraction except in the factor a s itself.
In all other cases, equate the given fraction to the sum of suitable partial fractions
in accordance with (i) to (iv) above, having found the partial fraction corresponding to
the non-repeated linear factors by the above rule. Then multiply both sides by the
denominator of the given fraction and equate the coefficients of the powers of the s or
substitute the convenient numerical values of s on both sides. Finally, solve the simplest
of the resulting equations to find the unknown constant.

Now using the concept of partial fractions, let us find inverse Laplace
transforms of some functions:
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of (i)
3
2
s
4 s 3 s +
,
(ii)
13 s 4 s
2 s
2
+
+
.
Sol.: (i) |

\
|
+ |

\
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
+

3
1
2
1 1
3
2
1
s
1
L 4
s
1
L 3
s
1
L
s
4 s 3 s
L
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

4

2
2
t 2 t 3 1
! 2
t
. 4 t 3 1 + = + = .
(ii)
( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+
+
=
|
|

\
|
+
+
=
|
|

\
|
+
+

2 2
1
2
1
2
1
3 2 s
4 2 s
L
9 2 s
2 s
L
13 s 4 s
2 s
L

( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+

=

2 2
1
2 2
1
3 2 s
1
L 4
3 2 s
2 s
L
t 3 sin e
3
4
t 3 cos e
t 2 t 2
+ = . Ans.
Q.No.2.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of (i)
6 s 11 s 6 s
5 s 6 s 2
2 3
2
+
+
,
(ii)
( ) ( ) 2 s 1 s
5 s 4
2
+
+
.
Sol.: (i) Here the denominator ( ) ( )( )( ) 3 s 2 s 1 s 6 s 11 s 6 s
2 3
= + = .
So let
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 s
C
2 s
B
1 s
A
3 s 2 s 1 s
5 s 6 s 2
2

=

+
.
Then
( )( ) 2
1
3 1 2 1
5 1 . 6 1 . 2
A
2
=
(
(


+
= ,
( )( )
1
3 2 1 2
5 2 . 6 2 . 2
B
2
=
(
(


+
= ,
and
( )( ) 2
5
2 3 1 3
5 3 . 6 3 . 2
C
2
=
(
(


+
= .
|

\
|

+ |

\
|

\
|

=
|
|

\
|
+
+

3 s
1
L
2
5
2 s
1
L
1 s
1
L
2
1
6 s 11 s 6 s
5 s 6 s 2
L
1 1 1
2 3
2
1

=
t 3 t 2 t
e
2
5
e e
2
1
+ . Ans.
(ii). Here
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) 2 s 1 2
5 2 4
1 s
B
1 s
A
2 s 1 s
5 s 4
2 2 2
+
+
+

=
+
+
.
Multiplying both sides by ( )( )
2
2 s 1 s + , we get
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

5
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 s
3
1
2 s B 2 s 1 s A 5 s 4 + + + = + .
Putting s = 1, 9 = 3B 3 B = .
Equating the coefficient of
2
s from both sides, we get
3
1
A 0 =
3
1
A = .

( ) ( ) ( )
|

\
|
+

|
|

\
|

+ |

\
|

=
|
|

\
|
+
+

2 s
1
L
3
1
1 s
1
L 3
1 s
1
L
3
1
2 s 1 s
5 s 4
L
1
2
1 1
2
1


t 2 t t
e
3
1
te 3 e
3
1

+ = . Ans.
Q.No.3.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of (i)
( )( ) 5 s 2 s 1 s
3 s 5
2
+ +
+
,
(ii)
4 4
a 4 s
s
+
.
Sol.: (i) Let
( )( )
( )
( )( ) 5 s 2 s
B As
5 1 . 2 1 1 s
3 1 5
5 s 2 s 1 s
3 s 5
2 2 2
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
.
Multiplying both sides by ( )( ) 5 s 2 s 1 s
2
+ + , we get
( ) ( )( ) 1 s B As 5 s 2 s . 1 3 s 5
2
+ + + + = + .
Equating the coefficient of
2
s from both sides, we get
A 1 0 + = 1 A = .
Putting s = 0, B 5 3 = 2 B = .
( )( )
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ |

\
|

=
|
|

\
|
+ +
+


5 s 2 s
2 s
L
1 s
1
L
5 s 2 s 1 s
3 s 5
L
2
1 1
2
1


( )
( )
|
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ |

\
|

=

4 1 s
3 1 s
L
1 s
1
L
2
1 1


( ) ( ) (
(

+ +
+
(
(

+ +
+
|

\
|

=

2 2
1
2 2
1 1
2 1 s
1
L 3
2 1 s
1 s
L
1 s
1
L
t 2 sin e
2
3
t 2 cos e e
t t t
+ = . Ans.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

6
(ii) Since ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 4 4
a 2 as 2 s a 2 as 2 s as 2 a 2 s a 4 s + + + = + = + .

( )
2 2 2 2 4 4
a 2 as 2 s
D Cs
a 2 as 2 s
B As
a 4 s
s
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+
.
Multiplying both sides by
4 4
a 4 s + , we get
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2
a 2 as 2 s D Cs a 2 as 2 s B As s + + + + + + = .
Equating the coefficient of
3
s , C A 0 + = (i)
Equating the coefficient of
2
s , D aC 2 B aA 2 0 + + + = (ii)
Equating the coefficient of s , aD 2 C a 2 aB 2 A a 2 1
2 2
+ + = (iii)
Putting s = 0, D a 2 B a 2 0
2 2
+ = . (iv)
From (iv), 0 D B = + . (v)
(ii) becomes 0 C A = + , and by (i), we get 0 C A = = .
Then (iii) reduce to
a 2
1
B D = and by (v),
a 4
1
B = ,
a 4
1
D = .
|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+ +
=
|
|

\
|
+


2 2
1
2 2
1
4 4
1
a 2 as 2 s
1
L
a 4
1
a 2 as 2 s
1
L
a 4
1
a 4 s
s
L

( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+ +
=

2 2
1
2 2
1
a a s
1
L
a 4
1
a a s
1
L
a 4
1

at sin e
a
1
.
a 4
1
at sin e
a
1
.
a 4
1
at at
+ =

|
|

\
|

=

2
e e
at sin
a 2
1
at at
2

at sinh at sin
a 2
1
2
= . Ans.
Q.No.4.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
5
2
2
s 2
2 s 3
.
Sol.: Here
( )
3 5 5
2 4
5
2 4
s
6
s
6
s 2
3
s 2
s 12 12 s 3
s 2
s 4 4 s 3
+ =
+
=
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
|

\
|
+

3 5
1
s
6
s
6
s 2
3
L |

\
|
|

\
|
+ |

\
|
=

3
1
5
1 1
s
6
L
s
6
L
s 2
3
L
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

7

4 2 2
4 2 4
t
4
1
t 3
2
3
t 3
4
t
2
3
! 2
t 6
! 4
t 6
2
3
+ = + = + = . Ans.
Q.No.5.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
2 2
s 9
18 s 4
25 s 4
5 s 2

+
+

.
Sol.: Here
25 s 4
5
25 s 4
s 2
25 s 4
5 s 2
2 2 2
+

+
=
+

and
2 2 2
s 9
18
s 9
s 4
s 9
18 s 4


The equation becomes
2 2 2 2
s 9
18
s 9
s 4
25 s 4
5
25 s 4
s 2

+
+

+
2 2
2 2 s 9
18
s 9
s 4
4
25
s 4
5
4
25
s 4
s 2

+
|

\
|
+

\
|
+
=
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|

+
|
|
|
|

\
|
+

|
|
|
|

\
|
+
=
2 2
2 2
s 9
1
18
s 9
s
4
4
25
s
1
4
5
4
25
s
s
4
2

|
|

\
|

+
|
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+

|
|
|
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+
=
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
3 s
1
18
3 s
s
4
2
5
s
1
4
5
2
5
s
s
4
2

Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
(

+
+

2 2
1
s 9
18 s 4
25 s 4
5 s 2
L
|
|

\
|

+
|
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+

|
|
|
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+
=

2 2
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
3 s
1
L 18
3 s
s
L 4
2
5
s
1
L
4
5
2
5
s
s
L
4
2

t 3 sinh
3
18
t 3 cosh 4 t
2
5
sin .
5
2
.
4
5
t
2
5
cos
4
2
+ =
t 3 sinh 6 t 3 cosh 4 t
2
5
sin t
2
5
cos
2
1
+ |

\
|
= . Ans.
Q.No.6.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) 4 3 s
s
2
+ +
.
Sol.: Here
( ) 4 3 s
3 3 s
2
+ +
+
( ) ( ) 4 3 s
3
4 3 s
3 s
2 2
+ +

+ +
+
= .
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

8
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+ +

|
|

\
|
+ +
+

2 2
1
2 2
1
2 3 s
1
L 3
2 3 s
3 s
L t 2 sin
2
e . 3
t 2 cos e
t 3
t 3

=

|

\
|
=

t 2 sin
2
3
t 2 cos e
t 3
. Ans.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
8 s 2 s
s 3
2
+
.
Sol.: Here
9 1 s 2 s
s 3
2
+ + ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
3 1 s
1 1 s 3
3 1 s
s 3
+
+
=
+
=
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
3 1 s
3
3 1 s
1 s 3
+

+
+
= .
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
|

\
|
+

8 s 2 s
s 3
L
2
1
t 3 sinh e t 3 cosh e 3
t t
= ( ) t 3 sinh t 3 cosh 3 e
t
=


(
(

|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+
=

2
e e
2
e e
3 e
t 3 t 3 t 3 t 3
t
(
(

+ + =


2
e
2
e
e
2
3
e
2
3
e
t 3 t 3
t 3 t 3 t

[ ]
t 2 t 4 t 3 t 3 t
e e 2 e e 2 e + = + =

. Ans.
Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
3 s 2 s
7 s 3
2

+
.
Sol.: Here
3 s 2 s
7 s 3
2

+
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 s
7 s 3

+
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 s
7
2 1 s
s 3

+

=

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 s
7
2 1 s
1 1 s 3

+

+
=

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 s
3
2 1 s
7
2 1 s
1 s 3

+

+

=

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 s
10
2 1 s
1 s 3

+

= .
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
(

3 s 2 s
7 s 3
L
2
1
t 2 sinh e
2
10
t 2 cosh e 3
t t
+ = t 2 sinh e 5 t 2 cosh e 3
t t
+ =

(
(


+
(
(

+
=

2
e e
e 5
2
e e
e 3
t 2 t 2
t
t 2 t 2
t
(
(


+
(
(

+
=

2
e e
5
2
e e
3
t t 3 t 3 t

Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

9

t t 3 t 3 t
e
2
5
e
2
5
e
2
3
e
2
3

+ + = [ ]
t 3 t
e 4 e + =

. Ans.
Q.No.9.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 2 s 3 s s
2 s s
2
+
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )( ) 2 s 3 s s
2 s s
2
+
+
2 s
C
3 s
B
s
A

+
+
+ = .
Then
[ ]
( )( ) 3
1
6
2
2 3
2 0 0
A =

+
= ,
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )( ) 15
4
15
2 3 9
5 3
2 3 3
B
2
=

=

+
= ,
( ) ( ) [ ]
5
2
10
4
5 . 2
2 2 2
C
2
= =
+
=
2 s
C
3 s
B
s
A

+
+
+
( ) ( ) 2 s 5
2
3 s 15
4
s 3
1

+
+
+ = .
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )( )
(
(

+
+

2 s 3 s s
2 s s
L
2
1
( ) ( )
(

+
+
+ =

2 s 5
2
3 s 15
4
s 3
1
L
1 t 2 t 3
e
5
2
e
15
4
3
1
+ + =

. Ans.
Q.No.10.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 6 s 5 s 7 s
13 s 10 s
2
2
+
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )( )( ) 2 s
C
3 s
B
7 s
A
2 s 3 s 7 s
13 s 10 s
2

=

+
.
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 3 s 7 s C 2 s 7 s B 2 s 3 s A 13 s 10 s
2
+ + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) 21 s 10 s C 14 s 9 s B 6 s 5 s A
2 2 2
+ + + + + =
( ) ( ) C 21 B 14 A 6 s C 10 B 9 A 5 s C B A
2
+ + + + + + = .
1 C B A = + + ,
10 C 10 B 9 A 5 = ,
13 C 21 B 14 A 6 = + + .
Solving, we get
5
3
C 2, B ,
5
2
A = = =
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

10
( )( )( ) ( ) 2 s
1
5
3
3 s
2
7 s 5
2
2 s 3 s 7 s
13 s 10 s
2

\
|
+

=
(
(


+ +
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )( )
( )
(

\
|
+

=
(
(

+
+

2 s
1
5
3
3 s
2
7 s 5
2
L
6 s 5 s 7 s
13 s 10 s
L
1
2
2
1


t 2 t 3 t 7
e
5
3
e 2 e
7
2
+ = . Ans.
Q.No.11.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
1 s
s

.
Sol.: Here
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 s
D
1 s
C
1 s
B
1 s
A
1 s 1 s
s
+
+
+
+

=
+
.
Equating the coefficient of A, B, C and D, we get
0 C A = +
0 D C B A = + +
1 D 2 C B 2 A = +
0 D C B A = + + +
Solving these equations, we get
0 C 0, A ,
4
1
D ,
4
1
B = = = =
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1 s 4
1
1 s 4
1
1 s
s
+

.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )
( ) ( ) (
(

(
(

=
(
(


2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1 s 4
1
L
1 s 4
1
L
1 s
s
L
t sinh
2
t
2
e e
2
t
4
te
4
te
t t t t
=
(
(


= =

. Ans.
Q.No.12.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1 s 2 s
s 2 1
+
+
.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

11
Sol.: Here
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 s
D
1 s
C
2 s
B
2 s
A
1 s 2 s
s 2 1

+
+
+
+
=
+
+
.
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 s D 1 s 2 s C 1 s B 1 s 2 s A s 2 1 + + + + + + = +
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) 4 s 4 s D 1 s s 4 4 s C s 2 1 s B s 2 1 s 2 s A s 2 1
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + + + + + + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) s 4 4 s s 4 s 4 s C s 2 1 s B s 4 2 s 2 s 2 s s A s 2 1
2 2 3 2 2 2 3
+ + + + + + + + = +
( ) s 4 4 s D
2
+ + +
Equating the coefficient of A, B, C and D, we get
0 C A = +
0 D C 3 B = + +
2 D 4 B 2 A 3 = +
1 D 4 C 4 B A 2 = + +
Solving these equations, we get
3
1
D ,
3
1
B 0, C , 0 A = = = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 s 3
1
2 s 3
1
1 s 2 s
s 2 1

+
+

=
+
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(

+
(
(

=
(
(

+
+

2
1
2
1
2 2
1
1 s 3
1
L
2 s 3
1
L
1 s 2 s
s 2 1
L t e
3
1
t e
3
1
t t 2
+ =

[ ]
t 2 t
e e
3
t

= . Ans.
Q.No.13.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 4 s 3 s
s
2
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )( ) 4 s
C Bs
3 s
A
4 s 3 s
s
2 2
+
+
+

=
+
.
( ) ( )( ) 3 s C Bs 4 s A s
2
+ + + =
C 3 Cs Bs 3 Bs A 4 As s
2 2
+ + + =
Comparing the coefficient of A, B, C, we get
13
4
C ,
13
3
B ,
13
3
A = = =
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

12
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) 4 s
2
13 . 2
4
4 s 13
s 3
3 s 13
3
4 s 3 s
s
2 2 2
+
+
+

=
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )(
(

+
+
(
(

=
(
(

+

4 s
2
13 . 2
4
L
4 s 13
s 3
L
3 s 13
3
L
4 s 3 s
s
L
2
1
2
1 1
2
1

t 2 sin
13
2
t 2 cos
13
3
e
13
3
t 3
+ = [ ] t 2 sin 2 t 2 cos 3 e 3
13
1
t 3
+ = . Ans.
Q.No.14.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) ( ) 1 s 1 s
s
2 2
+ +
.
Sol.: Here
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 s
D Cs
1 s
B
1 s
A
1 s 1 s
s
2 2 2 2
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
.
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1 s D 1 s Cs 1 s B 1 s 1 s A s + + + + + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 s 2 s D 1 s 2 s Cs 1 s B 1 s s s A s
2 2 2 2 3
+ + + + + + + + + + + =
Equating the coefficient of A, B, C and D, we get
0 C ,
2
1
D ,
2
1
B , 0 A = = = = .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 s 2
1
1 s 2
1
1 s 1 s
s
2 2 2 2
+
+
+
=
+ +
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(

+
+
(
(

+
=
(
(

+ +

1 s 2
1
L
1 s 2
1
L
1 s 1 s
s
L
2
1
2
1
2 2
1

t sin
2
1
te
2
1
t
+ =

( )
t
te t sin
2
1

= . Ans.
Q.No.15.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
4 4
3
a s
s

.
Sol.: Here
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
3
a s
D Cs
a s
B
a s
A
a s a s a s
s
+
+
+
+
+

=
+ +
.
( )( )
4
1
a 4
a
a 2 a 2
a
A
3
3
2
3
= = =
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

13
( )
( )( )
4
1
a 4
a
a 2 a 2
a
B
3
3
2
3
=

( )
( ) ( )
2 2 4 4
3
a s
D Cs
a s 4
1
a s 4
1
a s
s
+
+
+
+
+



( ) ( )
( )
2 2
a s
s
.
2
1
a s 4
1
a s 4
1
+
+
+
+

= .
(

= = 0 D ,
2
1
C Q
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
(
(

4 4
3
1
a s
s
L
( ) ( )
( )(
(

+
+
+
+

=

2 2
1
a s
s
.
2
1
a s 4
1
a s 4
1
L at cos
2
1
e
4
1
e
4
1
at at
+ + =


at cos
2
1
2
e e
2
1
at at
+
(
(

+
=

[ ] at cosh at cos
2
1
+ = . Ans.
Q.No.16.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
3 3
a s
1

.
Sol.: Here
( )( ) ( ) as a s
C Bs
a s
A
as a s a s
1
2 2 2 2
+ +
+
+

=
+ +
.
Solving for A
2 2 2 2
a 3
1
a a a
1
A =
+ +
= .
( )( ) ( ) ( ) as a s
C Bs
a s a 3
1
as a s a s
1
2 2 2 2 2
+ +
+
+

=
+ +

( )( )
3 2 2 2 2
a 3 s a 3 C Bs as a s a 3 + + + + =
C a 3 Cs a 3 Bs a 3 Bs a 3 as a s a 3
3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2
+ + + + =
Equating the coefficient, we get
2
3a
1
B ,
a 3
2
C =

=
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
a as s a 3
2
a as s a 3
s
a s a 3
1
a s
1
+ +

+ +


Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

14

( )
4
a 3
2
a
s
2
a 3
1
4
a 3
2
a
s
2
a
2
a
s
a 3
1
a s a 3
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
+ |

\
|
+

+ |

\
|
+
|

\
|
+

=

( )
|

\
|

+ |

\
|
+
+
+ |

\
|
+
|

\
|
+

=
a 3
2
a 6
1
4
a 3
2
a
s
1
4
a 3
2
a
s
2
a
s
a 3
1
a s a 3
1
2
2
2
2 2 2
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
2
at 3
sin e
2
a 3
1
.
a 2
1
at
2
3
cos e
a 3
1
e
a 3
1
a s
1
L
2 / at 2 / at
2
at
2 3 3
1
=
(



2
at 3
sin e
a 3
1
2
at 3
cos e
a 3
1
e
a 3
1
2 / at
2
2 / at
2
at
2

=

(
(

)
`

+ =

2
at 3
sin 3
2
at 3
cos e e
a 3
1
2 / at at
2
. Ans.
Q.No.17.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 4 s 1 s
6 s
2 2
2
+ +
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )( ) 4 s
D Cs
1 s
B As
4 s 1 s
6 s
2 2 2 2
2
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
.
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 s D Cs 4 s B As 6 s
2 2 2
+ + + + + = +
D Ds Cs Cs B 4 Bs As 4 As 6 s
2 3 2 3 2
+ + + + + + + = + .
Solving, we get
3
2
D 0, C ,
3
5
B , 0 A = = = =
( )( ) ( ) ( ) 4 s 3
2
1 s 3
5
4 s 1 s
6 s
2 2 2 2
2
+

+
=
+ +
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )( ) ( ) ( )(
(

(
(

+
=
(
(

+ +
+

4 s
1
L
3
2
1 s
1
L
3
5
4 s 1 s
6 s
L
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
1

Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

15
[ ] t 2 sin t sin 5
3
1
t 2 sin
3
1
t sin
3
5
= = . Ans.
Q.No.18.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) 13 s 4 s
3 s 2
2
+ +

.
Sol.: Here
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
3 2 s
3 s 2
9 4 s 4 s
3 s 2
+ +

=
+ + +
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
3 2 s
3
3 2 s
2 2 s 2
+ +

+ +
+
=

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
3 2 s
7
3 2 s
2 s 2
+ +

+ +
+
=
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )
t 3 sin e
3
7
t 3 cos e 2
13 s 4 s
3 s 2
L
t 2 t 2
2
1
=
(
(

+ +

[ ] t 3 sin 7 t 3 cos 6 e
3
1
t 2
=

. Ans.
Q.No.19.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 2 s 2 s 1 s
s s
2 2
2
+ + +
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )( ) 2 s 2 s
D Cs
1 s
B As
2 s 2 s 1 s
s s
2 2 2 2
2
+ +
+
+
+
+
=
+ + +
+
.
( )( ) ( )( ) 1 s D Cs 2 s 2 s B As s s
2 2 2
+ + + + + + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) D B 2 s C B 2 A 2 s D B A 2 s C A
2 3
+ + + + + + + + + =
Solving and equating the coefficients, we get
0 C A = +
1 D B A 2 = + +
1 C B 2 A 2 = + +
0 D B 2 = +
5
3
A ,
5
1
B ,
5
3
C ,
5
2
D = = = =

( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+ +

|
|

\
|
+ +
+

|
|

\
|
+
+
|
|

\
|
+
=
+ + +
+
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
1 1 s
1
5
2
1 1 s
1 1 s
5
3
1 s
1
5
1
1 s
s
5
3
2 s 2 s 1 s
s s
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )( ) ( ) ( )
|
|

\
|
+ +
+
|

\
|
+
+ |

\
|
+
=
(
(

+ + +
+

2 2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
1
1 1 s
1 1 s
L
5
3
1 s
1
L
5
1
1 s
s
L
5
3
2 s 2 s 1 s
s s
L
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

16

( )
|
|

\
|
+ +


2 2
1
1 1 s
1
L
5
2

t sin e
5
1
t cos e
5
3
t sin
5
1
t cos
5
3
t t
+ + =
( ) ( ) t cos e 1
5
3
t sin e 1
5
1
t t
+ + = . Ans.
Q.No.20.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
5 s 4 s
2 s
+ +
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )
2
2
5 s 4 s
2 s
+ +
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )
( ) (
(

+ +
+
=
(
(

+ +
+

2 2
1
2
2
1
1 2 s
2 s
L
5 s 4 s
2 s
L .
Since
( )
bt sin t
b 2
1
b s
s
L
2
2 2
1
=
(
(

and ( )
( )
( ) [ ]
2
2 2
at
b a s
a s b 2
t sin t e L
+ +
+
=

.
( )
t sin t e
2
1
5 s 4 s
2 s
L
t 2
2
2
1
=
(
(

+ +
+
. Ans.
Q.No.21.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
13 s 6 s
3 s
+ +
+
.
Sol.: Here
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
2 2
2
2
2 3 s
3 s
13 s 6 s
3 s
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( ) [ ]
t 2 sin t e
2 . 2
1
2 3 s
3 s
L
t 3
2
2 2
1
=
(
(

+ +
+

t 2 sin e
4
1
t 3
=

. Ans.
Q.No.22.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) 1 s s
s
2 4
+ +
.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

17
Sol.: Here
( ) 1 s s
s
2 4
+ +
.
Since ( ) ( )( ) 1 s s 1 s s 1 s s
2 2 2 4
+ + + = + + .
( ) ( )( ) 1 s s 1 s s
s 2
2
1
1 s s
s
2 2 2 4
+ + +
=
+ +
.
Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )
|

\
|
+ +
|

\
|
+
=
(

+ +

1 s s
1
L
2
1
1 s s
1
L
2
1
1 s s
s
L
2
1
2
1
2 4
1

+ |

\
|
+

+ |

\
|

=

4
3
2
1
s
1
L
2
1
4
3
2
1
s
1
L
2
1
2
1
2
1

t
2
3
sin e
2
3
. 2
1
t
2
3
sin e
2
3
. 2
1
2 / t 2 / t
=

|
|

\
|

=

2
e e
2
t 3
sin
3
2
2 / t 2 / t
2
t
sinh
2
t 3
sin
3
2
= . Ans.
Q.No.23.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
4 4
2 2
a 4 s
a 2 s a
+

.
Sol.: Here
( )
4 4
2 2
a 4 s
a 2 s a
+

.
Since ( )( )
2 2 2 2 4 4
a 2 as 2 s a 2 as 2 s a 4 s + + + = +
( )
2 2 2 2 4 4
2 2
a 2 as 2 s
D Cs
a 2 as 2 s
B As
a 4 s
a 2 s a
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+

.
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 3 2
a 2 as 2 s D Cs a 2 as 2 s B As a 2 as + + + + + + =
Equating the coefficient of
3
s ; 0 C A = +
Equating the coefficient of
2
s ; D aC 2 B Aa 2 a + + + =
Equating the coefficient of s ; aD 2 C a 2 aB 2 A a 2 0
2 2
+ + =
Putting 0 s = , we get
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

18
D a 2 B a 2 a 2
2 2 3
+ = a D B = +
a aC 2 aA 2 a + =
aC 2 aA 2 a 2 + =
1 A C =
0 A C = + .
Solving these equations, we get
2
1
C 1 C 2 = = ,
2
1
A = ,
2
a
B D = =
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
a a s
2
a
s
2
1
a a s
2
a
2
s
+

+
+ +

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
a a s
a s
.
2
1
a a s
a s
.
2
1
+

+
+ +
+

Taking the inverse Laplace transform, we get
( )
(
(

4 4
2 2
1
a 4 s
a 2 s a
L
( ) ( ) (
(

+
(
(

+ +
+
=

2 2
1
2 2
1
a a s
a s
L
2
1
a a s
a s
L
2
1

at cos e
2
1
at cos e
2
1
at at
+ =

(
(

2
e e
at cos
at at

at sinh . at cos = . Ans.
Q.No.24.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
4
2 3
2 s
s 14 s 6 s
+
+ +
.
Sol.: Let
( )
4
2 3
2 s
s 14 s 6 s
+
+ +
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 2 s
D
2 s
C
2 s
B
2 s
A
2 3 4
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
s 14 s 6 s
2 3
+ +
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
2 s D 2 s C 2 s B A + + + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) A B 2 C 4 D 8 s B C 4 D 12 s C D 6 Ds
2 3
+ + + + + + + + + =
Equating the coefficient of s
, 12 A = B = 2, C = 0, D = 1.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
)
`

+
+

+
+

+
=

+
+ +

2 s
1
L
2 s
1
L 2
2 s
1
L 12
2 s
s 14 s 6 s
L
1
3
1
4
1
4
2 3
1

Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

19

t 2 2 t 2 3 t 2
e t e t e 2

+ + = { }
3 2 t 2
t 2 t 1 e + =

.
Q.No.25.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 5 s 2 s 2 s 2 s
3 s 2 s
2 2
2
+ + + +
+ +

Sol.:
( )( ) 5 s 2 s 2 s 2 s
3 s 2 s
2 2
2
+ + + +
+ +
5 s 2 s
D Cs
2 s 2 s
B As
2 2
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
=
3 s 2 s
2
+ +
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 s 2 s D Cs 5 s 2 s B As
2 2
+ + + + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) D 2 B 5 s D 2 C 2 B 2 A 5 s D C 2 B A 2 s C A
2 3
+ + + + + + + + + + + =
Comparing coefficient of s on either side
A + C = 0, 2A + B + 2C + D = 1, 5A + 2B + 2C + 2D = 2, 5B + 2D = 3.
By solving these equations, we get
A = 0,
3
1
B = , C = 0,
3
2
D = .
( )( )
)

+ + + +
+ +

5 s 2 s 2 s 2 s
3 s 2 s
L
2 2
2
1

+ +
+

+ +
=

5 s 2 s
3
2
L
2 s 2 s
3
1
L
2
1
2
1

( ) ( )
)

+ +
+

+ +
=

4 1 s
1
L
3
2
1 1 s
1
L
3
1
2
1
2
1

( ) t 2 sin t sin 2
3
1
t 2 sin e .
2
1
.
3
2
t sin e
3
1
t t t
+ = + =

.
Q.No.26.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
2 3
2 s 2 s
4 s 6 s 3 s
+
+
.
Sol.: Let
( )
2
2
2 3
2 s 2 s
4 s 6 s 3 s
+
+
( )
( ) 2 s 2 s
D Cs
2 s 2 s
B As
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
+
=
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

20
4 s 6 s 3 s
2 3
+
( )( ) ( ) D 2 B s ) D 2 C 2 A ( s C 2 D Cs 2 s 2 s D Cs B As
2 3 2
+ + + + + = + + + + =
Equating & solving
A = 2, 2 B = , C = 1, 1 D = and rewriting ( ) 1 1 s 2 s 2 s
2 2
+ = +
( )

)

+
+

2
2
2 3
1
2 s 2 s
4 s 6 s 3 s
L
( ) { }
( ) { }
)

=

1 1 s
1 s
L
1 1 s
2 s 2
L
2
1
2
2
1


( )
( )

+
+
+
=

1 s
s
1 s
s 2
L e
2 2
2
1 t
( )
t cos . e
1 s
s
L e 2
t
2
2
1 t
+

+
=


{ } t cos t sin t e t cos e t sin .
2
t
. e 2
t t t
+ = + = . Ans.

*** *** *** *** ***
*** *** ***
***

Home Assignments
Use of partial fractions:
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
6 s 5 s
2 s
2
+ +

.
Ans.:
t 3 t 2
e 5 e 4

+ .
Q.No.2.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( )( ) 3 s 2 s 1 s
4 s 2
2
+

.
Ans.:
t 3 t 2 t
e
2
7
e
3
4
e
6
1
+


.
Q.No.3.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
8 s 14 s 7 s
24 s 7 s
2 3
2
+
+
.
Ans.:
t 4 t 2 t
e 2 e 7 e 6 + .
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

21
Q.No.4.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 3 s 1 s
17 s
+
+
.
Ans.:
t 3 t
e
2
7
e
2
9

.
Q.No.5.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
6 s 11 s 6 s
5 s 6 s 2
2 3
2
+
+
.
Ans.:
t 3 t 2 t
e
2
5
e e
2
1
+ .
Q.No.6.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
4 s 4 s
s 5
2
+ +
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 1 e 5
t 2

.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
4
2 s
5

.
Ans.:
6
e t 5
t 2 3
.
Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
3
1 s 2
7
+
.
Ans.:
2
t
2
e t
16
7

.
Q.No.9.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
7 s 4 s
2 s
2
+ +
+
.
Ans.: t 3 cos . e
t 2
.
Q.No.10.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
13 s 6 s
12 s 2
2
+ +
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 sin 3 t 2 cos 2 e
t 3
+

.
Q.No.11.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
s 9 s
9 s 9 s
3
2

+
.
Ans.: t 3 sinh 3 1+ .
Q.No.12.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 2 s 2 s 2 s 2 s
s
2 2
+ + +
.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

22
Ans.: t sinh . t sin
2
1
.
Q.No.13.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
2 3
4 s
36 s 40 s 3 s 3

+
.
Ans.: ( )
t 2 t 2
te 2 e 3 t 5 +

.
Q.No.14.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 3
1 s 1 s
1 s s 2
+ +

.
Ans.:
t
te t cos t
2
1
t sin
2
1

+ .
Q.No.15.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 4 s 1 s
17 s 7 s 5
2
2
+
+
.
Ans.: t 2 sin
2
5
t 2 cos 2 e 3
t
+ .
Q.No.16.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) ( ) 2 s 1 s
7 s 15 s 2
2
2
+
+ +
.
Ans.: ( )
t 2 t
e 5 e 3 t 2 +

.
Q.No.17.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 4 s 1 s
1 s
2 2
+ +
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 sin t sin 2 t 2 cos 2 t cos 2
6
1
+ .
Q.No.18.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) 5 s 2 s s
10
2
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 sin t 2 cos 2 e 2
t

Q.No.19.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
1 s s
1
+
.
Ans.:
t t
te e 1

.
Q.No.20.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )( ) 13 s 4 s 1 s
27 s 8 s
2
2
+ + +
+ +
.
Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace Transforms
Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

23
Ans.: ( ) t 3 cos t 3 sin e e 2
t 2 t
+

.
Q.No.21.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
1 s s
s
2 4
+ +
.
Ans.:
(
(

t
2
3 sin
e t
2
3 sin
e
3
1
2
t
2
t

Q.No.22.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
4 4
2
a 4 s
s
+
.
Ans.: [ ] at sin . at cosh at cos at sinh
a 2
1
+ .
*** *** *** *** ***
*** *** ***
***

4 44 4
th th th th
Topic Topic Topic Topic
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms
Inverse Laplace transform of derivatives
Inverse Laplace transform of integrals
Convolution Theorem

****************************************
****************************************
****************************************