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Florian P. Ackermann Kaiserslautern University of Technology Institute of Concrete Structures and Structural Design Kaiserslautern, Germany Florian.Ackermann@rhrk.uni-kl.de Jürgen Schnell Kaiserslautern University of Technology Institute of Concrete Structures and Structural Design Kaiserslautern, Germany email@example.com
ABSTRACT The paper deals with composite slabs using steel fibre reinforced concrete as topping. The aim of a research project of the Kaiserslautern University of Technology is the evaluation of design recommendations for steel fibre reinforced composite slabs. The constructive as well as the structural conventional reinforcement are substituted completely by the use of steel fibres. The main focus of a first test series was to research the possible rotation capacity of steel fibre reinforced composite slabs in the region of negative bending. In a second test series, four full scale tests on continuous composite slabs were accomplished.
INTRODUCTION Nowadays, the use of steel composite floors in buildings is common practice. Conventional steel composite floors have proved themselves as an extremely cost-effective floor system for domestic, commercial or industrial buildings. Significant advantages arise from the low construction costs and especially from the benefit of saving time during the building process. Researches in innovative composite slabs with steel fibre reinforced concrete topping are in progress at the Kaiserslautern University of Technology. Different types of slabs with varied geometries are selected for the tests. Special attention should be paid to the redistribution of bending moments from the support to the field. The conventional reinforcement is completely substituted by the steel fibres. Thus, for continuous composite floors an even more efficient and more economic slab system can be achieved. Steel composite slabs are load bearing members, which consist of steel sheeting and a concrete topping. In the construction process, the steel sheeting will be placed by hands. After fixing, it is available as a working platform that provides a safety screen at the same time. During the concreting, the sheeting acts as a shuttering. Thus, a quick and a space-saving
Its appliance is regulated by technical approvals or by approval in individual cases only.2 percent of the concrete cross-section area has to be arranged for crack control at the supports. However. 25 percent of the manufactured ground floor slabs are made of this material [Falkner and Teutsch 2006]. The idea to improve the material properties of concrete by fibre admixture doesn’t reach back so far. According to this bulletin. Rigid plastic global analysis is feasible presuming it can be shown that sections where plastic rotations are required have sufficient rotation capacity. a nominal reinforcement of 0. in doing so a nominal reinforcement of 0. . Continuous slab systems can be analysed by approximation as a series of simply supported beams. the researches in the field of steel fibre reinforced concrete have been started substantially later (since 1960). Usually. this material shows a favourable trend. Rigid plastic global analysis without a check of the sufficient rotation capacity is tolerable only in case of usage of re-entrant steel sheeting and of reinforcement with a high ductility and in case of a maximum span of 6 meters. In Germany. No joints are arranged in the concrete topping and therefore the floor behaves as a continuous slab system and negative bending will occur over the inner supports. The German Society for Concrete and Construction Technology (DBV) has published a technical bulletin concerning the design of steel fibre reinforced concrete [DBV 2001]. For slabs that are propped during placing the concrete. In order to resolve the drawback that no codified standard exists to regulate the steel fibre reinforced material.progress of construction work can be achieved. the German Committee for Structural Concrete (DAfStb) has decided to issue a new guideline [DAfStb 2005]. Nevertheless. STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE The application of fibres as an additive in order to advance the ductility of the concrete has got its origins in the ancient times. In the past years. The aim of the research project is to substitute the constructive as well as the structural reinforcement by the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete. But at present the guideline is not complete yet (it is located in the 23. draft). for all composite slabs an additional reinforcement has to be built in.8 cm²/m in both directions. too. which does not provide an officially codified standard yet. industrial ground floor slabs constitute the main field of application of the steel fibre reinforced concrete. This reinforcement may be imputed to the calculated reinforcement required structural bending. Hence. Until now. steel fibre reinforced concrete is defined as a concrete corresponding to [DIN 1045-1 2001] which is provided with steel fibres in order to achieve specific attributes.4 percent is required. Animal hairs and straw fibres were used in order to enhance the material properties of adobes. Following this guideline continuously running composite slabs may be analysed using linear elastic methods with and without moment redistribution (up to 30 %). The first patent for the application of steel fibres was granted in 1874. In Germany. the matter of fact of which is reflected in the application for domestic construction. In Germany. the steel sheets are installed over several spans. the design of steel decking and composite slabs is regulated by DIN 18800-5:2007 [DIN 18800-5 2007]. no standard for the design of steel fibre reinforced concrete exist. In composite building construction the application of steel sheets as long as possible and therewith the utilization of continuously working composite floor slabs has been proved to be an outstanding productive construction method [Bode 1998]. in the course of this year the decision of its transfer to the approval procedure is planned. According to [DIN 18800-5 2007] the concrete topping has always to be proved with a nominal reinforcement of 0. This document corresponds to the regular concrete standard [DIN 1045-1 2001] and supplements it with the additional regulations for steel fibre reinforced concrete.
Solely. the substitution of the constructive reinforcement is the main focus. Solely the manipulation of the post fracture behaviour and as a result the improvement of the ductility stands to the fore. this demand is not possible with fibre volumes that are common in practice. a firm condition of equilibrium has to be reached after cracking of the cross section. For members the design of which is in accordance with [DBV 2001] or [DAfStb 2005]. because the fibres are effective close to surface as well Tying of cracks and thereby transfer of forces across the cracks The vision of some planners that steel fibre reinforced concrete will substitute the normal concrete totally has to be invalidated. the merrier is the load bearing behaviour after cracking. because the possibility of a redistribution of the stress resultants after cracking is given. It becomes apparent that pure steel fibre reinforced concrete can substitute the conventional reinforcement only in statically indeterminated systems or in statically determinated systems with a permanent normal compressive force as a result of an extraneous cause. Primary. because their volume ratio constitutes only a small part of the entire volume. the control and the acceptance procedure of the reinforcement Omission of the reinforcement detailing drawings Avoiding of failures by reinforcement as far as possible Improvement of the crack behaviour and so a significant lower scatter of the tensile strength Enhancement of the impact strength (up to 25 times) and of the fatigue strength Less spalling at the borders and corners. The more fibres are admixed. A large number of tests have shown that a complete substitution of the structurally required reinforcement is impossible. the behaviour after crushing shows an appreciable changing. In the uncracked state the fibres do not effect a significant modification of the resistance capacity. . floor slabs and cellar walls represent the main field of the application. The ductile behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete affected by a multiple crack pattern allows a large rotation and thus the precondition of redistribution. The use of steel fibre reinforced concrete as a load bearing element call for considerations concerning a raised security level. the actual load can be increased after cracking. the ductility is progressing. It will never be likely to displace the normal concrete. If the fibre ratio is conforming to the critical fibre volume Vcrit. the behaviour depends on the fibre ratio. In statically determinated systems. the full load can be carried by the cracked cross section. The addition of steel fibres effects only a marginal enhancement of compression strength. The addition of fibres with volume ratios that are common in practice does not increase the resistance capacity significantly. In tension. Is the volume higher than the critical volume. The investigated composite slab systems possess an adequate redundancy. steel fibre reinforced concrete can be integrated between the reinforced concrete and the unreinforced one.g. In case of bad workmanship (e. Significant advantages by the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete are: Considerable simplification of the construction process Omission of the installation. Within the research project on steel fibre reinforced continuous composite floors. undersized fibre content – or worst case – no fibre content over the intermediate support) a series of simply supported beams emerges and the steel sheeting keeps the slab in position. With increasing fibre ratio.Here. the application of steel fibre reinforced concrete as a load bearing element is possible. Quite the contrary.
According to [DIN 18800-5 2007] the moment resistance of a continuous composite slab at the support can be analysed with a perfect plastic stress distribution. Particularly in case of a poor reinforcement ratio of the hogging area – what is common in case of plain steel fibre reinforced concrete – or in case of a larger sheet thickness. which has a more or less comb-shaped form as a result of the geometry of sheeting. material tests on steel fibre reinforced concrete beams according to [DBV 2001] were carried out and evaluated. the resistance of the steel sheet section may not be taken into account. which therefore is related with a small compressive force only. too. The plastic neutral axis is located very deep in the sheeting. the forces that have to be carried over the composite joint are small. reinforcement drawings and the reinforcement acceptance procedure can be omitted Enormous time saving in building process Due to its low weight the sheets can be placed by hand without using any crane Lower stock requirements needed Less deflection due to the continuous bending effect will occur For the complete system savings in the range of 10 percent of the total costs are predicted [Gossla and Pepin 2004] In the area of negative bending moments. too. Correspondingly. if it runs continuously over the intermediate support. The steel sheet section may account for the structural analysis. too [Stark and Brekelmans 1996].STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE SLABS Based on researches described in [Sauerborn 1995]. the depth of the compression zone as a result of the humble reinforcement ratio is very small. This proposed distribution was modified for the analysis of steel fibre reinforced composite slabs. This effect was found by Stark and Brekelmans during their researches. which are accounted for the evaluation of the plastic moment resistance. Aim of the research project is the evaluation of design recommendations for steel fibre reinforced composite slabs. In the area of negative bending. The upper face of the slab is tensioned and at the bottom side the compression zone is located. the structural analysis is carried out in analogy to a normal concrete slab. [Droese and Riese 1996] and [Riese 2006] steel fibre reinforced continuous composite slabs are investigated at Kaiserslautern University of Technology. Its outstanding beneficial characteristics are: Profile sheeting o acts as stay-in-place formwork o constitutes bottom reinforcement for the slab o offers an immediate working platform and protects workers below o supports loads during construction Labour intensive steel fixing. In case of a joint or an overlapping. The location of the plastic neutral axis has to be estimated by an iterative procedure as long as the equilibrium condition (1) is fulfilled. the load bearing capacity of the sheet is respectable. The tensile resistance of the steel fibre reinforced concrete is considered by a stress block. For the determination of the tensile properties. −(Nc + Npc ) + Npt + NF = 0 Then the full plastic moment resistance is calculated according to equation (2). This innovative slab system comprises an enormous potential for savings. Figure 1 displays the miscellaneous bearing ratios. (1) . Already sheets with a very bad composite behaviour achieve a full dowelling ratio at the support. No conventional steel reinforcement (bars or mesh) have been built in: the hogging bending moment is only carried by the steel fibre reinforced concrete.
Therefore. the possible rotation at the middle support of a two-span composite slab was investigated.ct. two different test series were carried out.calc. Here.6 -24.4 -20. specimen S1_SHR_51_V1 S1_SHR_51_V2 S1_HODY_V1 S1_HODY_V2 S1_SHR_51_V3 S2_SHR_51_V1 S2_SHR_51_V2 S2_HODY_V1 S2_HODY_V2 max MTest [kNm/m] -23.5 -19. only the area of the hogging moment was simulated and tested. According to their geometry they can be separated into two main categories: the re-entrant .4 -23. [kNm/m] -23.7 Mpl. In the first tests series.0 -19.II zF zpc zpt fyp (2) h + Npc fyp zpl Npt kcαcc fc + zc NF Mpl Nc Fig. several different types of steel sheeting exist for the construction purposes.5 -20.9 -19.9 -25. In the meantime.8 -26. the bearing capacity of the sheet was taking into account. For all tests of the first two series.Mpl = Npt ⋅ zpt + NF ⋅ zF − Npc ⋅ zpc − Nc ⋅ zc αsys αct feq.8 Table 1 – hogging moment – test results and previously calculated values TEST PROGRAM Test series and specimen Until now.5 -23. 1 – determination of the full plastic moment resistance for negative bending with: Nc: Npc: Npt: NF: αci: αsys: kc: compression force in the steel fibre reinforced concrete compression force in the sheeting tensile force in the sheeting tensile force in the steel fibre reinforced concrete factor for long-term behaviour scaling factor factor for the use of a stress block Table 1 displays both.4 -20.8 -19. two different cross sections were used (see Figure 2).3 -21. The calculated values correspond relatively well with the reached test values.6 -21. In the second test series. the measured maximum hogging moment values and the previously calculated plastic moments.4 -17. four full scale tests on continuous composite slabs were carried out.3 -22.
All specimens were fully supported during casting. the load was linearly set up by hydraulic jacks. the width 70 centimetres and the slab depth 16 centimetres (sections see Figure 2). Both lateral edges of the sheeting were enclosed with concrete flanges in order to avoid a separating of the sheeting and the concrete topping. In the middle of the span. It was increased in small load steps up to the failure load. as typical representative for the trapezoidal geometry the HODY sheet was built in (see Figure 2 right). the width 70 centimetres and the slab depth 16 centimetres (sections see Figure 2). right: HODY sheet) A sufficient composite action between the sheet and the concrete topping has to be guaranteed. The displacements and the end-slip were recorded with displacement traducers.00 meters. Fig. In the third points of the span. the load was linearly set up by an hydraulic jack. Both spans of the slab were 3. The strain at the surface of the concrete slab was recorded with strain-measuring points. Table 2 gives an overview over the specimen and dimensions of the first and second test series. specimen S1_SHR_51_V1 S1_SHR_51_V2 S1_HODY_V1 S1_HODY_V2 S1_SHR_51_V3 S2_SHR_51_V1 S2_SHR_51_V2 S2_HODY_V1 S2_HODY_V2 system length L [mm] 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 6000 6000 6000 6000 width [mm] 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 height [mm] 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 g P L single-span P/2 P/2 P/2 P/2 g two-span L Table 2 – test specimen of series #1 and #2 Series #1 The test setup of series #1 is shown in Figure 3. In the middle and in the quarters of the span. 2 – cross sections of the test specimens (left: HOLORIB SHR51 sheet. The span of the slab was 2. Series #2 In a second test series. four tests on continuous composite slabs were carried out. As a typical representative for the re-entrant geometry the SUPER HOLORIB SHR 51 sheet was used (see. For testing sheets of both categories were used. This is the most unfavourable case for the composite joint. . Further information and details about series #1 can be gleaned from [Ackermann and Schnell 2007]. the full participation on the load bearing of the sheeting can be guaranteed over the entire width.00 meters. strain gauges were applied to the top and the bottom of the steel sheeting. The tests were carried out with displacement control so that as much information as possible could be recorded on the support behaviour. It was increased by imposing small load steps up to the failure load. Figure 2 left). The setup is shown in Figure 4. So.(dovetail) profiles with or without indentations and the trapezoidal profiles with web indentations or embossments. because it has to cope with the dead loads as well. The loads at the crossheads were measured with load cells.
series #2 .series #1 Fig. 4 – test setup . 3 – test setup .Fig.
27 1.5 2 2.30 1.44 2.03 1. At the middle support and at the load introduction points.13 1.72 57. The main focus of these optimisations was to reduce the fibre volume.35 age [d] 42 66 42 64 45 34 36 32 35 Table 3 – SFRC material properties series #1 and #2 . the crossheads and the load introduction construction were arranged.72 63. different material tests were accomplished before starting the slab tests.I [N/mm²] 2. the flexural strength and . the test was started.cyl [N/mm²] 61. Then.the equivalent tensile strength were determined (see Table 3).ctm.The loads at the crossheads were measured with load cells.49 43. %). 7 6 5 stress [MPa] 4 3 2 1 mean values 100 kg/m³ TABIX 0 0 0. In a further step. the reactions were recorded with two load cells. In series #1. Its tensile strength averages 1450 MPa. concrete with a fibre content of 100 kg per cubic meter (or 1.ctm.59 1. Although the fibre ratio was scaled down. a new high strength fibre of ARCELOR (type: HE+) was used.71 61.49 2. strain gauges were applied to the top and the bottom of the steel sheeting. different steel fibre reinforced concrete mixtures were used.5 1 1.44 1.01 1.22 2. The fibre content was reduced to 60 kg per cubic meter (or 0.3 mm was employed. especially in the range of higher displacements (see Figure 5).II [N/mm²] 1.ctm. The slab was built up as a simple span slab.59 1. The corrugated ARCELOR-TABIX fibre with a length of 50 mm and a diameter of 1.34 2.69 2. The strain at the surface and on the side of the concrete slab was recorded with strain-measuring points.30 1. the middle support was lifted up by spindles until the hogging moment has a value of a hogging moment produced of dead load and superstructural parts.01 41.97 41.63 1.25‰ [N/mm²] 1.41 1.60 46.46 2. The evaluation of the SFRC-properties was carried out according to SFRC-bulletin [DBV 2001].61 1. the concrete mixture should be optimised.70 feq.27 Vol.43 1.0/60 S2_HODY_V1 S2_HODY_V2 fcm. the behaviour of this optimised mixture shows a better load carrying capacity.76 Vol. In order to achieve a predefined shear introduction length.27 2.01 1. Under the middle support.II. %) was mixed.49 2.5 3 3. In a first step.5 mean values 60 kg/m³ HE+ displacement [mm] Fig. The compressive strength.56 59.3/50 S1_HODY_V1 S1_HODY_V2 S1_SHR_51_V3 S2_SHR_51_V1 60 kg/m³ S2_SHR_51_V2 HE+ 1. For an additional test specimen of series #1. Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) For the first two series. In order to get the material properties of the concrete.81 2.63 1. Afterwards. 5 – mean values of the SFRC material tests series #1 and #2 specimen fibre content S1_SHR_51_V1 S1_SHR_51_V2 100 kg/m³ TABIX 1. while keeping up the good concrete properties of the 100 kg/m³ mixture. The straight fibre with hooked ends has a length of 60 mm and a diameter of 1 mm.15 feq. crack inductors were built in under the outmost load introduction points. the modulus of elasticity.99 Ecm [N/mm²] 34790 33950 34790 36190 38619 35197 30702 31207 29678 feq.outcoming from this . The displacements and the end-slip were recorded with displacement traducers.
ctm. deformation range II mean value of equivalent tensile strength. the re-entrant HOLORIB profile has a better load bearing behaviour as the trapezoidal HODY sheet. The hogging moment could be kept approximately constant over a large range of rotation (see Figure 6). The value of the plastic moment resistance in the span depends on the composite behaviour of the sheeting. The last specimen of series #1 (S1_SHR51_V3) having been provided with the optimised concrete mixture shows as good results as the other ones although the fibre ratio was reduced to 60 kg per cubic meter. deformation range II. the good rotation behaviour of series #1 could be confirmed. evaluation at 25 ‰ TEST RESULTS The first series was carried out in order to determine the possible rotation of steel fibre reinforced composite slabs in the regions of negative bending.with: fcm.ctm. which is a prerequisite for a moment-redistribution. No end-slip was measured during the tests of series #1 run. After cracking. In the tests a sufficient rotation capacity was accomplished. .I: feq. 30 moment incl. too. deformation range I mean value of equivalent tensile strength. full shear connection between steel sheeting and concrete could be realised.ctm. whereas the sagging moments are increased while raising the load. Contrary to series #1. 6 – Moment-rotation diagram of series #1 Following the good results with the optimised concrete mixture one has decided to use this mixture for the test on continuous slabs (series #2). Concerning to its better dowelling ratio. Figure 7 displays the load bearing behaviour of the steel fibre reinforced continuous slab system exemplarily for the test S2_SHR51_V2. all continuous slabs of series #2 show end-slip failure. The load could be increased until the tensile strength of the concrete is reached (range c).II: feq. The higher is the dowelling ratio of the sheet the higher is the plastic moment resistance. The hogging moments are redistributed to the span till the sagging plastic moment resistance (Mpl+) is reached (range e).25‰: mean value of cylindrical compressive strength mean value of modulus of elasticity mean value of equivalent tensile strength. too. a plastic hinge (Mpl-) with good rotation ability is formed at the middle support (range d). The hogging and sagging moments of series #2 tests are displayed in Figure 8. self weigth [kNm/m] 25 20 15 10 5 0 S1_SHR_51_V1 S1_SHR_51_V2 S1_HODY_V1 S1_HODY_V2 S1_SHR_51_V3 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 rotation [mrad] Fig.cyl: Ecm: feq. In series #2.II. Then the system bearing capacity is exhausted. The hogging moment could be kept approximately constant up to the failure of the slab.
5 3 2.5 4 crack width [mm] 3. 8 – hogging and sagging moments – series #2 5 4.100 Mpl 80 - 60 d redistribution hogging / sagging moments [kNm] 40 20 0 0 -20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 redistribution -40 -60 c Mpl + -80 Mpl - Mpl + e -100 Loadstep hogging moment elastic analysis sagging moment elastic analysis hogging moment test sagging moment test Fig.5 1 0.5 2 1. 9 – crack widths – exemplarily for test S2_SHR_51_V2 .5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 distributed load [kN/m²] crack 1 crack 2 crack 3 crack 4 Fig. 7 – load bearing behaviour – exemplarily for test S2_SHR_51_V2 hogging and sagging moments – S2_SHR51 series 90 hogging and sagging moments – S2_HODY series 50 hogging / sagging moment [kNm/m] hogging / sagging moment [kNm/m] 70 50 30 10 -10 -30 -50 5 15 25 35 45 55 distributed load [kN/m²] S2_SHR_51_V1 span S2_SHR_51_V1 support S2_SHR_51_V2 span S2_SHR_51_V2 support 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 5 10 15 20 25 30 distributed load [kN/m²] S2_HODY_V1 span S2_HODY_V1 support S2_HODY_V2 span S2_HODY_V2 support Fig.
Figure 9 shows the crack widths subject to the distributed load. the efficiency of the steel fibre reinforced slab system becomes already apparent. The results of these researches are considered in order to draw conclusions concerning the fibre distribution in the area of negative bending. In the serviceability limit state range no cracks could be discovered yet. Pertaining to the ability of moment redistribution. Fig. The crack widths do not rise suddenly during the load increase. . Simultaneously. The tests on continuous composite slabs indicate that large moment redistributions are possible. After the first plastic hinge arises at the middle support. Further information can be gathered from [Schnell and Ackermann 2008]. In both test series. Furthermore. steel fibre reinforced continuous composite slabs constitute an efficient and economical slab system. finite element parametric studies are planned. the load could be increased further on until the system bearing resistance is reached as soon as the second plastic hinge emerges in the span. In order to determine the fibre distribution and orientation researches using the computer tomography for analysing fibre structures are in progress.The whole test series #2 as well as the respective sheeting among each other show a good correlation. too. finite element studies are in progress. A further test series on steel fibre reinforced composite slabs with various slab depths is in progress at this time. Figure 10 displays the test setup of series #2. The test results demonstrate that – due to the favourable crack-distribution ability of the steel fibre reinforced concrete – the slabs achieve a good rotation capacity in the hogging area. The model is calibrated according to the material tests on beams and to the tests that have already been carried out. a test series on continuous slabs using steel sheeting with a lower depth (only 16 millimetres) is provided. After cracking. Here the influence on the load bearing behaviour of slabs with various thicknesses should be determined. 10 – Test setup – series #2 specimen CONCLUSIONS Two different test series on composite slabs consisting of steel fibre reinforced concrete topping and steel sheeting were carried out. the moment could be kept approximately constant over a large range of rotation. After this.
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