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Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing

Non-Destructive Testing

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Department VIII

Non-Destructive Testing
Areas of Competence: Ensuring a safe and intended condition of products, industrial plants and systems by Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), monitoring and materials characterisation; development and combination of methods for an improved reliability of testing results.

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Measurement and Testing Technology Sensors

Our activities Non-destructive testing with optical methods, interdisciplinary scientific and technological tasks in the fields of measurement and sensor technology for testing as well as reliability assessment, validation, testing, calibration of sensors and measurement and testing systems are the main competences. Non-destructive testing, deformation analysis and characterisation of materials by optical measurement and testing methods Materials- and components-integrated fibre-optical and electrical sensor technology Structural health monitoring and experimental stress analysis by fibre-optical, optical and electrical sensor technologies Development and use of specific sensors and measuring systems for monitoring of materials, structures, plants and civil engineering constructions with high risk potential or special safety requirements Certification of optical reference materials by means of reference measuring devices Reliability assessment, validation, testing and calibration of sensors, measurement and testing systems, especially of ultra high force testing machines and force measuring systems until 36 MN as an accredited testing laboratory

for determination of the total spectral radiance factor of fluorescent reflective materials (reference method). Electrical and fibre-optical multi-channel measuring systems with time synchronized video recording or experimental stress analysis, structural health monitoring and long time monitoring of safety purpose components and structures Fibre-optical sensors (based on Fabry-Prot interferometer, fibre Bragg grating, high resolution optical time domain reflectometry, Brillouin scattering) for physical and selected chemical quantities Force reference standard for compression and tension forces up to 5 MN (uncertainty 5 10-4); for compression forces up to 36 MN Split-Hopkinson bar for characterisation of dynamical behavior of sensors and materials (achievable strain rate up to 104 s-1).

Our activities The focus of this division is to develop, improve, validate and promote non-destructive testing methods in civil engineering and environmental protection. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, existing methods from different areas of materials testing are modified to become applicable to civil structures or environmental tasks, and new methods are developed. The primary interest is the on-site applicability. For this purpose selected techniques are automatised and combined. New data processing and visualisation procedures are tested. Practical measurements on concrete and post-tensioned structures such as bridges, roads, railways, industrial and residential buildings, masonry walls, historical buildings, earthworks, foundations etc. are carried out using modern and high performance equipment. The most important areas of work and methods used for building diagnosis are: Radar Ultrasound echo Impact-echo Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Active IR-thermography and IR scanning Moisture measurement using microwaves Spectral electrical resistivity measurements (SIP) Pile testing (integrity testing, parallel seismics) Endoscopy, building survey and documentation

Monitoring of the rotor blades of wind turbines by bre Bragg grating sensors. Partial image on the right: sensor signals after 107 load cycles

VIII.2
Test equipment and analysis methods

Non-Destructive Damage Assessment and Environmental Measurements Methods

Test equipment and analysis methods

Optical measuring equipment for deformation measurements at large components and structures (e.g. short-distance photogrammetry) as well as at microstructured components (e. g. digital speckle interferometry, shearography, moir-methods, stereo image correlation, white-light interferometry) for investigation of optical properties of materials and surfaces

VIII
Head checking detected on the gauge corners of rails (a) by magnetic particle inspection and (b) by eddy current inspection

Department VIII

b Acoustic and Electrical Methods

VIII.3
Radiology

Our activities The Division develops, applies and validates nondestructive techniques. It contributes to reliability of materials and components as well as to safe operation of industrial plants. It supports crime prevention and residual waste removal. The main activities are: Development of stationary and mobile state-of the-art radiographic techniques by X- and Gamma-rays, electrons and neutrons 3D measurement techniques and reconstruction algorithms for specific radiological problems Modelling and simulation of NDT techniques including reliability assessment Development of validation schemes for NDT techniques, humanitarian demining and explosive ordnance disposal Non-destructive characterisation of light weight materials by X-ray texture and phase topography Application of refraction topography and refraction computed tomography for micro structure evaluation and damage analysis Development of criteria and reference methods for image reproduction in NDT and information technology Digital signal processing for increased reliability in modern NDT X-ray and Gamma-ray sources (5 kV to 12 MeV) Digital radiology equipment including imaging plate system, flat panel detector, line camera, manipulation systems for mechanised radiography X-ray fine structure equipment for crystallographic scanning topography BAMline Synchrotron test station (at BESSY) for high resolution materials characterisation Spatially resolved ESR unit NDT image processing system and Linux-cluster for simulation purposes High resolution X-ray film digitiser Colorimetric analyser, high resolution film exposure system and standardised printer

Our activities The main role of this division is the development, validation, and application of advanced NDT techniques for the early detection of defects, applying in particular acoustical and electrical methods. Key aspects of activities are: Non-destructive testing of pressurised components using ultrasound and eddy current techniques taking into consideration complex material or geometrical problems. Development and implementation of standard methods for acoustical and electrical sensors The provision of ultrasonic and eddy-current probes for application under extreme conditions (high temperature, radiation, moisture) Sensor technology for automatic NDT scanning techniques (array technique) Fundamental research required for the standardisation of ultrasound and eddy current instruments Provision and evaluation of blocks or defects for reference with regard to acoustical and eddy current techniques. Safety in transport e.g. railway systems (wheel and rail) Facilities for the automatic testing and measurement with ultrasound and eddy currents Measurement arrangements for the characterisation of ultrasonic probes (sound field, electrical and acoustical properties) Measurement assembly for the characterisation of eddy current probes

VIII.4

Test equipment and analysis methods

Test equipment and analysis methods

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing

Unter den Eichen 87 Germany 12205 Berlin phone: +49 30 8104-0 fax: +49 30 8112029 email: info@bam.de internet: www.bam.de

Our Mission Safety in technology and chemistry


Pursuing our mission as a Federal Institute for materials technology and chemical engineering, we ensure ongoing safety in technology and chemistry through research and development testing, analysis, approval and certification consultation, information and advice within our objective of promoting German industrial development.

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Department VIII

Department VIII Dr.-Ing. H. Heidt phone: +49 30 8104-1800 fax: +49 30 8104-1807 email: heinrich.heidt@bam.de Division VIII.1 Measurement and Testing Technology, Sensors Dr.-Ing. W. Daum phone: +49 30 8104-1910 fax: +49 30 8104-1917 email: werner.daum@bam.de Division VIII.2 Non-Destructive Damage Assessment and Environmental Measurement Methods Dr. rer. nat. H. Wiggenhauser phone: +49 30 8104-1440 fax: +49 30 8104-1447 email: herbert.wiggenhauser@bam.de Division VIII.3 Radiological Methods Dr. rer. nat. U. Ewert phone: +49 30 8104-1830 fax: +49 30 8104-1837 email: uwe.ewert@bam.de Division VIII.4 Acoustical and Electrical Methods Dr. rer. nat. M. Kreutzbruck phone: +49 30 8104-1840 fax: +49 30 8104-1845 email: marc.kreutzbruck@bam.de

Our Structure Department I


Analytical Chemistry, Reference materials Department II Chemical Safety Engineering Department III Containment Systems for Dangerous Doods Department IV Materials and Environment Department V Materials Engineering Department VI Materials Protection and Surface Technologies Department VII Safety of Structures Department VIII Non-Destructive Testing Department S Accreditation, Quality in Testing

Our Status BAM is a scientific and technical senior Federal


Institution under the authority of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. It is the successor of Staatliches Materialprfungsamt (Public Materials Testing Office) founded in 1871 and of ChemischTechnische Reichsanstalt (Chemical Technical State Institute) set up in 1920.

Cover picture

Detailed non-destructive examination and modelling of internal defects, material properties and structure

Design: L. Mittenzwei, Bindow Das Druckhaus May 2009