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in using the resources : electronic and nonelectronic equipment • Concrete and virtual aids for teaching and learning Types of Printed Materials • Syllabi; Curriculum • Text books; Guide books; Workbooks • Revision books; Reference books • Resource books or catalogues (Where and how to obtain resources and or how to create resources or has ready made resources) Advantages of using Printed Materials • Brainstorming: • Advantages of using different types of printed materials in teaching and learning mathematics. • Cheap, permanent, illustrates from concrete to abstract, easy to refer, can be multiplied easily (photocopied); availability, variety. use printed materials in teaching and learning • Set Induction • Developmental stages • Closure • Homework • Class work • Notes: reference materials • Display: charts Characteristics of materials in teaching and learning • Meets curricular and instructional needs • Is cost effective • Cosmetically and technically adequate • Cognitively challenging • Attractive • Motivates students to learn • Encourages active participation Benefits • Accommodates student’s differences (needs and abilities) • Resulting in realisation of student’s capabilities and potentials
Students take responsibility for managing and directing their own learning Selection and Evaluation Guideline • Cosmetic adequacy • Instructional adequacy • Technical adequacy • Curriculum adequacy • Cost effectiveness Mathematical manipulative A mathematical manipulative is defined as any material or defined as any material or object from the real world that object from the real world that children move around to show a children move around to show a mathematics concept. They are concrete, hands-on models that appeal to the models that appeal to the senses and can be touched by senses and can be touched by students. Students learn best when they Students learn best when they are active participants in the learning process. Advantages use teaching aids Help students learn to relate real Help students learn to relate real world situations to mathematics world situations to mathematics symbolism. Work together cooperatively in Work together cooperatively in solving problems. Discuss mathematical ideas and Discuss mathematical ideas and concepts, verbalize their concepts, verbalize their mathematics thinking Solve problems without teacher Solve problems without teacher direction, and learn that there are directions, and learn that there are many different ways to solve many different ways to solve problems. Easy way to introduce and Easy way to introduce and visualize a concept. • GEOBOARD A geoboard is a mathematical manipulative often used to explore basic concepts in plane geometry such as perimeter, area or the characteristics of triangles and other polygons. Consisting of a physical board with a certain number of nails half driven in, in a symmetrical square five-by-five array, students are encouraged to place rubber bands around the pegs to model various geometric concepts or to solve other mathematical puzzles. Two-dimensional representations of
the geoboard may be applied to ordinary paper using rubber stamps or special "geoboard paper" with diagrams of geoboards may be used to help capture a student's explanations of the concept they have discovered or illustrated on the geoboard. Geoboards were invented and popularized by Egyptian mathematician Caleb Gattegno in the 1950s. The geoboard is a device used in elementary schools to aid in the teaching of basic geometric concepts. Geoboards may be purchased commercially from the usual supply houses or they may be constructed out of common household materials using common tools. A simple geoboard can be made from a square piece of wood and 25 finishing nails. A grid of 5 vertical lines and 5 horizontal lines evenly spaced are drawn on the square piece of wood. Nails are placed at the intersections of the lines so that they extend about one centimeter. Figures are made on the geoboard by stretching rubber bands from one nail to another until the desired shape is formed. Segments can be shown by connecting only two nails. The first task to perform is to determine how many different segments may be constructed on the geoboard. Base Blocks This manipulative is intended to provide maximum flexibility for the teacher in teaching place-naming in different bases and different numbers of decimal places. As with the other Base Block manipulatives (Base Block Addition, Base Block Subtraction, and Base Block Decimals), the user can change the default setting of base 10 (to any of the bases 2, 3, 4, 5, or back to 10). Base blocks representations can be very helpful in developing mental images of numbers, place value, and operations. Have your students use the base 10 workspace to represent a variety of numbers. Show a variety of base 10 representations and ask students to write the associated numeral. Base blocks are also useful in illustrating grouping rules. Ask students to describe the rule that determines place value. For example, when you have 12 units in the blocks column, you must make a group of ten and drag it into the 10's column. The associated rule might be described as "You can only have 9 things in a column. When you add a 10th thing, you need to make a trade up." CUISENAIRE RODS
Cuisenaire rods are a versatile mathematical manipulative used in elementary school as well as other levels of learning and even with adults. They are used to teach a wide variety of mathematical topics such as the basic four operations, fractions , area, volume, square roots, solving simple equations, systems of equations, and even quadratic equations. Though primarily used for mathematics, they have also become popular in language-teaching classrooms, particularly The Silent Way,. They can be used to teach items such as prepositions of place, sentence and word stress. The rods (réglettes in the original French) are named after their inventor, Georges Cuisenaire (1891-1976), a Belgian primary school teacher, who published a book on their use in 1952 called Les nombres en couleurs. The use of rods for both mathematics and language teaching was developed and popularised by Caleb Gattegno in many countries around the world. In the system, there are 10 rods measuring 1 cm to 10 cm. Rods of equal length are assigned the same colour. Most Cuisenaire rods follow this system: White rod = 1 cm. Red rod = 2 cm. Light green rod = 3 cm. Lavender rod = 4 cm. Yellow rod = 5 cm. Dark green rod = 6 cm. Black rod = 7 cm. Brown rod = 8 cm. Blue rod = 9 cm. Orange rod = 10 cm. WEIGHTING SCALE A weighing scale (usually just “scales" in common usage; except in Australian English where "scales" is more common) is a measuring instrument for measuring the weight or mass of an object. They use one of two techniques. A spring scale measures weight by the distance a spring deflects under its load. A balance compares the unknown weight to a standard weight using a horizontal lever. Weighing scales are used in many industrial and commercial applications, and products from feathers to loaded tractor-trailers are sold by weight. Specialized
medical scales and bathroom scales are used to measure the body weight of human beings. BALANCE The balance (also balance scale, beam balance and laboratory balance) was the first mass measuring instrument invented. In its traditional form, it consists of a pivoted horizontal lever of equal length arms, called the beam, with a weighing pan, also called scale (hence the term "scales") scale pan, or bason (obsolete ) suspended from each arm. The unknown mass is placed in one pan, and standard masses are added to the other pan until the beam is as close to equilibrium as possible. In precision balances, a slider weight is moved along a graduated scale. The slider position gives a fine correction to the weight value. Although a balance technically compares weights, not masses, the weight of an object is proportional to its mass, and the standard weights used with balances are usually labeled in mass units. Balances are used for precision mass measurement, because unlike spring scales their accuracy is not affected by differences in the local gravity, which can vary by almost 0.5% at different locations on Earth. A change in the strength of the gravitational field caused by moving the balance will not change the measured mass, because the moments of force on either side of the balance beam are affected equally. ANALITICAL BALANCE An analytical balance is an instrument that's used to measure mass to a very high degree of precision. The weighing pan(s) of a high precision (.01 mg or better) analytical balance are inside a transparent enclosure with doors so dust does not collect and so any air currents in the room do not affect the delicate balance. The use of a vented balance safety enclosure that has uniquely designed acrylic airfoils allows a smooth turbulence-free airflow that prevents balance fluctuation and the weighing of mass down to 1μg without fluctuations or loss of product. Also, the sample must be at room temperature to prevent natural convection from forming air currents inside the enclosure, affecting the weighing. Analytical precision is achieved by maintaining a constant load on the balance beam, by subtracting mass on the same side of the beam that the sample is added. The final balance is achieved by using a small spring force rather than subtracting fixed weights. SPRING SCALE
In a typical spring scale, the spring stretches (as in a hanging scale in the produce department of a grocery store) or compresses (as in a simple bathroom scale) in proportion to how hard the Earth pulls down on the object. Every spring has a proportionality constant that relates how hard you pull it to how far it stretches. Some weighing scales such as a Jolly balance (named after Philipp von Jolly who invented the balance about 1874) use a spring with a known spring constant (see Hooke's law) and measure the displacement of the spring by any variety of mechanisms to produce an estimate of the gravitational force applied by the object, which can be simply hung from the spring or set on a pivot and bearing platform. Rack and pinion mechanisms are often used to convert the linear spring motion to a dial reading. ELECTRONIC VERSION SPRING SCALE In electronic versions of spring scales, the deflection of a beam supporting the unknown weight is measured using a strain gauge, which is a length-sensitive electrical resistance. The capacity of such devices is only limited by the resistance of the beam to deflection. The results from several supporting locations may be added electronically, so this technique is suitable for determining the weight of very heavy objects, such as trucks and rail cars, and is used in a modern weigh bridge. WHY USE CALCULATORS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS? • Inherent interest/motivation • Intensive use/ versatile nature • Development of concept, skills and processes • Complementary learning aid • Suitable for all achievement levels • Individual exploration For year two: Place value concept can be reinforced through this instruction: • Oral name • Concrete representation • Place value components • Comparing and sequencing ASK STUDENTS TO SHOW ON THEIR CALCULATOR ABACUS • can be used to perform addition, subtraction, division and multiplication
The abacus is prepared for use by placing it flat on a table or one's lap and pushing all the beads on both the upper and lower decks away from the beam. The beads are manipulated with either the index finger or the thumb of one hand. • The right-most column is the ones column; the next adjacent to the left is the tens column; the next adjacent to the left is the hundreds column, and so on. • Floating point calculations are performed by designating a space between 2 columns as the decimal-point and all the rows to the right of that space represent fractional portions while all the rows to the left represent whole number digits Bead Values • Each bead in the upper deck has a value of 5; each bead in the lower deck has a value of 1. • Beads are considered counted, when moved towards the beam that separates the two decks. Counting • After 5 beads are counted in the lower deck, the result is "carried" to the upper deck; after both beads in the upper deck are counted, the result (10) is then carried to the left-most adjacent column. Technique • Proper finger technique is paramount in achieving proficiency on the abacus. • With a Chinese abacus, the thumb and the index finger together with the middle finger are used to manipulate the beads. • Beads in lower deck are moved up with the thumb and down with the index finger. In certain calculations, the middle finger is used to move beads in the upper deck. COMPUTER Input Devices • Before a computer can process data – a need for a method to input data. • Device depends on the form the data takes: text, sound, artwork, etc. • Devices used to gather/collect information and enter data and instructions into a computer – can be manual or automatic. Example • Graphic tablets • Scanner • Microphone: to record sound. • MIDI: Musical Instrumental Digital Interface •
• Digital camera; Video digitiser. • Touch screen. Output Devices • When the computer has processed the data, there must be a means to produce output of the results. • The output can be displayed on the computer screen, a hardcopy on printed pages or an audio playback of music composed on the computer. Example • Dot matrix printers • Plotters- drawing • Speakers • LCD project • Output to robot arm Storage Technology • Magnetic: floppy disk or diskettes • Optical : CDs • Computer caches: like a memory bank to speed up accessing data. • Flash memory: Digital cameras – solid state storage device – no moving parts – everything is electronic instead of mechanical; pen drive. Storage Devices • A hardware device designed to store information. • 2 types: Primary and secondary storage devices. • Primary storage: Memory – RAM and ROM – directly accessible by computer’s processing unit (CPU). • Note: Cache- introduced to increase performance of computer – primary : L1 (faster), secondary L2 (slower) cache. Some L3. Graphing Calculators (GC) • Blend of calculator and computer technology • Keyboard resembles a calculator keyboard Each key – may have more than one function – combination with ‘alpha’ and ‘2nd’ key will produce different symbols or perform different functions. • Powered by batteries but has back-up batteries – hence values, data programs stored in its RAM are retained even if the GC is switched off. • Flash-ROM – to store applications software, etc. • Can be linked to other devices: Printer, TV, LCD, Computer, Data logger and its probes (CBL: Computer based laboratory) CBL
CBL and CBR (Computer based ranger) – data capture devices: enable easy collection of real data. • For whole classroom display of GC screen or data, the following out put devices may be used: OHP with OHP view-screen, LCD, TV, LCD via computer. Data Capturing Devices • Many data capturing devices. Example of some: Scanner, digital camera, video camera, data loggers, probes. • Digital cameras: designed for single images, like a conventional camera but stores them on a memory card/flash-ROM or diskette/ CD. • Scanners: devices to produce digital images of sourced objects, such as text, photographs, handwritten documents, etc. • Technology – as used in Fax machines. • Software available to enable typed text to be scanned and turned into meaningful text, rather than just graphic images – process called Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Display Devices • TV interfaces: connect computer or GC to a conventional TV • Projection equipment: • OHP: Using transparency or special OHP resources • Visualizer: Display 3-D objects – good for demonstrations to whole class. • LCD: used with a computer. • • Variety of media resources • A hypermedia (eg. Software) application can include more than one of the following media: text, audio, graphic image (still picture), animation and video clip. • However it is not necessary that an application may have all the five types of media. • The characteristics of hypermedia application offer teachers opportunities to enhance teaching and learning. • However, these opportunities may not necessary be taken up by the teachers. • Therefore teachers need to know how to identify the characteristics of the hypermedia applications, understand the advantages and limitations of such applications, and organise activities to optimise the advantages and address the limitations in order to enhance learning. Software
Helps teacher to organise and present lessons. But some can also support teaching and learning like the Mathematical tools. • 3 most common support tools: • Word Processing SW (includes equation editor / Maths Type) • Spreadsheet SW • Database SW Word Processing SW • Supports task or teaching and learning activities which were previously done by handwriting or typewriter • Offers more because processing document is prepared on the screen before being printed onto paper – so can correct errors, change appearance (font, spacing, etc), store and reuse or copy required sections, check spelling and grammar, etc. • Prepare materials: handouts, notes, flyers, newsletters, forms, reports, letters to parents or students, etc. • During T&L activities: Prepare report or type out discussion outcomes, record data, etc. Spreadsheet Software (e.g. excel, lotus) • To organise and manipulate data (especially numerical data) • Each row-column position is called a cell. • Cells can contain numerical values, words or character data and formula or calculating commands. • Time saving – calculations – faster than on calculator. Automatic calculation feature – easy to update products such as budgets, grades, etc. • Creates charts easily. • Answers “what if” questions – useful for grading. • Motivation: makes working with numbers more fun Use • Keep scores and grades of assessments • Analyse scores and grades • Keep attendance record • Budget • Demonstrations: example relationship between numbers and percentages. • Produce charts and graphs. • Support for problem solving: e.g. logical thinking, develop organizational skills. • Storing and analyzing data – descriptive statistical analyses (mean, median, etc.) (Today – ANOVA, etc.) . •
Databases (e.g. MS Access) • Store, organise and manipulate information. • Compare to a file cabinet. • Main purpose – to store information in a way that makes it easy to locate Use • Inventory and locating instructional resources. • Use information on students to plan instruction and enhance motivation (e.g. birthday search) and provide information on students, etc. • Send personalized letters: use mail merge- merge data base fields with letter created using a word processing document. • To store and retrieve data – during lessons (e.g. on statistics). Presentation Tools (e.g. Power Point) • Helps user create on-screen descriptions, demonstrations and summaries of information. • Usually used in conjunction with projection tools such as LCDs Graphic Tools • Tools to produce graphics (pictures, shapes, illustrations, etc) • Print graphic tools: e.g. Print Shop: All graphics – selected from menu – making it very easy to use. • Draw/paint Programs: Used to produce more complex graphics and can be imported into desktop publishing systems or presentation tools. • Clip Art Packages: Ready made pictures and graphic designs – in file or disk. • Video making software: Movie maker, Quicktime, etc. – enables users to create own movies and play them. • Video collections (and sound collections-support graphics with sound effects) – ready made video clips (or audio clips) that may be used. What is INTERNET ? • The Internet is also called the NET. • The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions and individuals. • Computers connected to the Internet work together to transfer data and information around the world using servers and clients. On the Internet, your computer is a client that can access data, information and services on a variety of servers. What is WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) ?
World Wide Web (www) or WEB consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents. • Each electronic document on the Web is called a WEB PAGE , which can contain text, graphics, audio and video. • A WEB SITE is a collection of related Web pages and associated items, such as documents and pictures, stored on a Web server. • A WEB SERVER is a computer that delivers requested web pages to your computer. What is WEB BROWSER ? • A web browser or browser is application software that allows users to access and view web pages. • To browse the web, you need a computer that is connected to the Internet and that has a web browser. • The more widely used web browsers for personal computers are Internet Explorer, Netscape, Mozilla, Firefox, Opera and Safari. • DOWNLOADING is the process of a computer receiving information, such as a web page from a server on the Internet. What is SEARCH ENGINE ? • A search engine is a program that finds web sites and web pages. Some of the widely used search engines are yahoo,google What is E-MAIL ? • E-mail or electronic mail is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network. • Today e-mail is a primary communications method for both personal and business use. • You use an e-mail program to create, send, receive, forward, store, print and delete e-mail messages. • Outlook and Outlook Express are two popular e-mail programs. What is ONLINE CHAT ? • A chat is a real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer. Real time means that you and the people with whom you are conversing are online at the same time. A chat room is a location on an Internet server that permits users to chat with each other. Anyone in the chat room can participate in the conversation, which usually is specific to a particular topic. What is BLOG ? • A blog, short for Weblog, is an informal web site consisting of timestamped articles or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order. •
Blog reflect the interests, opinions and personalities of the author, called the blogger, and sometimes site visitors. • Blogs at school provide a means for teachers to collaborate with other teachers and students. What is VIDEO CONFERENCING ? • A video conferencing is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the Internet to transmit audio and video data. • To participate in a video conference, you need a video conferencing software along with a microphone, speakers and a video camera attached to a computer. • An interactive whiteboard provides multiple users with an area on which they can write or draw. What is DISTANCE LEARNING ? • Distance learning is the delivery of education at one location while the learning takes place at other locations. • Distance learning courses provide time, distance and place advantages for students who live far from a college campus or work full time. These courses enable students to attend classes from anywhere in the world and at times that fit their schedules. Maths Lab: Objective To enable teachers and students to conveniently carry out practical mathematical activities effectively to nurture interest in mathematics. To provide a centre to enhance professional development of mathematics teachers in the school. To provide a centre to obtain and disseminate information on mathematics and mathematics education. Mathematics Equipments Maths Tools and Materials can be classifies as generic Mathematics equipments. Maths Teaching and Learning Aids are Mathematics equipments that can be classified according the main areas in the Malaysian mathematics curriculum. Generic Mathematics Equipments Equipments which serve general purposes not specific to a particular learning area may be classified as generic equipments. Examples: Scissors, Pencil, A4 paper, etc. (Ask students to brainstorm and make a list of generic equipments). Teaching and Learning Aids •
Can be classified according to the Main Areas in the current curriculum as follows: Numbers Measurements Shape and Space Statistics Note however, that some T&L aids can be used in more than one learning area T&L Aids The main areas can be further subdivided into topics as follows: Numbers: Whole numbers, decimals, fractions, money, percentages, etc. Measures: Time, Length, Mass, Volume of Liquid. Shape and Space: 2D and 3D shapes, Perimeter and area, etc. Statistics: Average and data handling, etc. ICT Hardware and Software Appropriate input, output and storage devices for ICT must be available in the lab. Suitable application software: Generic software: word processor, spreadsheet, database, desktop publishing, etc. Specific to mathematics: GSP, Derive, Cabrie, etc. Courseware: Tutorials, drill and practice, simulations, games and puzzles, Problem solving. Maths Laboratory Plan and Layout A store room is essential for storing large or rarely used equipments, materials and aids. Printed materials and equipments for daily use may be kept in the cupboards with glass slides to enable easy viewing. Trolleys for placing used equipments is important so that the equipments can either be reused or checked before storing. Different types of boards should be available in the maths room or software that can produce virtual boards for various uses should be available. The cupboards with glass slides may also be used for displaying 3-D objects and students work. Notice boards for information on mathematics, activities, lab usage time-table, etc. Log book to record the use of the lab and comments about the lab should be kept where it is easily accessible but safe. A first aid kit must be available in the lab.
Lab rules must be displayed outside and inside the lab. All students must have a copy of the lab rules. Printed Materials The maths lab must be equipped with all school textbooks and other region mathematics text books, syllabi, curriculum specification for all standards, reference books, magazines, journals and other printed materials on mathematics and mathematics education. Maths Corner A mathematics corner is a space for exhibiting items related to mathematics for the targeted group to view or try out hands-on. Hence a MC can be a notice board or table in a classroom or in the corridor of a school, a media house in the middle of campus, etc. which displays the item concerned. Today certain websites name themselves as maths corners and either provide information on mathematics or provide a site for discussion or for games and puzzles, etc. The MC we are referring to in this unit are the non-virtual corners. MC may be used as information centres or exhibition centres or handson and minds-on activity centres or a combination of all. Information Centre Current literature on mathematics content and pedagogy Current trends and issues in mathematics pedagogy or research findings. Impact of ICT on maths education Information on curricular and co-curricular activities. Information Centre Journals Books Magazines Catalogues Exhibition Centre Students work. Models: e.g. solids, mathematical equipments or instruments, etc. Charts: e.g. formulae, step by step guide of an algorithm, etc. Hands-on and Minds-on Activity Centre Manipulative items or materials that help to explore a maths concept. Activity sheets
Courseware for students to use during lessons after completing their work or during their free time. MATHS GARDEN An area created outdoors with learning stations. Each learning station has an activity or a set of activities with specific objectives. A normal garden provides for informal learning, but a maths garden provides for non-formal learning. It a form of non-formal learning because it is an organized educational activity outside the formal system intended to serve identifiable learning objectives. The MG provides an outdoor arena for students’ to explore and apply mathematics concepts and skills. The MG is aimed at drawing students’ interest to learn mathematics. Objectives To reduce boredom and fear of learning mathematics. To instil interest in students to learn mathematics To provide opportunity for exploring and applying mathematics outdoors. To show the use of mathematics in the real world. Constructing a MG Decide on an area in your school that is conducive to construct a MG. Decide on the number of learning stations. Decide on the activities at each learning station. Draw a plan. Prepare a budget and working paper. Obtain the budget and construct it. Operating the MG Prepare the activity sheets or booklet for each learning station activities. Ensure that the activities are in the form of a game, followed by discussion and conclusion. Decide how long each activity will take. Divide students into groups and give relevant instructions such as the length of time at each station, the activity sheets that have to be completed, etc. Plan their route through the station so that all stations have an appropriate number of students to carry out the activities conducively. Management of Resources Inventory and Records
In the Malaysian context there are 3 categories of resources: Assets: referring to items costing RM 500 or more. This category does not include furniture and fittings even if they cost more than RM500. Inventory (Inventori): All items costing less than RM500. However, all furniture and fittings come under this category, even if they cost more than RM500. Office Supplies’ Stock (Stok Bekalan Pejabat): All consumable items and it includes writing tools and other non-consumable items of very low value which are uneconomical to be itemised individually. Records All 3 categories have specific forms to record the acquisition, use, storage and disposal of items. The forms are: Assets:Daftar Harta Modal (KEW 312, 312A) Inventory: Daftar Inventori (KEW 313) Office Supplies’ Stock: Daftar Stok Bekalan Pejabat (KEW 314) Transfer: Daftar Pergerakan Harta Modal dan Inventori (KEW 315) Daftar Harta Model (KEW 312, 312A) The record is kept in a card labelled KEW 312 (see sample card) for all assets. The form has 2 parts: Part A: Used to record information of purchase, placement, inspection and disposal. Part B: Used for record of maintenance -service, repairs and buying of spare parts. This system of recording on cards was introduced to facilitate recording all purchases and maintenance in the spaces provided and to prepare and arrange all records in alphabetical order. With this system of recording all records can be kept uniformly and make it convenient to monitor and maintain. A copy of this form must be kept either in the store or office for each item other than one set kept by the section using the item. The form KEW 312A is a continuation of the form KEW 312 part B when part B in KEW 312 has no more space left. Daftar Inventori (KEW 313) The record is kept in a card labelled KEW 313 (see sample card) for all inventories. Receiving of inventories and location of inventories is recorded in these cards. Records are on cards to facilitate arranging and referring to the records.
The cards are arranged according to type of inventory and in alphabetical order. A copy of this form must be kept either in the store or office for each item other than one set kept by the section using the item. Daftar Stok Bekalan Pejabat (KEW 314) All receiving and distributing of items This record is kept in a book. Discussion: How to fill the form KEW 314? Please refer to notes and form in Bahasa Malaysia. Record has to be kept in Bahasa Malaysia. Daftar Pergerakan Harta Modal dan Inventori (KEW 315) The record of transferring of assets and inventory is kept in a book. Transferring here refers to shifting due to borrowing or temporary location. Discussion: How to fill the form KEW 315? Please refer to notes and form in Bahasa Malaysia. Record has to be kept in Bahasa Malaysia. Maths Resources All these forms of recording also apply to maths resources. Today in addition to these forms a computer record may be also kept. Discussion: Look at a list of maths resources and discuss the forms that you would record it in. Discuss the forms that have to be filled if the resource has been shifted to another location. Acquisition and Disposal Methods of Acquisition: By purchasing, from donation, by borrowing/sharing. Purchasing: Obtain quotations from suppliers or agents or from catalogues of companies. Select supplier and obtain approval from the school head. Fill up the local order form and send it to the supplier and keep a carbon copy in a file. Acknowledgement letter will be sent by the supplier. File it with the order form. Delivery note (DN) will be sent by the supplier stating the time and date the goods will be sent to the address as in the order form. The DN also states the items and the quantities to be delivered. File the DN with the earlier documents. Receipt of goods will be accompanied by 3 copies of the delivery note.
Check the DN against the order form and also check the goods – condition (good or damaged), if it follows specification as in the order form and DN, quantity (as in the order form and DN). Then and only then must you sign and stamp to endorse the DN. Send 2 copies to the supplier and keep one copy in the file. The supplier will then send an invoice with a copy of the DNs. Check the invoice against the quotations and give the invoice and DN to the office for payment to be made. Before purchasing from suppliers always find out if there is a central Government contract for supplying the item – the school office finance clerk can provide advice about it. Donation If any item is donated , make sure a letter stating that the item was donated by the agent (individual or company) must be kept in the file. Record of item must be kept in the appropriate forms. Borrowing/Sharing Resources may be borrowed from other departments (e.g. beakers and measuring cylinders from the science labs) or resource centres ( other schools, the teacher’s activity centres (PKG: Pusat Kegiatan Guru) or the state resource centre (BTPN: Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan Negeri)). You may keep your own record of borrowing and make sure it is returned on time but the forms described earlier will be kept by the owners of the items. Disposal of Resources Depending on the value of the asset or inventory, disposal requires following government procedures. When an item is beyond repair or outdated then approval according to government procedures must be followed to dispose of it. Like wise for items that are damaged by fire or lost. However, damaged by fire or lost items must have a polis report as prove that the damage or loss has been investigated and this report must accompany the documents for disposal of the item. Forms of Disposal Burying the item with written permission from appropriate agents (Environmental department, etc.) Selling it – only to contractors registered with the Finance Ministry and the money from the sales must be credited into the school account. If
the registered contactors are not interested then it can be sold to others. Donating it to other institutions, etc. also with written permission. Storage : Location Storage of Maths resources may be in several places: Maths lab Staff room Maths Store Room School Resource centre Appropriate documents (KEW 312, 313 and 314) should be kept in the main store or school office and a copy at the respective locations. The items must be labelled clearly and must be easily accessible to the Maths teachers. The location must ensure that the items will be safe from damaged and theft. If a special store room is used to keep the Maths resources, then there must be suitable shelves, cupboards, cabinets, racks, drawers, etc. Storage space must be clearly labelled and coded. Coding system should enable quick location of item in the store. Role of Teachers and Students Resources available in school must be taken care of. Teachers and students alike must ensure that the items are handled with care and replaced in their respective places after use. The teacher must check condition of items and quantity of items before and after use. All damage and loss must be reported. Monitoring Monitoring the transfer of assets and inventory is catered in the forms KEW 312, 313 and 315 and consumption of office supplies is catered in the form KEW 314. However, the use of resources such as manipulative kits in the classroom daily must be monitored not by using the KEW 313 or 315 but by keeping a log book. The log book should have record of the name of staff, item borrowed, date and time borrowed and returned, the quantity borrowed, the topic and standard it was used for. space provided for teachers to report the condition of the resources.
Maintenance Depending on the form of resource maintenance should be carried out regularly. Maintenance is important to ensure that the resources are in good functioning order and also for the safety of the students and staff. How to carry out Maintenance? Regular periodical inspection of items will help detect damages and ensure the proper functioning of the item and the safety of all. Reading the log book daily where teachers have recorded damage and loss and taking action to repair damage and replace losses will help maintain the resources. Upgrading equipments or items to maintain it to be compatible with technological developments is also a form of maintenance. Including ‘Resources’ in the department meeting will provide opportunity to hear from every member about the use, condition and required upgrading of existing resources. Maintenance of Assets Maintenance of assets begins with the proper and correct way to operate the asset as stated in the users manual Have periodic servicing as stated in the manual or as deemed suitable. Most assets today enable the user to service the item on their own. However, when a problem persists, maintenance personnel from the supplier should be called or the asset should be sent to the dealers who provide maintenance services. All services and repairs must be recorded. Action for maintenance must be taken immediately as delay could result in further deterioration in the condition of the item and the item may become unsafe for use. Then a major expensive repair may be required or the item may become an item beyond repair and hence has to be written off. Planning and Budgeting All schools in Malaysia have a Mathematics and Science grant allocated by the government based several criteria such as the number of students, category of the school (grade A, B or C), subjects offered. Other sources of finance are private funds – either from fund-raising projects or from donations from the public. Planning To ensure that the money obtained is used optimally, a plan must be made.
Planning will enable essential items to be bought prevent over purchase or shortage of items enable to identify items that can be improvised or substituted Ensure money is put aside for maintenance, repairs and unforeseen expenses.
Budgeting Budgeting is a process that involves systematic planning of expenditure based on income. Needs careful and serious considerations so that the allotted money is utilized to achieve maximum benefits. When to Plan the Budget? At least one month before the school year ends. Why? All T&L activities would likely have ended so can obtain information on the consumption and use of the respective resources. Ample time to purchase items for use in the following school year. How to Budget? Know how much money will be allocated for the coming year for mathematics – Know the grant for mathematics – based on the following years projected enrolment. Check all stocks to ascertain the quantity of stock available for every consumable item. List quantity of each consumable item that has to be purchased. List all items that require maintenance. List all items that require repair. List items that require to be replaced. List items that have to be upgraded. List new items that have to be purchased. List new items that could be purchased. Use quotations and earlier years prices to estimate the cost for items based on criteria that enables to prioritise items such as urgency and safety. Analyzing internal and external classroom/ school environment Resources within the school - in other departments and in other resource centres available to the school must be analysed. If resources can be shared from other sources of resources – this will enable money to be used for other unavailable items.
Allocate money for items. Ensure that the total amount of expenditure does not exceed income. Always have some money for miscellaneous expenses which may arise during the following school year. Have a meeting with your head of department and head of school. REMEMBER: Permission from the headmaster must be obtained before any purchasing is done. Monitoring and Controlling Expenditure Once you have an approved budget, use it to keep track of expenditures. Periodically check your budget plan to make sure you are not spending money on items that are not on the budget. You must however, updated your budget and modify the budget when necessary.
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