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- Industrial Safety Engineering SUBJECT: Industrial Safety, Health and Environment Acts KEY 1. a) i) The provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in the factory that are safe and without risks to health; 2 ii) The arrangements in the factory for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances; 2 iii) The provision of such information, instruction, training, and supervision as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of all workers at work; 2 iv) The maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a condition that is safe and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and egress from, such places as are safe and without risks; and 2 v) The provision, maintenance and monitoring of such working environment in the factory for the workers that are safe, without risks to health and adequate as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work. 2 b) The State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners holding a qualification granted by an authority specified to the Indian Medical Degree Act, 1916 or in the schedules to the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933 to be certifying surgeons for the purposes of the Factories Act, 1948. 3 The certifying surgeons shall carry out such duties as may be prescribed in connection withi) the examination and certification of young persons under the Act; 1 ii) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such dangerous operations or processes as may be prescribed; 1 iii) the exercising of medical supervision where cases of illnesses have occurred which it is reasonable to believe or due to the nature of the manufacturing process carried on, or other conditions of work prevailing; 2 iv) the exercising of medical supervision where by reason of any change in the manufacturing process carried on or in the substances used therein, there is likelihood of injury to the health of the workers employed in the manufacturing process; 2 v) the exercising of medical supervision where young persons are, or are about to be employed in any work which is likely to cause injury to their health. 1 2. a) The fencing of machinery has been discussed in a fitting manner in Section 21 of the Factories Act, 1948 under Chapter IV. 2 In every factory the following, namelyi) every moving part of a prime mover, and every fly-wheel connected to a prime mover, whether the prime mover or fly-wheel is in the engine house or not; 1 SEMESTER: 2/May 2013 SUBJECT CODE: 10 PIS 205

ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

the headrace and tailrace of every water wheel and water turbine; any part of a stock-bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe; every part of a electric generator, a motor or a rotary convertor; every part of transmission machinery; and every dangerous part of any other machinery.

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shall be securely fenced by safe-guards of substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained kept in position while the dangerous parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion. 2 b) Factory: Factory means any premises including the precincts thereof, (i) whereon 10 or more workers are working or were working in any day of the preceding twelve months and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on; or (ii) whereon 20 or more workers are working or were working in any day of the preceding twelve months and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on. 4 Worker: Worker means a person employed directly or by or through any agency, including a contractor, with or without the knowledge of the principal employer, whether for remuneration or not in any manufacturing process in the factory. 3 Manufacturing Process: Manufacturing Process means any process for making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing, or otherwise treating or adapting any article or substances with a view to its use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal. 3 3. a) Category No. I Human Anatomical Waste Incineration/Deep Burial Category No. 2 Animal Waste Incineration/Deep Burial Category No 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Local Autoclaving Category No 4 Waste sharps Disinfection/Shredding Category No 5 Discarded Medicines & Cytotoxic drugs: Incineration Category No 6 Solid Waste Incineration/Autoclaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste Disinfection by chemical Treatment Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Disinfection by Chem. Treatment Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Disposal by Municipal Landfill Category No. 10 Chemical Waste Chemical Treatment


b) i) The ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas / zones shall be such as specified in the Schedule annexed to the Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2000. 1 ii) The State Government shall categorize areas into industrial, commercial, residential or silence areas / zones for the purpose of implementation of noise standards for different areas. 2

iii) The State Government shall take measures for abatement of noise including noise emanating from vehicular movements, blowing of horns, bursting of sound emitting firecrackers, use of loud speakers or public address system and sound producing instruments and ensure that the existing noise levels do not exceed ambient air quality standards specified under these rules. 2 iv) An area comprising not less than 100 metres around hospitals, educational institutions and courts may be declared as silence area / zone for the purpose of these rules. 2 vi) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of noise: Area Code..Category of Area/Zone..Limits in dB (A) Leq* Day TimeNight Time (A) Industrial Area 75 70 (B) Commercial Area 65 55 (C) Residential Area 55 45 (D) Silent Zone 50 40 3 4. a) The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1981 is intended for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. The State Government may, after consultation with the State Board, by notification in the official Gazette, declare a new air pollution control area in which may be merged one pr more existing air pollution control areas. 2 No person shall, without the previous consent of the State Board, establish or operate any industrial plant in an air pollution control area. The control equipment of such specifications as the State Board may approve in this behalf shall be installed and operated in the premises where the industry is carried on. 2 The control equipment referred to above shall be kept at all times in good running condition Chimney, wherever necessary of such specifications, as the State Board may approve in this behalf shall be erected or re-erected in such premises. 2 No person operating any industrial plant in any air pollution control area shall discharge the emission of any air pollutant in excess of the standard laid down by the State Board. Where it is apprehended that the emission of air pollutant is in excess of the Standard, the State Board may make an application to the court for restraining such person from emitting the air pollutant. 2 The State Board or any other officer in this behalf empowered by it in this behalf shall have power to take sample of air or emission from any chimney, flue or duct or any other outlet for the purpose of analysis. The report of the result of such analysis may be used as evidence of the facts stated therein in any proceedings under this Act. 2 b) A State Board can require from any industry, operation, process, and treatment or disposal system to furnish information regarding construction, installation or operation of such establishment. It can take samples of effluents in a manner prescribed for analysis at the occupiers cost. 2 It shall send a coy of the analysis to the occupier and it has power to enter and inspect the plant, record, register, document and materials. It can also prohibit the use stream or well for disposal of polluting matter by prescribing standards and no person shall make water pollution or make any new outlets or new discharges without previous consent of the State Board. 2

Monitoring aspects are always very crucial; for operating the plant, certain parameters be constantly checked. However, it will be a good practice to check monthly all the parameters through standard and approved laboratories. The results so obtained are routinely informed to the Pollution Control Board Officials. 2 In case, there is a water body in the vicinity, it will be better to take sample from it periodically. This applies not merely to the surface water but also to the ground water. The findings will either give you a confident satisfaction or may give you a timely warning for improvement in the treatment and more so in the disposal system 1 Any accident, act or event causing water pollution should be forthwith intimated to the State Board and the State Board can take steps to remove pollution or such discharges or apply to courts for restraining apprehended water pollution. The court can order the person to remove that pollution or authorize the Board to do it at the cost of the person. The State Board has power to directions to any person, officer or authority for the closure, prohibition or regulation of any industry, operation or process or the stoppage or regulation of supply of electricity, water or any other service. 3


a) Explosives: Chemicals which may explode under the effect of flame, heat or photo-chemical conditions or which are more sensitive to shocks or friction than dinitrobenzene. 4 b) Rule 12: Requirements for further information to be sent to the authority in the form of Safety Report and providing additional information pertaining to the Safety Report. 2 Rule 13: Preparation of on-site emergency plan by the occupier in Schedule 11(i). Authority to ensure a rehearsal of the plan at least once in a calendar year. 2 Rule 14: Preparation of off-site emergency plan by the Authority in Schedule 12(i) Authority to ensure a rehearsal of the plan at least once in a calendar year. 2 Rule 15: Information to be given to persons liable to be affected by a major Accident. Rule 17: Collection, development and dissemination of information in Schedule 9. 1 1

The occupier of the industrial activity or an isolated storage in which the indicated quantum of chemical is used or stored shall provide evidence in the form of Safety Report which is the Status Report pertaining to the hazards identified, the prevention strategies adhered and the mitigation measures adopted as well as the Organization Structure to combat the emergency situation that might occur in the course of the day to day activities. 2

Any person responsible for importing hazardous chemicals in India shall provide before 30 days or as reasonably possible but not later than the date of import to the concerned authorities as identified in column 2 of Schedule 5. If the concerned Authority of the State is satisfied that the chemical being imported is likely to cause major accidents, it may direct the importer to take such safety measures as the concerned Authority of the State may deem appropriate. 2

c) Flash Point: The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which it can
vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Measuring a flash point requires an ignition source. At the flash point, the vapor may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed. 2

Fire Point: The fire point of a fuel is the temperature at which it will continue to burn for at least
5 seconds after ignition by an open flame. 2

6. a) Toxic chemicals: Chemicals having the following values of acute toxicity and which, owing to their physical and chemical properties, are capable of producing major accident hazards: Sl. No. Degree of toxicity Medium lethal does by the oral route (oral toxicity) LD 50 (mg/kg body weight of test animals) Medium lethal does by the dermal route (dermal toxicity) LD 50 (mg/kg body weight of test animals) 1-200 201-2000 Medium lethal concentration by inhalation route (for hours) LC 50 (mg/1 inhalator in test animals) 0.1-0.5 0.5-2.0

1. 2.

Extremely toxic Highly toxic

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5 b) Flammable chemicals: (i) Flammable gases: chemicals which in the gaseous state at normal pressure and mixed with air become flammable and the boiling point of which at normal pressure is 20 0 C or below; (ii) Highly flammable liquids: chemicals which have a flash point lower than 23 0C and the boiling point of which at normal pressure is above 20 0 C; (iii) Flammable liquids: chemicals which have a flash point lower than 65 0C and which remain liquids under pressure, where particular processing conditions, such as high pressure and high temperature, may create major accident hazards. 5 c) An occupier shall prepare and keep up-to-date on site emergency plan containing details specified in Schedule II and detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which the industrial activity is carried on and that plan shall include the name of the person who is responsible for safety on the site and the names of those who are authorized to take action in accordance with the plan in case of an emergency. 2 The vulnerability arrived from the worst-case scenario depending on the quantum of hazardous chemicals used, stored or handled in the course of the manufacturing activity shall form the basis in the form of Preliminary Hazard Analysis for exercising the sequential step-by-step emergency activities during the emergency situation. 2 The occupier shall prepare the emergency plan required under sub-rule (1), - (a) In the case of a new industrial activity, before that activity is commenced; (b) In the case of an existing industrial activity within 90 days of coming into operation of these rules. The occupier shall ensure that a mock drill of the emergency plan is conducted every six months. 2 As far as off-site emergency plan is concerned, it shall be the duty of the concerned authority as identified in column 2 of Schedule 5 to prepare and keep up-to-date off-site emergency plan containing details specified in Schedule 12 and detailing how emergencies relating to a possible

major accident on that site will be dealt with and in preparing that plan the concerned authority shall consult the occupier and such other persons as it may deem necessary. 2 For the purpose of enabling the concerned authority to prepare the emergency plan required under sub-rule (1), the occupier shall provide the concerned authority with such information relating to the industrial activity under his control as the concerned authority may require, including the nature, extent and likely effects off-site of possible major accidents and the authority shall provide the occupier with any information from the off-site emergency plan which relates to his duties under rule 13. 2 7. a) The supplier shall provide and maintain on the consumers premises for the consumers use a suitable earthed terminal in an accessible position at or near the point of commencement of supply as defined under rule 58. 2 Provided that in the case of medium, high or extra-high voltage installation the consumer shall, in addition to the afore mentioned earthing arrangement, provide his own earthing system with an independent electrode. 2 Provided further that the supplier may not provide any earthed terminal in the case of installations already connected to his system on or before the date to be specified by the State Government in this behalf if he is satisfied that the consumers earthing arrangement is efficient. 2 The consumer shall take all reasonable precautions to prevent mechanical damage to the earthed terminal and its lead belonging to the supplier. An indication of a permanent nature shall be provided by the owner of the earthed or earthed neutral conductor, or the conductor which is to be connected thereto, to enable such conductor to be distinguished from any live conductor. 4 b) 1. Low voltage..up to 250 V 3. High voltage.up to 33,000 V 2. Medium Voltage.. up to 650 V 4. Extra-high Voltage..more than 33,000 V

c) One of a wide variety of materials used for blasting; contains substantial proportions of water and a high proportion of ammonium nitrate, some of which is in solution in the water. 3 8. a) i. The electrical system shall have the battery in an easily accessible position; 2 ii. The vessel shall be electrically continuous with the chassis; 2 Iii.The vessel shall be provided with a bonding point or bonding cable; 2 Iv.The tyres shall be of anti-static type. 2 b) (i) Partial disablement means, where the disablement is of a temporary nature, such disablement as reduces the earning capacity of a workman in any employment in which he was engaged at the time of the accident resulting in the disablement, and, where the disablement is of a permanent nature, such disablement as reduces his earning capacity in every employment which he was capable of undertaking at that time. 4 (ii) Employer includes anybody of persons whether incorporated or not and any managing agent of an employer and the legal representative of the deceased employer and when the services of the workmen are temporarily lent or let on hire by another person by the person with whom the workmen have entered into a contract of service or apprenticeship means such other person while the workmen is working for him. 4

(iii) Total disablement means such disablement, whether of a temporary or permanent nature, as incapacitates a workman for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of the accident resulting in such disablement. 4 9. a) Occupational Health and Safety Administration: The objective of OSHA is to evaluate the safety and health problems peculiar to local conditions and facilitate solutions to these problems through council activities. 4 The functions of OSHA are to Establish procedures for workplace inspections to identify safety and health hazards. Assist the employer in evaluating the accident and illness prevention program.

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Appoint an inspection team of at least one employee representative and one Employer representative. 2 Conduct workplace inspections at least quarterly. Make a written report of hazards discovered during inspections. 1 1

Review corrective measures. Make written recommendation to correct the hazard, and submit it to management for timely response. 2 b) The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 places duties on employers and the self employed to persons other than employees. Employers must conduct their undertakings in such a way as to ensure, so far as is practicable, that persons not in their employment who may be affected are not exposed to risks to their health and safety (Section 3(1)). A similar duty also applies to the self employed (Section 3(2)). 2 This Section 3 duty has four parts a) The duty is owed by employers or self employed people. This will include farmers, owners of sporting estates and land managers. It would also include tenant farmers, those who lease sporting estates and fishing, and those organizing events in the countryside as their employment (e.g. walking guides, climbing instructors, organizers of paintball games); 2 b) The duty is owed to persons other than employees: this includes all members of the public and people taking access to the countryside; 2 c) The standard is one of reasonable practicability; and d) The duty arises out of the conduct of the undertaking. 1 1

10. a) OSHAS 18000: OHSAS 18000 is an international standard that describes the requirements for an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). 2 The intent of this requirement is to help the company identify how it affects the workplace health and safety, identify the hazards, set priorities for them, and use the OHSMS to manage, control, and

improve upon the impacts.

OHSAS 18001, like ISO 9001 ( ISO 9000 series for quality) and ISO 14001 ( ISO 14000 series of environmental) be a basis for certification. This means that a certification formally approve the management system. 2 b) ISO 14000: The ISO 14001 standard is the foundation for the environmental management elements of the Integrated Management system. The addition of ISO 14001 provides a framework for conducting business in an environmentally responsible manner, 2
ISO 14000 forces the Management Team to be more responsible for continuous improvement of OHSAS 18001. 2

ISO 14001:2004 sets out the criteria for an environmental management system and can be certified to map out a framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. 2 c) The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) currently administers two accreditation programs for personnel certification agencies. The first accreditation program is based on the International Standard ANSI/ISO/IEC 17024 and the second is based on The Conference for Food Protection Accreditation Standards for certification agencies that certify food protection managers. 2 The ANSI accreditation process involves both a review of a paper application and the performance of an assessment (onsite visit) to validate information provided by each applicant. 2 The use of an onsite assessment for accreditation of personnel certification agencies is unique to ANSI. Close to one million professionals currently hold certifications from organizations accredited under ANSI's personnel certification programs. ANSI accreditation is recognized both nationally and internationally and has become the hallmark of a quality certification program. 2 Due to a high degree of integrity and confidence that is associated with ANSI accreditation process, ANSI accreditation is generally recognized as the highest standard in personnel certification accreditation. The standard used by ANSI to accredit certification bodies is an American National Standard as well as an ISO/IEC Standard. Accreditation to an international standard is extremely important for certification bodies that have global operations or aspirations. 2