4-H Youth Development Nebraska 4-H Clubs: Historical Materials and Publications University of Nebraska - Lincoln Year 2009

Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich Modernization of Russia: the post of imperial transit

Sergey Nazipovich Gavrov Russian institute for culturology, RF Ministry of Culture

This paper is posted at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/a4hhistory/21 University of Nebraska - Lincoln 2009

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Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich Modernization of Russia: the post of imperial transit. Monograph / Preface Perepelkin L. Nebraska, University of Nebraska - Lincoln 2009, 319 s. A new book and political Gavrov, Sergey (Sergey Nazipovich) devoted to the problems of Russia's modernization and postimperskogo transit. The author tries to find answers to key questions: what prevents us on the road to cultural and institutional integration in Erope - for freedom and democracy? And why do we so often seek to turn into a, for centuries nakatannuyu historic track, leading to regular neoimpersky historic impasse? The book is intended for political scientists, culture, historians, sociologists and all those interested in the processes of modernization in conditions of Russia's transformation postimperskih state and society. Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich – Russian philosopher, social anthropologist, a political scientist. Doctor of Philosophy. Professor of Sociology and Social Anthropology.

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Birth year: 1964, Birth place: City of Gorky (USSR). Senior Research Fellow sector social processes and systems of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Author of five books and over one hundred scientific articles included in the collection of the Library of Congress, the world's leading libraries and universities (Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, APA, MLA, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Freie Universität Berlin). A member of the editorial board of the journals Personality. Culture. Community (Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Psychology elite, as well as the Commission to study the complex problems of human culture and society, acting under the Board of the Russian Academy of Sciences The history of world culture. In the area of scientific interest - the problem of modernization of transformations in different hypostasis, including political, demographic, educational, social and cultural as well as the philosophy of education. Professor Gavrov on the short list of the most wellknown advisory in North America and Europe, Russian scholars and politicians, best reflected in their political life of Russia in the years 1994-2003. http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/ow/82393785 Lives in Moscow.

Table of Contents Gavrov Sergey Nazipovich Modernization of Russia: the post of imperial transit. Monograph / Preface Perepelkin L. Nebraska, University of Nebraska - Lincoln 2009, 319 s.........................................................................................2 Birth year: 1964, Birth place: City of Gorky (USSR). Senior Research Fellow sector social processes and systems of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research. Author of five books and over one hundred scientific articles included in the collection of the Library of Congress, the world's leading libraries and universities (Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, APA, MLA, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Freie Universität Berlin). A member of the editorial board of the journals Personality. Culture. Community (Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the Psychology elite, as well as the Commission to study the complex problems of human culture and society, acting under the Board of the Russian Academy of Sciences The history of world culture. In the area of scientific interest - the problem of modernization of transformations in different hypostasis, including political, demographic, educational, social and cultural as well as the philosophy of 3

education. Professor Gavrov on the short list of the most well-known advisory in North America and Europe, Russian scholars and politicians, best reflected in their political life of Russia in the years 1994-2003. http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/ow/82393785 Lives in Moscow.......................3 Table of Contents...............................................................................................3 The book, which is interesting to argue (instead of the preface) ......................5 References: .....................................................................................................12 Russia after empire..........................................................................................13 Chapter 1. Modernization........................................................................................21 I. What is the modernization ...........................................................................22 Imperial Russia and the liberal model of modernization.................................36 II. Political culture: from traditional society to modern society. ....................43 Man era of Modernism ...................................................................................55 III. The influence of the Russian mentality on the processes of modernization .........................................................................................................................65 IV. Russian modernization project in the context of globalized world ..........83 Chapter II. After the Empire ...........................................................................97 I. History of Russia and the USSR of A. Akhiezer, J. Klyamkin, I. Yakovenko and E. Gaidar ..................................................................................................97 The death of the Soviet empire. Look Egor Gaidar. .....................................113 II. Russia in postimperskom the geographical and socio space ....................118 Postimpersky transit .....................................................................................129 From Kazakhstan to the Republic of Moldova and Prednistrovyu ..............146 Relation to Georgia .......................................................................................149 European integration and the problem of displaced cultural values .............151 Chapter III. From Modernization to restoration....................................................156 I. Conservative No.........................................................................................156 II. Clerical policy of blocking the modernization of ....................................167 Traditionalism and modern art.......................................................................176 III. The Russian State: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow .............................185 Instead afterword. Civil society and power: from confrontation to dialogue .......................................................................................................................195 Applications ..........................................................................................................201 Dialogues with the actors of Russian science and policy .............................201 Dialogue with Moses Kaganov ....................................................................207 Dialogue with Alexander Akhiezer ..............................................................212 Dialogues with Irina Khakamada .................................................................217 Dialogue I. On Literature and Life................................................................217 Dialogue II. About the new social currency - 2008.......................................223 Dialogue on Marsh dissenters ......................................................................227 Dialogue with Vladislav Surkov on a political project Our .........................229 Remembering the XX Congress ...................................................................235

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The book, which is interesting to argue (instead of the preface) With pleasure to introduce the reader to a new book Modernization of Russia: the post of imperial transit Doctor of Philosophy, the lead researcher of the Branch of social processes and systems of the Russian Institute for Cultural Sergei Gavrova. For me a particular interest in this book relates to the fact that it is dedicated not only to consider the theoretical problems of modernization and postimperskogo transit, but also issues that were and the amount One Day. The author interprets and analyzes current events based on the situation in previous works [Gavrov, 2004] world. It discusses topics such as features of modernization processes in Russia's imperial past of our country and wishes for her future, internal and external policy of the Russian Federation, including developments in neighboring countries ( democratic revolution). Discussed in the book and a private issue. Analysis of the texts provided a good opportunity to express doubts, objections, comments. And of course in order to make good . At least, this is a good opportunity∗conclusions and interpretations to put in order their own

thoughts. Winning side of this book, like other works of S. Gavrova is to limit the author's honesty. He is not cunning - he writes what they think. The purpose of the preface - to highlight the author's frame of reference. It seems that the author belongs to a certain and quite influential Russian scientific schools in the area of Social Studies, which advocates the following principles. The most important of them - it is liberalism as a political ideology. This is followed by a system of positive ( democracy) and negative ( State, Empire) values. In this coordinate system view of the world purely evolutionary, that is, it assumes that all societies will evolve in the framework of particular social patterns. For this view is characterized by what I would call the finalizmom. This is a representation according to which some modern societies embody the final characteristics throughout human history. Once these sin GF Hegel, considered him a modern Prussia pinnacle of human organization. Now the most striking final 5

can be considered an American sociologist F. Fukuyama [Fukuyama, 2004]. In our country, finalizm manifested in zapadotsentrizme, in which it is believed that Russia - not a country, it wrong, it must be transformed other lekalam. With these views, I do not agree that going to discuss further. Liberalism. This is a solid ideological doctrine, suggesting that private initiative is always better public initiatives, public. But like any ideology, a liberal has its limits in the practice of public life. At least, because the maximization of private profit is not tantamount to maximizing the public benefit [see the example of the modern oil and gas complex of Russia: Simonov, 2006, pp. 75-98]. No society is built exclusively on the liberal or otherwise ideological prescription: the proportion of private and public initiatives is always consistent with the current circumstances. Freedom of the individual is always limited: either the laws or his own ideas (much safer). Speaking on the same liberalism in Russia, it should be borne in mind that in the early 1990 ies. We have come a benign form of liberalism and moved to its pathological variant of social Darwinism, ... that show reduction of development of human society to the laws of biological evolution and the nomination of the principles of natural selection, struggle for existence and survival of the fittest as a determinant of social life [ Philosophical ..., 1983, pp. 639]. This view I had in the early 1990 ies. When I first heard the idea that the let vymrut 20-30 million old, but the reforms will successfully. I think that would agree with my opinion and many modern liberals - judge for Eugenia Gontmahera [Gontmaher, 2007, pp. 10]. The state, the empire. Surprising as described here миросозерцание anarhichno: they rebelled against the state government. I myself do not like any authority, but the understanding that the State has a special form of self-complex societies based on the anonymity of citizens, the professionalization of work, allocation of management functions. Modern society can not survive without government control. It is clear that it is very difficult to establish a universal principle of governance, state authority. But izvolte: a sense of legitimacy, that is, fairness and effectiveness of this power, shared by residents, there is a mandate for 6

the subsequent management. And in this context, it does not matter how that power is formed: the laws of monarchical succession, aristocratic consensus or democratic elections. It added that the Manichean dichotomy between state and civil society has quite a local character: it appeared in the XVII century. in the UK during the civil war. To do this through generalizations hardly productive. Here is another interesting: continuing ideological squabbles around the notion of Empire. In today's example, the American usage imperial tasks often as preferred [eg.: Utkin, 2006]. The author uses this word only in a negative context. This is certainly subject to debate. The concept goes back to a European empire, and, above all, Roman culture. Emperor (Lat. master) - the title given to a Octaviano August to replace the unpopular rex, a king. In fact, referring to the empire, we are not dealing with a universal phenomenon, but the local European tradition. This is well reflected in the terminology. Russian term dates back to the king named Julius Caesar, as well as the German term Kaiser - Emperor. Concept August personage, August family goes back to the name of Octavian Augustus ( August - exaltation gods). There are some general features of the concept of empire as a purely European phenomenon. In the first place should be talking about the empire as a special type of social system in the understanding that, given T. Parsons. American sociologist defines social systems as a system formed states and processes of social interaction between actors, and he believed that society - that this type of social system, which has the highest degree of self-sufficiency on their environment, including other social systems [ Parsons, 1997, pp. 18, 20]. Following these ideas, you can take the empire the social system of political (state) of a type, but not society, and the community - the countries, peoples and lands. This is, indeed, said English term imperial federation. A special role is played by the imperial idea, which is an ideological shell of the Imperial Commonwealth. In ancient Rome such an idea was to bring civilization and order in the land of another people. With regard to the British Empire can be said about the white man's burden - introducing elements of 7

progress in non-European parts oykumeny. Russian Empire in a hundred years after the fall of Constantinople born the idea of Moscow - the third Rome, that is, with the idea of preservation and dissemination of Orthodoxy (Russia was the only one in the world of independent Orthodox state). Imperial imperial idea gives people more power, some passionarnost for gains control of the occupied territories and their integration into the imperial space. This is also due to the colonization of the newly annexed territories. (It should be noted that the modern ex-metropolitan areas characterized by the opposite process - pull residents of the former colonial possessions.) As evident from the above, the imperial social organism must solve a very difficult task: to reconcile universalism with particularism, different cultural traditions and territories with different levels of development - in a single political entity. The difficulty of this task is that it does not have a single means of resolving, it can be solved only through a unique experience, through trial and error, the method of accumulation of successes, and errors. Moreover, developed for one epoch or territory management techniques in other cases may be unacceptable. The art of maintaining the balance between particularism and universalism in the political community can be considered a variant of imperial policy. Its purpose - maintaining the hegemony of the metropolis, as the main tool a combination of direct and indirect control. It is in imperial social formations occur surge higher, Imperial culture. We should add that empire and imperialism - are not related concepts. With light hands Gilferdinga and then Lenin, imperialism is defined by foreign policy activities related to obtaining economic benefits from the dependent status of other countries and peoples. Here, for example, that on this occasion wrote the current Dutch economic historian Herman Van der Vee: After the end of World War II commodity production in the third world has been largely in the hands of the private sector. Controlled the production and post-colonial European companies, as well as American TNCs. Last, different dynamic and take the political naivety of new states have been able to reap profits from the process of decolonization, 8

establishing control over the global trade in raw materials [Van der Vee, 1994, pp. 78; in more detail this question is contained in the book: Simon, 2006]. Russia, served as metropolitan in the USSR, such benefits are not received. The same can be said about the Soviet Union, which played the role of the metropolis for the Soviet empire as a whole. Therefore, the USSR could be called the social system of the imperial, not imperialist type. It should be added, and the following considerations. The author, in one of the articles placed here, in favor otnesya to express well-known economist E. Yassin that imperial policy is tantamount to violence. Actually, this is not the case. M. Weber, for example, thought the right to legitimate violence descent of any state, but as perpetrators of this right to the Institute and the Police Court. According to my data [Mastyugina, Perepelkin, 1997], the national (for example) the policy of Russian Empire was based not on violence. And on the USSR and about the XX century should be a special call. For example, I still wonder why in the past century, an unprecedented wave of violence which culminated in the atomic bombing of two Japanese cities - Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Democracy. This term, unfortunately, lost its contents because of the frequent use in different contexts. For instance, I refuse to be called democracy promotion of homosexuality in a gay parade. And I do not care about law of any minority, especially if they threaten to become bigger than me, the most. Derivation of the term democracy in Political Science from the area of culture is very dangerous. In fact and in politics it is not explicitly evaluated positively: to understand it, bright enough to read the book and the controversial American political scientist and journalist Walter Lipmann Public Philosophy [Lipman, 2004]. Democracy is the power of people's representatives, on the basis of their mandates, organizing the life of a modern country. But if you look closely, democracy - a form of management elites: how five generations of ancestors of the U.S. President is not studied at university Ivy League? It should be noted that representative government in its modern form has a very short history. If not mistaken, only in 1913 for the first time in the world in 9

New Zealand was proclaimed universal suffrage. The next event - Russia in 1917, and in most countries, universal suffrage was adopted only after the Second World War. Only in 1960-ies. in the United States had been abolished the system of racial segregation. And most controversial achievement of democracy is the practice of manipulating the public mind, born in the United States in 1950-s. In its origins was an American psychologist B. Skinner, who wrote: We can achieve this level of management in which administered, although it follows a much more precisely than with the old system, nevertheless, feel free. They do what they want to do, not what they make. Here is a source of great strength of positive reinforcement - there is no resistance, no outrage. Through careful research, we do not manage the final behavior, but the intent to behave - the motives, desires, inclinations. Curiously, this case never raises the question of freedom [op. by: Rimashevskaya, 2007, pp. 228; italics B. Skinner]. Personally for me this democracy is considerably worse than a mere falsification of the election: it is better to know that you deceived. Confess I do not see a different fate from the notion of democracy, how to clean water ideologem, not the leadership to act. In addition, the current state, calling themselves democracy, differ so greatly that the very notion of it is out of operationalization. Recently I read that Bush Jr. wanted to Putin that Russia was the same democracy as in Iraq today. Need comments? Modernization. This notion, as far as I know, was introduced into scientific circulation Israeli researcher S. Eyzenshtadtom [Eyzenshtadt, 1999] and was subsequently rastirazhirovano numerous experts, including the conduct international sociological research (eg, an American sociologist Alex Inkeles). We must admit that in a period of scientific maturation the work of this kind exist zavorazhivayusche: they start to believe. But then, this effect takes place - you begin to understand that the authors have selected is not the relevant level of generality. The theory of modernization, of course, the theory evolyutsionistskogo type. It is well understood (and studied), that the cultural transformation in a small 10

region of Western Europe were local mutations, resulting in the XVII-XVIII centuries. to cultural revolution in the form of experimental science, and industrial production. On this basis there was a special type of social organization, called the capitalism. Its feature is that any Production Manager forced to withdraw funds from the consumer, putting them into investments in the expansion of their business. And indeed, there is the slightest difference, it makes the entrepreneur or . It soon became clear that the costs of their own∗the State activities and can make out of the country (see above about imperialism). This combination of scientific creativity, technical смекалки and business ethics, you can see the essence of modernization. Moreover, this phenomenon is clearly manifested itself in the field of demography. But I would in no case has been regarded as a universal phenomenon of culture moderniti, and in particular the part which deals with the political organization of society. The point is that in the history of mankind was a lot of modernization, for example, the Neolithic revolution. But the last does not mean final. Generally, for human groups tend to ekvifinalnosti quality, ie the achievement of some objectives in different ways. But who knows what is in these problems? In this context vesternizm looks like vkusovschina. Political culture is not nurtured in the beds of culture Agriculture. When (and this is all), 20-30 years old Lord of the world will be China, will, probably, a lot of books about the beauty of Confucianism, especially the creative gifts Mongoloid race, world-historic significance of the uprising boxer. Honestly, I have a lot of things would like to discuss here. For example, such a plot. The author, as well as a large part of the Russian writers of brotherhood, has criticized in the first two sides of modern Russian life: the president's authority and the Orthodox Church. But if you turn to sociological studies, these two institutions are most trusted in the community. Moreover, one can clearly say that no other social institutions do not enjoy public confidence [Rimashevskaya, 2007, pp. 164165]. Strange criticism. Stress that such disregard for life - is not an isolated case. Here is an excellent example - Section of the Institute of Europe, Dmitry Furman [Furman, 11

2007, pp. 10]. It begins with a failure of expression of V. Putin. He further writes that over time political leader loses sense of reality. In conclusion, results compare quite unbelievable: of course, writes D. Furman, Bush Jr. made a lot more stupid, but he will go through a democratic process. And Putin is that - do not leave? And do not understand that the main issue of this comparison is exactly why the American voter is allowed to involve themselves in the Iraqi adventure, which is not the end in sight. I thought the book S. Gavrova - a good example of a certain hanging (in a computer understanding of speech), which demonstrates a significant part of the Russian intelligentsia. This is unfortunate, but amendable. I think that you can make a difference only in the broad - and a public outcry - debates. There was discussion on the ideas of W. Surkova Sovereign Democracy. But I would say that looks like it is a pity. It seems that what we think and write very soon will not be of interest to anyone - not even ourselves. That is why I decided to write this preface in the genre of criticism - perhaps someone else will understand that it is time to think and argue, that is to do its work, rather than simply to earn a living. References: 1 Van der Vee G. History of the world economy. 1945-1990. M., 1994. Le Havre SN Upgrading for the sake of empire. Social and cultural aspects of modernization processes in Russia. Moscow, URSS, 2004. 2 Lipman U. Public Philosophy. M., 2004. 3 Mastyugina TM, Perepelkin LS Ethnology. The peoples of Russia: History and current status (manual). M., 1997. 4 Parsons T. The system of modern societies. M., 1997. 5 Rimashevskaya NM (Ed.), saving the people. M., 2007. 6 Simonov KV Energy superpower. M., 2006. 7 Utkin A. The impact of American Gods. M., 2006. 8 Philosophical encyclopaedic dictionary. M., 1983. 12

9 Fukuyama F. The End of History and the Last Man. M., 2004. 10 Furman D. Late President / / Nezavisimaya gazeta. 2007. Aug. 21. 11 Eyzenshtadt S. revolution and social transformation. A comparative study of civilizations. M., 1999. Head of Sector of Applied Cultural Research and Cultural Policy of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research, office, and. Mr. LS Perepelkin. Russia after empire1 Postimperial status our country is confused. Today Russia is not yet fullfledged national state. I think that it is mutilated, lost at time and space postimperial formation. There is no concensus in public consciousness about legal state borders: it is very difficult to answer the question, why some regions constitute the state, and why other regions do not. As before the country disposes of imperial body (1) (E.A. Pain), which was got in inheritance from imperial stage of the territorial expantion. Hitherto the most part of society and political elite perceive imperial territorial inheritance as certain nearly sacred value, that it is impossible waive under no circumstances, inspite of “sociocultural vicinity” or “sociocultural distance” of disputable territory. But the most unpleasant is concluded, to my mind, in the fact that the threat of disinteration of Russia as state formation, remained from empire, is saved. In inheritance from empire we got an ethnonational and socuocultural flowering difficulty (K.N. Leontiev) of Russian regions: they referes to three civilizations, three world religions; they resides to different stages of the economic development: preindustrial, industrial and postindustrial. Besides, from my opinion, nation did not formed in Russia neither in its ethnic, nor in its “postethnic”, civil sense. Traditional question – how to agree so heterogeneous regional interests – is very important for our agenda. But deal is not only in
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Translation articles Russia after Empire - LS Perepelkin.

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cultural and civilizational differences. On the strength of the positions of Russian regions (territory, economic) and its differences on the scale of the stages of development they have different interests and they extremely differ on level of living, incom and social protection. The outlying Russian regions often are attracted not to Moscow, but to other world centres of economic. For example Kaliningrad/Kenigsberge region is attracted to ES in accordance with some economic, historical and cultural reasons. In the East side of the country the states or Asian and Pacific Ocean region, first of all China, are the source of the strong economic attraction. We do not speak about strictly cultural or civilizational reorientations of Siberia and Russian Far East but about absolute economic integration of these regions in economy of foreign Asia. Nevertheless, as we know from history, political integration often follows the economic integration. Often this is a function of time. We pay attention to these well-known points to emphasize the differences in interests of Russian regions, to put a question about possibility to agree so different interests within the framework of Russian state, leaving but not left from empire. The World history experience gives two main decisions, individually executed under influence of different historical and sociocultural contexts. The First variant expects straightening of ethno-federative relations as a procedure of regional interests co-ordination, of delimitation and delegation of authority. This is a long, often nerve-racking process for Russian authorities. Temptation to return to traditional but failed forms of state management, to simplify the co-ordinations of interests, to go to order, authoritarian management and unitary state is too great. This is the Second way. In its frame the interests of regions are minimum agreed, the main decisions are taken in the centre, the processes of co-ordination realize in traditions of unitary imperial state. Such were the practices in the USSR and Empire of Romanoffs. Though there were the known exceptions with autonomy of Finland and the Constitution of Polish Kindom in tsarist Empire... This design expects using violence against nonconformists. This is an inheritance, which unites the 14

present-day Russian state with the state of Russian Imperia. I agree the key characteristic of empires, given by E.Yasin: existence of Empires is impossible without violence, although in soft forms. This is the main identifying sign of empires (2). To change the vector of Russian development and to get free from imperial life, it is necessary to enclose the considerable efforts, to form up the real federalism, to work on shaping of the civil nation, to form the democratic institutes and traditions. To continue the motion in a direction of historically accustomed imperial life, so significant efforts are not required. Now it is possible to observe a reconstruction of authoritarian unitary state mechanism. But if earlier (in pre-soviet period) advantages of imperial state and authoritarian rule exceed the costs, after the Second war costs have gradually exceed the advantage. Today this is the most essential restriction on a way of the development of the country. I’ll again refer to position of E.Yasin: a decay of empire began long ago. The country developed, empire (as its political form) – not, and this fact became the brake of the further development of the country (3). It is likely that choice between two variants of development is made. De facto the variant of the reconstitution of unitary state is chose. As a result we can see refusal of democracy in favour of its “operated”, even decorative variant. But differences of Russian regions can not to combine the unitary form of state organization (de jure or de facto) with democracy. Often the choice of unitarianism affects on situational actions of authorities in relations with politicians, business, mass media. Possible, today this way is efficient, but this effect is temporary, especially tactical. If long and firm joint coexistence of heterogeneous Russian regions and their inhabitants is possible in principle, this possibility is based on two cardinal principles: existence of real federalism with elements of confederacy – and existence of civil, multiethnic nation. Civil, rather then ethnic nation expresses the generic relationship with citizenship of the empires. To reach this aim our imperial inheritance can be useful: we can not form the ethnic nation, but can form multiethnic and civil nation. Such

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variant is undoubtedly preferred in the sense of observance of civil and political liberties, human rights in general too. What can help or disturb to carry out these principles and what can help or disturb to set right the further joint life of the people on the territory of Russian state? It is possible to build the joint life of a civil nation in federative/confederate state on a basis of consumer and achievement activity of a person. In shoulder strap for russian daydream in its moscow, jakutsk and other registration he can (may by only temporary) not to recall, who is he, whence and where he goes, or, anyway, forget about his cultural-civilizational identity. While his “memory” does not define his social activity - an postimperial Russian state will exist in its own present borders. But today traditional religious identity of different ethnic groups is present in public consciousness often in hidden, latent form. As rule it is washed away with westernization and with the policy of total secularization, conducted by soviet power. As a result of this politicians significant and may be the most part of population is indifferent to religions. As I.Yakovenko has noticed (4), number of those who suggest itself as a part of Russian orthodox church forms about several percents of the society and this number will not grow seriously. This indifference unites the country and smooths inter-ethnic and inter-religion contradictions. As soon as process of ethno-religion rebirth will become on-persisting mass, serious contradictions will arise, putting under question the territorial wholeness of the country. Degree of expression of traditionalism defines degree of toughness of Russia. To my mind, today a part of Russian political class tries to rest on some elements of traditionalism, first of all in its religious variant. This course has not prospect, as today former imperial mechanisms are destroy for the country. But during seventy years of the soviet authority not only traditionalists but society as a whole were greatly weakened. If compare the democratic potential of tsarist Russia and contemporary Russia, we can deduse, that this comparison will not give the unambiguous advantage to present-day situation. 16

For decennial events of soviet authorities our country seriously advanced on a way of modernization, it made demographic transition, it collected Russian population in city, destroyed patriarchal, including religious, traditions. The country passed industrialization, it obtained high level of mass education. But during this period, especially before 1953, wу have lost many millions of high educated men, who not only strived to install in Russia democracy and republic, but who was also ready to take part personally in this process. Before the revolution of 1917, millions of men in the country rested on furcated system of civil institutions. They tried to direct the country on European way of development. But this was not got peacefully, step by step, and it was needed the revolution of 1905, but then February revolution of 1917. At the end of the soviet period layer people, comparable with prerevolutionary on number of human quality - professional and civil, – was not in Soviet Russia. There were dissidents and sympathizing him, but almost nobody of them went in post-soviet policy, almost nobody of them renewed rows of Russian officialdom. The new authority was created with men without experience in democratic work, it was created with some portion of chance. In soviet Russia there were not a broad democratic motion, as it was in other countries of “soviet block”. However there were sewn hundreds of thousands of people in the country, who took part in demonstrations of 1990-1991. There were men, who was ready to die for new Russian republic, as it was at August 1991 (events near White house) and at October 1993 (events near Mossovet), but there were not a necessary number of those, who was capable to take part in everyday stale work, save the ideals and value them cherish then material advantages. Moreover, there were insufficient amount of the people in country, who was ready to consider the democracy as value and use the democratic rights. Democracy – is a public order for free people. /.../ That one, who uses his liberty, is free (5). But once so, it is necessary to use others, who, outside of dependencies from their own glance and past, can and will die to work, capable to quick-and-dirty everyday official work. They are ready to work for sake of its material interest possess 17

certain internal discipline. So the rise of number of former members of power structures in our authorities must not be surprise in this sense. They were added with traditions of state management. If it is impossible on that or other reasons to rest on society, authority rests on power structures. Coming from the conditions before August 1991, such result was more probable, therefore, probably, it became the reality. Our common history carrying concludes in the fact that it was realized certain averaged variant of possible future, not the most good, but also not the most bad. The most terrible practices of social transformation Russia has shown to whole world at years of the Civil war of 1918-1921, and terible practices of transformations of multinational federation - in 1990-e years were demonstrated to the world by S.Miloshevich and Serbian nationalists in former Yugoslavia. Considering particularities of soviet inheritance, extreme weakness of the political class, to say nothing of practical absence of political elite, we have easy finished. The political class only began be formed, and for its formation and reproducing from their own rows efficient and responsible elite, it need, to say the least, many decades. But now it is only formed, including in its composition and rejecting pretenders not only upon their political glance, but also according their management efficiency. The power is intrinsically heterogeneous: therefore it is necessary to take into account differences in political glance of high officials. The political class of modern Russia, with the known share of conventionality, is possible to split into two main groups: liberal bureaucrats and former members of force structures. They occupy, on statement of Moscow political jokers, different Kremlin towers. Naturally that each of these groups have its own picture of the world, they have its own belief about due and non-due, about that what is good and what is bad for Russia. This fission perhaps calls with that, what was at years of great reforms of Alexander II. So, some foreign historians reveals two types of Russian political culture, which characterize the enlightened bureaucrat-“zapadnik” (western18

oriented persons) and so named police officials. The system of values of political culture (the first type) comprised legality, equality of the people, the personal initiative and legal political power. Central for police political culture (the second type) were such value, as paternity, trusteeship and confession of personal authorities of the monarch, rather then law, as well as negative, suspicious attitude to independent public and peasantry. In ditto time elements of police mentality come to light in worldoutlook of modern reformers since in base of their glance lay the confession of the primate of the state interest and conservations (the preservations) of order and stability (6). These groups of official express the different public moods. And the largest threat for democratic development of Russia – at its transiting period from soviet model of power to modern west democracy – is marked civil opposition, care from constructive dialogue between authority and society. Responsibility for this lies on the authorities and on the society. Those who “represents the power as demon”, they help it to fortify in authoritarian orthodox-autocratic corridor of the possibilities and they make the greater mistake. Instead of this, it needs constant dialogue with “sober” people in the authority, in spite of their former and present professional implements, in spite of their personal political glance. It is not necessary “to represent as demon” former and present members of force structures, lamenting about big amount of them in the authorities. The dialogue washes away the positions of both sides since it can lead to compromise. Therefore it is so complicated to go in a direction of dialogue. To stand in side, feeling intellectual superiority to explain, why power is always wrong, and how bad are all its projects, and why its actions and inactions will absurdly finished, is easier. It is necessary to speak with power on language of interests, rather then ideals and principles. Today the real possibility for our civil society to assist the democratizations of Russia is consist in interaction with power first of all by means of efficient participation in process of state and corporative management. As it was got during the hole period of the reforms, for instance, by A.Chubys. 19

Dialogue is successful if it brings to compromise. But what is the ground this compromise can be reached? Paradoxically, any time, to but temporary, any mental situational decision compromise in connection is received with our spontaneously, and it is concluded in possibility to avoid the history choice during avoid imperial/postimperial, to avoid the question about ourselves: are we West or Orient, are we a part of European civilization or not, where vector of our history development is directed. The possibility of the compromise is connected with global economic conjuncture, tempestuous economic growing in countries of the third world, sharp growth of raw materials and energy resources consumption. In industrial epoch raw materials and energy resources were wholly enough for economic necessities of golden billion, today they will be enough for the rest world too, but this will be more high level of prices. Naturally, such situation in the world trade will bring to additional financial and global political advantage for countries-exporters of raw materials, including Russia. That is why it is realizing in our country briefly-level variant of “energy and raw materials superpower (sverkhderzhava). Now it forms rare in world history situation: for some times it will be possible to get all increasing incoms to account of growing of raw material and energy resources world prices, not fearing of change of price dynamic. Permanent rising of this price dynamic minimizes the risks of external economic shock for Russia. But this, in turn, minimizes the risks of internal political convulsions. If we shall be able to avoid an national-patriotic deadlock end, as well as cutting the intensification of election competition between different towers of Kremlin, political stability and economic growing are practically guaranteed. In other words, positive particularities of foreign economic conjuncture are capable to freeze ethnic and federative relations between Russian regions, greatly mute real and potential separate moods, postpone in vast distant future possible of the third stage of state deconsruction (I speak about state which going from imperial to national form of its organizations). Historical pause of energy 20

superpower will be able to become a fairy tale about lost time. But it can enable more predictable and more firm for self-determination of Russian society and state. Literature 1. Pain E. Between empire and nation. Modernist project and its traditionalist alternative to the national policy of Russia. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2003, 164 pp. (Pain EA Mezhdu imperiey i natsiey. Modernistsky proekt i ego traditsionalistskaia alternativa v natsionalnoy politike Rossii). 2. Yasin EG Phantom pain bygone empire / / After the Empire. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2007, pp. 7 (Yasin EG Fantomnyie boly uschedschey imperii / / Posle imperii, p. 7). 3. Yasin EG Phantom pain bygone empire / / After the Empire. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2007, pp. 10 (Yasin EG Fantomnyie boly uschedschey imperii / / Posle imperii, p. 10). 4. Yaklvenko I. Empire and the Nation / / After the Empire. M.: Foundation Liberal mission. M.: 2007, pp. 60 (Yakovenko I. Imperiya i natsiya / / Posle imperii, p. 60). 5. Yasin EG Choice whether democracy in Russia. M.: A new publishing house, 2005, pp. 339-340 (Yasin EG Prizhivietsa li demokratiya v Rossii, pp. 339340). 6. Op. by: Bolshakova OV Russian Empire: The control system (modern foreign historiography): An analytical review. M.: INION Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003, pp. 14-15. (Bolschakova OV Rossiyskaya imperiya: sistema upravleniya / Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya istoriografiya / pp. 14-15).

Chapter 1. Modernization

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I. What is the modernization Of Modernization - macro transition from traditional to modern society - a society of modernism. Today, the notion of modernization is seen mainly in three different meanings: 1) as the internal development of the countries of Western Europe and North America, referring to the new European time; 2) catching the modernization of the country's practice, not related to the first group of countries, but also seeking to catch up with them; 3) the processes of evolution of the most modernized societies (Western Europe and North America), ie upgrading as a permanent process through the implementation of reforms and innovations that today means a transition to a postindustrial society. We know that there was cultural anthropology, studying the traditional, archaic form of human coexistence. Suffice it to recall the work of classic cultural anthropology A. Krebera, L. White, M. Herskovitsa, E. Taylora. In cultural anthropology evolution of many traditional local cultures was seen primarily in two forms. 1) as a linear stadialnoy evolution of the progressive nature of relatively simple societies to ever more complex. This understanding is correlated with the classical understanding of modernization processes. These views are more or less shared in England - G. Spencer, J. McCarthy Lennane, J. Lebok, E. Taylor, J. Fraser, Germany - A. Bastian, T. Vayts, J. Lippert, France - S. Létourneau, in the United States - LG Morgan; 2) as a multi-development of different types of crops. In the latter case, greater emphasis was placed on the originality of modernization processes and options for modernization, which arise as a consequence. Modernization is seen rather as the realization of various types of histories. A well-known expert in the field of modernization of transformations S. Eyzenshtadt believes that there is at 22

present being developed and many civilizations. The problem is just that those of civilization, with many similar components, and there are points of intersection between them, continue to evolve, giving birth, new versions of various aspects of modernism, each of which offers its own program of cultural development. All this helps to diversify the approaches to the understanding of modernism and to the assessment of cultural programs initiated by different parts of contemporary societies Talking about the genealogy of the word modern, German philosopher Habermas Yu notes that it is first used in Europe at the end of V in. in order to distinguish received the official status of the Christian and pagan Roman past. In the next era of the contents of the notion of changing, but the Enlightenment and Romanticism and then filling it with meaning, соотносимым with the modern. Modern, advanced since then is that which contributes to the objective expression of spontaneously updating the relevance of the spirit of the time. As a result of acceleration of development inherent in the new time in Europe was a special civilization of modern, radically different from traditional society. Modern emerged in Western Europe due to the formation of the Protestant work ethic, market economy, bureaucracy and legal system. In Western Europe, macro modernization - the transition from the traditional (pre-industrial) society to modernize the society has taken several centuries (the industrial revolution in England, the strengthening of the bourgeoisie and its acquisition of political power by the British in 1640-1642, the United States in 1776 and 1789 g of the French . revolutions). Usually identify three periods of modernization: I period - the end of XVIII beginning of XX century.; II period - 20-60-ies. XX century.; III period - 70-90's. XX century. Several authors, including Yu Habermas and E. Giddens, believe that the era of modernization continues today as it continues the process of modernization. Some authors believe that the modern (contemporary) can not be completed in principle. Thus, the Senegalese sociologist S. Amin argues that modernity (modernity) incomplete, it opens the door to the unknown. Today 23

nezavershaema in its essence, but it involves a sequence of forms, which are very diverse overcome the contradictions of society in every moment of its history . Genealogical modern Western civilization dates back to the New Time, in different regions of the world subject to inherent institutional environment and elements of value-regulatory system. Modernization as a process and modern as its consequence, Having emerged in the western world in the XX century. were spread on a global scale. E. Giddens believes that No other, more traditional forms of community could not resist it, while maintaining complete isolation from global trends. Is moderniti exclusively Western phenomenon in terms of lifestyles, which contribute to the development of these two great forces convert? The direct answer to this question must be yes . According to the well-known Israeli sociologist S. Eisenstadt, Historically, modernization is a process of change, leading to two types of social, economic and political systems that prevailed in Western Europe and North America in the period between the XVII and XIX centuries and spread to other countries and continents . Modern society consists of four basic institutions: a competitive democracy, market economy, the welfare state and mass communication. Market economy the basis of an autonomous civil society, transcends all borders and create an open society. Unlike a detailed study of the cultural anthropology of traditional societies modernize society built on the principles: the electoral law, the rule of law; the universalization of civil rights: the institutionalization of social change, secular culture and secularization of society, urbanization, the autonomy of subsystems; rationalization; domination of the market economy, bureaucracy, professionalization , mass literacy and mass media, the growth of social and professional mobility. Society modernization consists of citizens with inalienable rights: civil, political and social. The scientific revolution of the XVII century. and technological advances have led to the transformation of members of local communities of citizens imagined community - the nation-state. Distinctive features of modernization are as follows: in the field of politics - a democratic 24

constitutional state, in state-building - go to the national State in the fields of science and education - the formation of an autonomous science in the economic sphere - the transition to capitalism. Universal package modernization transformation characteristic of the XX century., Considered Russia's cultural anthropologist EA Orlova. At the level of socio-cultural organization of social modernization in the form of motion from industrialism to postindustrializmu in the economic sphere, in politics as a movement from authoritarian to democratic regimes, as in the legal transition from conventional to a legal right. The relevant changes in socio-relevant knowledge and world view: in the religious sphere is noticeable shift from the sacred to a secular world justification in philosophy from a monistic to a pluralistic world outlook, in art - from the desire for stylistic unity to polistilistike in science - from objectivism to the anthropic principle. The combination of these broad social and cultural trends are known as upgrading . According to the definition of a well-known British expert in the field of modernization transformation B. Moore, modernization is a total transformation of traditional society domodernistskogo in a social organization that characterized the advanced , economically prosperous and politically stable nations on the West. Professor of Sociology, University of Munich U. Beck believes that the modernization is not only to education, a centralized state power, the concentration of capital and all the more subtle interplay of the division of labor and market relations, mobility, mass consumption, etc., but - here we come to the generalized model - to a triple personalization: the release of the historically given social forms and relations in the traditional sense of the circumstances of domination and the ( dimension Liberation), the loss of traditional stability in terms of effective knowledge, beliefs and accepted norms ( dimension razvolshebstvleniya ) - and how would reverse the meaning of concepts - a new type of socio-cultural integration ( dimension control and reintegration ). The second meaning of modernization understand a variety processes catching development in less developed or developing societies, modernization as a response to the challenge of modernizing Western civilization, to which each 25

company provides, or does not respond in accordance with its principles, structures and characters, set in a lengthy development . In this meaning of the term modernization refers to the underdeveloped societies, and describes their efforts to catch up with the leading, most developed countries, which co-exist with them in a historical time in a single global society. In this case, the notion of modernization describes the movement from the periphery to the center of modern society. Theories of modernization and convergence neomodernizatsii uses the term modernization in this narrow sense. On the differences and interactions between dosovremennymi (pre-industrial) societies and modern Art Nouveau in the XIX century. wrote H. Spencer, A. Conte, G. Meng, F. Tennis, E. Durkheim. Finally, the third meaning of modernization is understood as a process of transformation of innovation the most developed countries in Europe and North America, which first began the process of modernization and long-rooted in the modernist style. On the topic of transition to a postindustrial society, there is building works, in particular, D. Bell, JK Gelbreyta, R. Iglegarta, F. Fukuyama, C. Handy, L. Turou, VL Inozemtsev. Modernization as a socio-cultural macro has its theoretical basis. It represents the theory of modernization, the formation of which was influenced by evolutionism, functionalism and diffuzionizm. A fundamental contribution to the formation of scientific concepts that explain the macro-modernization, ie transition from traditional to modern society, have made O. Conte, C. Spencer, K. Marx, M. Weber, E. Durkheim, F. Tennis, P. Cooley, D. Maine. Theories of modernization in their classical form obtained scientific and public recognition in the 50's - mid 60's. XX century. As well known were the work of M. Levy, E. Hagen, T. Parsons, N. Smelzera, D. Lerner, J. Aptera, S. Eyzenshtadta, P. Berger, W. Rostow. Among the studies functionalists should mention the work of American classics and world sociology T. Parsons, the process of segregation of imported sociocultural experience in modernizing countries. T. Parsons believes that the constant attempts to divide imported inokulturny experience at an acceptable and not acceptable tends to preserve the values of a culture of high-level opening at the 26

same time, the way the radical changes at the next level of value specifications, ie at the level of major functional subsystem . Evolutionary, especially G. Spencer (1820-1903) - English philosopher, biologist, psychologist and sociologist, the main focus of their theoretical constructions made on the analysis of how society develops. The most complete H. Spencer outlined his views on the evolution of society as a fundamental work Fundamentals of Sociology. He and his followers to pay close attention to the continuity of social change, progressive, positive results of the evolutionary process, the evolutionary character of modernization processes. They believed that modernization single transformation: the less developed countries should take the same path, which have been developed countries modernize, the changes are gradual, cumulative and peaceful. They stressed the importance of exogenous, intrinsic reasons and describes the driving forces for change the terms Structural and functional differentiation, adaptive improvement evolyutsionistskimi and similar concepts. Professor of Jagiellonian University in Krakow P. Shtompka notes that in terms of the evolutionary - supporters of the theory of modernization, it was to be a general improvement in social life and the human condition. The modernization and convergence were seen as necessary, irreversible, endogenous and benefits processes. The path of modernization transformation consists of consecutive phases, segments, or stages, for example, Traditional - Transitional Modern, traditional - Stage achieve preconditions to start the change - the beginning of continuous growth - maturity - to achieve the level of mass consumption. Classical modernization theory focused on the contrast between the first and the third world. Authors, tyagotevshie to the classical theories of modernization, in general, converge in the next. The ideology of progress and is becoming increasingly secular content, throughout the period of modernization determined evropotsentrizm historical process, assuming the movement of various peoples in the ascending stairs to the rationalism and ekonomikotsentrizmu. A well-known American political scientist Robert Nisbet, summarizing the views of the classics 27

of social and political thought in progress, said that in general the classical concept of the idea can be seen as a gradual liberation of humanity from fear and ignorance of traffic on the way to ever higher levels of civilization. In this case, the theory of modernization is the private expression of the paradigm of progress. Diffuzionisty (F. Rattsel, L. Frobenius, F. Gröbner) interpreted the development process, and some of their followers and the processes of modernization, mainly as diffusion, rather than endogenously-evolutionary in nature. In contrast to the interpretation of modernization as the spontaneous tendencies of evolution, self bottom, diffuzionisty believed that he started and is controlled by top intellectual and political elite, which seeks to overcome the backwardness of their country through planned, purposeful actions. Diffusion serves as a mechanism for modernization changes. The interaction between the more developed, modernized and less developed, modernizing societies is a crucial factor in modernization. In the transition countries as the desired goal of modernization are considered developed countries of Western civilization. Hence, modernization - it is not just a spontaneous development in a progressive direction. In this understanding, modernization is a direct and desirable to a more accurate transfer inokulturnyh norms, values, institutions, patterns of work and leisure from the reference group of their own. Modernization is not a self-sustaining, samoprogressiruyuschim process. Rather, it is a transfer of specimens, models, and the achievements of developed countries to their own. Modernization processes in non-societies might be explained using evolutionary theory and diffuzionistkoy. Given the interaction of endogenous (evolyutsionistskih) and exogenous (diffuzionistskih) of the processes of modernization, the author will present their classification: Endogenous type of modernization - a process determined endogenous socio-cultural dynamics. Upgrade due to complex internal causes, self samotransformatsiey society. An example of this type of modernization, ranging from Modern Times, is the development of Western Europe and North America.

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Adaptive (catching) the kind of modernization. Practiced in states that do not belong to the western pioneer of modernization, beginning as an adaptation reaction to processes of rapid social and cultural dynamics of Western civilization in the modern, passing on a challenge - response. Divided into two subspecies: I. modernization as samovesternizatsiya. Initiated in order to achieve internal goals, which include the need to overcome the technological lag of modern Western civilization and the preservation of the state independence. This type of modernization, in turn, is divided into two subspecies: A) defense modernization. A primarily to strengthen the military-political potential of the state, changing the society serves more as a secondary process of technical and technological borrowing. Under this model, the strengthening of the modernization of the state is the absolute goal, but people only means of subsistence to an end. An example is the modernization of Russia's reforms of Peter I until the end of the Soviet period, with the exception of the reforms of Alexander II and the socio-cultural transformation of post-Soviet period. R. Bendiks noticed that only the first modernizing nation has a chance to follow his own way independently, without external pressure. All other nations are influenced by the struggle between the vanguard and the rearguard of modernization. The threat of military defeat forced laggards (Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Japan) to reform the bureaucracy and the army. This upgrade is described by the notion of defensive modernization . This extensive upgrade, based on attribution and the development of other people's cultural achievements, the results of innovation borrowing without acquiring the ability to self-innovation, which can not be borrowed. B) the liberal modernization. A change of society and the liberation of human perception, not only the technical and technological tools of Western Civilization Modern, but also the processes that led to the creation of this toolkit, the Western perception of his genealogy of the institutions, norms, values, behavior. A classic example is the reform of Alexander II, as well as the

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modernization process in Russia and former socialist countries of Eastern Europe in the 90's. XX century. II. upgrading of the foreign tutelage. It is a transformation of the sociocultural system, carried out with the direct or indirect participation by the state or the number of states belonging to the civilization of Western Modernism. Geopolitical sovereignty, as a rule, not preserved. This type of modernization, in turn, is divided into two subspecies: A) the modernization in the form of partial responsibility. A, in the spirit of the colonial and semi-policy, where one or more branches of the colonial economy serve the interests of the metropolitan economy, while other industries do not receive a significant impetus to the development. Modernization of the colonies are not reviewed and does not formulated as a problem of policy. The development of social and cultural spheres of the state is controlled by-product of the activities of the colonial administration. An example is the British colonial rule in India, which was formed vesternizirovannaya the Indian elite, which began the struggle for liberation from colonial rule. B) the modernization in the form of systemic involvement, one or more states initiate and assume full responsibility for the modernization processes in the ward areas. An example may serve as Germany and Japan after the Second World War. The scheme is conditional, in practice there is mixing of internal and external factors that determined the processes of modernization, while the diffuse component dominates in the process of modernization of non-transition societies. In the 70's - mid 80's. XX century. the concept of progress in general and the theory of modernization, in particular, have been subjected to substantial revaluation. In the framework of scientific discourse and public consciousness has been questioned as a model of the evolutionary arrangement of the world, its modernization, and the very concept of progress. Critics of modernization theory pointed to the low efficiency of transformation of modernization in third world countries, in their partial or total exclusion. It was recognized that persists and is 30

likely to continue to remain a significant diversity of the country modern. For example, the famous Israeli sociologist S. Eyzenshtadt noted that the contradiction - between the uniqueness of the West and the fact that he was like a model for the rest of the world, but on the other hand, the specifics of the dynamics of other civilizations, it was not obvious at the time of Marx and Weber, when the spread of capitalism and modernization outside Europe was in its early stages. But it has become much more apparent at later stages of modernization after the Second World War . As a result of modernization processes in different regions of the world, it turned out that the modernization process and the results are influenced by sociocultural traditions of the recipient countries. Transforming society perceive inokulturnye innovation, changing them, getting in the output hybrid design, combining elements of the imported material inokulturnogo and local sociocultural traditions. The authenticity of the original samples and the practical effectiveness of the hybrid structures are usually not high. With regard to the observed in the XX century. the global spread of modernization processes and institutional modernization, the picture emerges of the macro in this way. Until the second half of XX century. real superiority of Western civilization in the geographical area which gave birth to modern, over the rest of the world was the predominant, if not absolute. As an alternative for most of the last century advocated socialist project is, above all in the USSR, a desperate attempt to achieve the quantitative performance of Modernism. Socialist modernization options practiced during the XX century. in various countries around the world, especially in the USSR, was, despite all the ideological differences, only one of the branches of general modernization process, the adaptation of non-response. It is no accident that, outside the traditional range of modernizing it was perceived socialist modernization option, since it is correlated with the collective mentality of non societies. It is close to socialism collectivism of Asia, so far as individualistic Euro-Atlantic civilization, where his chances negligible. Revolutionary situation in Germany and Hungary after the October 31

Revolution in Russia, as in the case of Russia were the result of defeat in World War I, the consequence of a predominantly autochthonous development. The second alternative projects, do not claim to universality, a project of national socialism. It should be remembered that modernization processes are a synthesis of progressive and inverse dynamics, progress and regression, though, in dealing with a long diahronnom context, dominated by incremental dynamic processes. As a dialectical combination raznovektornyh dynamic processes, an example of negative adaptive response to the challenge of Euro-Atlantic civilization modernization can be considered the experience of totalitarian regimes of the XX century., Including particularly the experience of Nazi Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union. Using technological advances modernization combined with the denial of democratic forms of organization of society, human rights, severe regulations creative potential of individuals. Due rooting totalitarianism proved most difficult development of culture and society, have inherent capability of self-organization, the properties of open and nonequilibrium systems. Totalitarian regimes of the XX century. persistent external shell modern society, render it essential, ontological foundation. Countries in the second wave of modernization include Germany last century, behind politically and economically more developed countries. German National Socialists tried to adapt the technology to the modern open society goals of the totalitarian, closed society. Fascism in Germany was a reaction to the strengthening of internal social and cultural crisis and foreign policy defeat. In this case, rather, on the use of potency of modernization in the instrumental field of application of advances in technology, military construction, partly in the economy. Totalitarian regimes have sought to adapt some of these developments for the re-establishment of a closed society, an ideology which is a mixture of rationalism and irratsionalizma, reliance on science and at the same time, the most archaic, syncretic of sociocultural traditions. In the second half of XX century. situation changed radically, Germany, starting with its western part became part of and, subsequently, a key structural 32

element of European Modernism. Rather difficult path in this direction and some other countries of the European continent, including Italy and Spain and later Poland, Hungary and other former socialist countries, are gradually integrating into the Euro-Atlantic civilization modern. The rest of humanity as defined in the years after the Second World War as the Third World, not only has failed to provide a universal alternative, but effective local development options for non-states. The situation changed in the second half of XX century. When modernization has led to the spread of modernization is far beyond the Western civilization. One example of this - a dynamic, economically and socially successful group of Asian States, the processes of modernization in the Islamic civilization, including the attempt to construct the economy, taking into account the practice followed in the religious establishment (the prohibition on lending vzymanie per cent in the Koranic tradition). Western civilization period modernization mainly develops in the horizontal plane, leaving behind a brace, the increasingly reduced, the vertical dimension. Note that the vertical direction, we understand the value of sacred, the transcendent dimension, and a horizontal direction - the value of the earth's physical life. This is a departure from the sacred, transcendental values reflected, in particular, to transform and enrich the new, secular Christian content on their genealogy structures. Non-civilization is not long enough to answer the call period of modernization in the West largely because of their civilization priorities lie in the dominance of vertical measurement above the horizontal. As part of the modernization process, the desire of catch up and overtake State modernize without losing or at least not radically transforming traditional civilizational identity is rather problematic. In the case of practical implementation of these transformational projects achieved, usually at the cost of extreme tension of forces of society and the state, received raznovektornoe direction of movement of the system can not function effectively in any of these planes. Continues today and infantilism mifologizm 33

mass consciousness, and not only in Russia, continues to focus on the possibility of achieving the whole range of benefits of civilization and living standards, nothing significant will not be donating. So the Arab-Muslim religious thinker S. Qutb described the ideal Muslim society, which in its material life would be in line with modern (Western) civilization, and the spirit, philosophy - religious beliefs, ideas about life, the goal of human life, the place of human the universe, about its unique properties, rights and responsibilities - based on providentsializme . Attempts to modernize the plane in the measurement of civilization, which includes the economy, forms of organization of society, technology, etc., while maintaining the priority of the vertical measurement of civilization, its spiritual, religious component - it is not utopia. However, the desire to preserve the civilizational identity leads to an individual each time the ratio of local (civilization) and universal (stadialnogo). This ratio in the context of the local civilization, in turn, is not static, but is determined by the intensity of endogenous facing its historical and sociocultural dynamics of adaptation in nature with respect to the dynamics of exogenous, produced in the period of Western civilization modern. In the second half of last century, the processes of modernization have become global. Modernization of the previous era of globalization has created. Globalization has become a source and resource upgrading, initiating dramatic changes in the living world in which Western societies have been pioneers. This is a long, historical process, which includes a number of defining elements of culture and human emancipation. Today it can be argued that globalization is a modern-up single and universal project Nouveau. Globalization is manifested in the movement towards an integrated economic, legal, informational, educational and, ultimately, cultural space, is the present stage of modernization. It is a seamless, vector flow modernization / globalization of change, a move towards integrated, complementary to peace, based on the institutions and values of Western civilization modern. 34

Globalization is the product of accelerating the socio-cultural dynamics of the whole world, that leads to a location geographically, socially, culturally remote locality in a single spatio temporal continuum in the space of a single cause-effect relationships. Globalization is the spread of macro-institutional and regulatory environment, the value of Western civilization modernize globally, resulting in greater permeability of the borders of nation-states and a significant weakening of national sovereignty, when a number of government functions are transferred to the transnational level. This process is due to various reasons, primarily emerging reduction, noting the functions of the national state to the functions of local government (postal services, part of the education system, police powers, etc.). The most important of them - the completeness of geo-political sovereignty on its territory - subject to redefinition, evolution occurs in the direction of reducing the powers of the nationstate. During the late modernize fewer states can seriously talk about national security with the help of the armed forces, economic, educational, fiscal space is increasingly becoming supranational character, the less control at the national level. In the process of globalization, the identity of the upgraded person transcends national boundaries, becoming transnational forms of identity. This increases the level of freedom, transforming the national community and cultural traditions. The forms of social prestige, reference patterns, norms and values are simulated and are broadcast within the emerging global information and cultural space. Now you can identify with the global transkulturnymi forms of social solidarity, which largely replaces an earlier identification with the world's religions and nations, nation states. Today, the vector of historical and socio-cultural dynamics has shifted from the institutionalized, vertically integrated forms of social solidarity to the network forms (R. Castells), social movements, global, ie west of its genealogy norms, values, behaviors. Man era of the late modernization can identify with the transnational movements, including anti, environmentalists (Greenpeace), sexual 35

minorities, youth movements Nonconformist type, with the owners of cars, washing machines, shampoo, with consumers of certain brands of reference products and services. A person can act as owner of the house built for a specific project, the car model, make a choice between the huge consumer communities amateurs Pepsi or Coca-Cola, root for the football team, often representing the nation state of which he is, solidariziruyas with fans of this club etc. Moreover, new forms of identity and solidarity constitute an identification with the cultural products produced by the media on a global scale. Personality may be aware of themselves as part of a prestigious social groups that are created and reproduced by means of advertisements in various forms. Imperial Russia and the liberal model of modernization In describing the processes of modernization in Russia, a number of authors, notably A. Kara-Murza and A. Wiśniewski, resorted to the term conservative modernization, vstraivaya Russia in a number of countries that are seeking a fullfledged entry into the modern, focused on preserving or slow transformation of traditional values, institutions and relations. From our point of view, the use of the term conservative modernization in relation to Russia does not at least because the aim of dominating the line of Russian modernization is not the transformation of the system of Russian civilization in the modern. This distance was shown both before and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 Thus, L. Pellikani believed that the Bolshevik revolution in Russia was the radical attempt to stop the spread of Western culture. The Soviet system tried to take only the civilization of western science and technology, abandoning the rest. Industrial power of the Bolsheviks used to control the West and building a society hostile to individualism and secular , that is very hostile grounds modern. Similar position is of the well-known English scholar in the field of international relations K. Kouker, thinks that all non-aggravated communism in Russia. Lenin was the 36

product of the Russian reaction against the West, not the catalyst for Westernization country . We do not believe it is correct with regard to Russia, and the use of the term catching development, although some authors working on the Russian modernization transformation, and believe that Russia is developing mainly in the framework of this model of modernization. Despite the fact that in some historical situations, the direction of movement in Europe (or U.S.) as advanced as Russia and catching the same, but when considering the situation in the context of a centuries-old historical interaction / combat Russia and Euro-Atlantic civilization area members of the race is no longer runner moving in the same direction on different, but unidirectional tracks. Divergent paths of historical, civilizational paradigms of development is clear, so it is quite difficult to talk about catching development in the strict sense of the term. We believe that the task of understanding the nature of modernization processes in Russia requires a special term and put in a special typological series. Our central thesis is as follows. As a result of centuries of historical interaction with Western civilization in Russia has consistently played ambivalent situation in which socio-cultural foundation of the Russian civilization, and are determined internally stabilized pendulum cycle, where the dominant imperial model of modernization with the alternate components of the model of liberal. This modernization process has a stable dominant - an imperial model of modernization. It seems not only possible but also necessary to consider the issue of Russia's modernization is not as samorazvertyvayuschiysya processes taking place in itself as something natural, but as one aspect of makroistoricheskogo interaction with Euro-Atlantic civilization modern. What is the imperial modernization? Empire is not aimed to evolve in the direction of integration into civilization modern, in fact, she is afraid of the liberal transformation and internal weaknesses inherent in the adoption inokulturnyh the institutions of political democracy, the capitalist market, the need to make commitments in any significant amount of respect for human rights. 37

The objectives of imperial modernization is not to be reborn, softening of the empire, it is important to take from the enemy, only those elements that allow him to confront (in a soft option - to compete). Imperial modernization does not imply a structural transformation of society, but mostly the changes in those or other areas, primarily related to the needs of military construction. Moreover, the imperial modernization is carried out primarily in the stabilization and conservation of the basic characteristics of the empire, which served as inokulturnye borrowing, and the achievement of competitiveness of certain elements of cultural and civilizational system. Thus, with respect to private, but it is a representative case of imperial modernization of the Soviet period, Pellikani believes that if the modern society the legal society, the communist states in their actions are not bound by any laws. Communist states was not the totalitarian version of the modern state, as has denied all the main principles of modern and borrows only the scientific and technological advances for the rule of the party bureaucracy . Imperial modernization is not related to deconstruction empire, on the contrary, its success contributed to the challenges of building and imperial reproduction in the new historical and sociocultural conditions. It is the specificity of the tasks can be considered as a special imperial modernization of historical and cultural phenomenon. We presented a general model of imperial modernization, of course, that the real historical and sociocultural processes proceed not so straightforward and mehanistichno. Confrontation and conflict are also a form of cultural and civilizational dialogue, and his dialectic does not fit tight in the mechanistic scheme. Deviations from these schemes do not abrogate the common logic, built in the context of the historical interaction with Europe, reflected in asymmetric and non-combination of imperial and liberal models of Russian modernization. Under the liberal model, we understand a type of perception of cultural and civilizational experience of the West, which involves the transformation of Russian society in a liberal direction. According to the point of view, J. Berbank, imaginary 38

West has become a model for the imaginary or antimodelyu Russia , and the binary opposition to cut off the possibility of other cultural projects. Thus, the historical dialectic of relations between Russia and the West in the context of modernization acquires another dimension, which is not only an internal dimension of Russian civilization. The imperial and liberal model of modernization in Russia's history is not just in a position consistent alternation, this sequence is not so linear. As for the effect of different trends, they almost always operate in parallel. At a time when the empire is going through a stage of imperial modernization inokulyurnye elements illegitimate in relation to the socio-cultural elements of the imperial system, the system will inevitably penetrate: The desire to complete the transformation of the most archaic social institutions adjoining the negative perception of the Western experience of capitalist modernization. The desire to preserve the dignity of real or perceived national culture with one or other of the socio-cultural characteristics of the structure included in contradiction with the process even highly restricted military and administrative reforms . Penetrating into the Russian socio-cultural space, these elements contributes inokulturnye internal erosion of the imperial grounds, thereby preparing the ground for the subsequent surge of liberal modernization trends. In turn, the abundance inokulturnyh elements, accompanied by the weakening of the imperial grounds of social and cultural systems, ferment in society, and usually varying degrees of stringency of the repressive response of the imperial system. Constant penetration in the Russian socio-cultural system of European influence, infiltration in the Russian socio-cultural system of the West on its own genealogy of elements largely determine the ambivalent feelings of attraction and rejection, which is Russia against the West, which was ... for the Russians at the same time and the aim sought by the and the purpose for which the shoot ... . What's curious, for the Russian Westerners West - rather, embodied understanding of the proper state of affairs: West for Westerners - just the ideal point of view, rather than the cultural and geographic reality. At the other extreme, social and 39

cultural life, a sign of changing perceptions of the Western civilization on the opposite: ... the West of us is evil. This encourages fear, active agent for the protection of our values, active to partitsipatsii and our highest Truth, stimulates fear of failure, which automatically leads to evil partitsipatsii to the West . It should be noted that the reflection on the Asian components of the Russian civilization in the public consciousness is expressed much more weakly than the constant debate about our relationship to Europe. It is noted that in Russia there are different inner Asia - Asian peoples and Asian territories, but all the same it can not be attributed to the East itself, because for many centuries, has modernized its Eurasian. Empire citizens are opposed to liberal civilization feelings of attraction and rejection. On the one hand, the empire seeks to acquire attractive benefits of a liberal civilization - trade, knowledge, technology, but on the other hand, rejects the imperial consciousness of the whole system, which produces these benefits. Faced with an abundance inokulturnyh borrowing Imperial sociocultural system is afraid of rebirth, because, to quantified levels inokulturnye elements of self and begin to play the system entirely. Here it is appropriate to recall T. Parsons, the process of segregation of imported sociocultural experience in modernizing countries, and noting that the constant attempts to divide imported inokulturny experience at an acceptable and not acceptable tends to preserve the values of a culture of high-level opening in the same time of radical change inheriting the road-level value specifications, ie at the level of major functional subsystems . From our point of view, in Russia these changes at the level of major functional subsystems strictly dose because zaimstvuemoe shall operate within the narrow, tightly bounded through and in no case no root, otherwise disistemnye elements can make for an alternative system. Therefore, dosing and segregation inokulturnyh elements is a challenge to the decision by imperial consciousness always take very seriously.

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The existing mechanism for the maintenance of internal stability of Russia's socio-cultural system, the permanent replacement of imperial consciousness hinders innovation. System is protected from the environment through control and suppression of undesirable from the perspective of elites, social and cultural information. Statistics for the kingdom, the Russian empire, the Soviet Union sought to take inokulturnuyu, primarily western, information relating to the technological tool. Thus was achieved by the reproduction of social and cultural, religious identity, delaying the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, where the image of education, devoid of any thorough education and citizenship, and recognized them (Moscow - SG), the authorities of the best for their nation and the most consonant with their to rule that the people would have been unlikely to move, if received any education and a better understanding of God, as well as a good device. To this end, the kings of destroying all means to improve it and try to avoid anything foreign, that could change the native traditions . In summary we note that the modernization process in the Russian society in the external dimension determined teleology of imperial West confrontation, which is expressed in an ambivalent relation of attraction and repulsion. In the internal dimension of modernization process determined the dynamics of the dominant imperial struggle and serving as components of a liberal model of modernization. Literature 1. Benedict R. The images of the culture / / Man and Sociocultural Environment. M., 1992. 2. Benedict R. Chrysanthemum and the sword: Patterns of Japanese culture. M., 2004. 3. Le Havre SN Upgrading for the sake of empire. Sociocultural Aspects of Russian modernization. M., 2004. 4. Giddens A. Sociology M., 1999. 41

5. Girts K. Interpretation of Cultures. M., 2004. 6. James W. The multiplicity of religious experience. M., 1993. 7. K. Klakhon Mirror for man. Introduction to the anthropology of St. Petersburg., 1998. 8. Levy brulee L. supernatural in the primeval mind. M., 1994. 9. Levi-Strauss C. Prehistoric thinking. M., 1999. 10. Levi-Strauss C. Prehistoric thinking. M., 1994. 11. Levi-Strauss C. Structural anthropology. M., 1985. 12. Malinovsky B. Magic and Religion / / Religion and Society. M., 1996. 13. Malinovsky B. Death and reintegration of the group / / Religion and Society: Хрестоматия on the sociology of religion. M., 1996. 14. M. Moss Society. Sharing. Personality. M., 1996. 15. Orlova EA Social and cultural preconditions of modernization in Russia. Library in an era of change. Vol. 2 (10) Moscow, 2001. 16. Parsons T. The system of modern societies. M., 1997. 17. Habermas Yu Philosophical Discourse of Modernism. M., 2003. 18. Shtompka P. Sociology of Social Change. M., 1996. 19. Evans-Pritchard E. Nuer. M., 1985. 20. Eybl-Eybesfeldt I. Public space and its social role / / of Culture. 1983. Number 1. 21. Eyzenshtadt S. Plurality modernism in an age of globalization / / Globalization: The contours of the XXI century. M., 2002. 22. Eyzenshtadt S. revolution and social transformation. A comparative study of civilizations. M, 1999. 23. Fomichev PN Discourses of globalization and trends in the development of sociology: Analytical review / / Sociological research on the threshold of XXI century. / RAS. INION. M., 2000. 24. Dusk Kouker K. West. M., 2000. 25. Kravchenko II Modernization of Russia today / / Etatistskie model of modernization. M., 2002. S. 6-30. 42

26. Fedotova, VG Modernization other in Europe. M., 1997. 27. Geller M.Ia. The machine and screws. The history of the formation of Soviet man. M., 1994. 28. Fomichev PN Discourses of globalization and trends in the development of sociology: Analytical review / / Sociological research on the threshold of XXI century. / RAS. INION. M., 2000. 29. Bolshakova OV The paradigm of modernization in the Anglo-American rusistike (Russian Empire) / / Political Science. Political development and modernization: Modern studies: Sat. science. tr. / RAS. YNION. Social Center. scientific inform. Issled.; Otd. political science. Ross, Assoc. politics, science, Ed. Ed. and status. AG Volodin. M, 2003. 30. Solovyov EG At the root of Russian conservatism / / Political Studies. M., 1997. Number 3. 31. Pivovarov Yu.S. Russian history as the Russian idea. Part II. Vlastetsentrichnye iideologicheskie grounds / / Russia and the modern world. 2003. Number 3. 32. Lotman YM Symbolism of St. Petersburg and the problem of semiotics city / / Selected articles from: 3 t. T. 2. Tallinn, 1992. 33. Akhiezer AS Russia: historical experience of the critic. 2. M., 1991. 34. Fedotova, VG Between Europe and Asia / / Westerners and nationalists: Is dialogue possible?: Proceedings of the debate. M., 2003. 35. Parsons T. Essays social system / / A social systems / Ed. VF Chesnokov, and SA Belanovskogo. M., 2002.

II. Political culture: from traditional society to modern society. Political culture - the way people's participation in political life, which includes norms, values, behaviors adopted in national policies and manifested in the form of government. 43

Cultural anthropology has initially primitive, archaic societies, examining in particular the way of social organization and political structure. In varying degrees, the subject turned to cultural anthropologists James Feyblman ( Type Culture), Alfred L. Kreber ( Style and Civilization), Ruth Benedict ( Chrysanthemum and the sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture and The psychological types of cultures South-Western USA ), Leslie A. White ( The Economic Structure of high culture ), EB Taylor ( Prehistoric culture), the latest M. Salins, M. Harris, S. Tyler, D. Schneider and others, of course, that the very notion of P. r. in the study of primitive, archaic societies did not have long had been his and the scientific use. However, since the state in one form or another, there was political life, especially that expressed PK and political life of society is a process and result of the political activities of various social groups, sectors, individuals and political institutions created by them. Even Aristotle wrote that ... man by nature is inherently political (politikon zoon), and those who by their very nature, not due to accidental circumstances, living outside the state - or underdevelopment in the moral sense of the substance or superman . The inclusion of the political sphere in the space of culture in the German and Russian traditions it is the traditional research culture: The political and social sphere are part of the human sphere, composed of a set of humanitarian problems ... the spirit should include it in this population, which, if it lacks the political, social element to detect a dangerous culture gap , - wrote in 1939, Thomas Mann article Culture and Politics . In Russia in 1896, in the encyclopedic dictionary Brockhaus and Efrona, it was noted that the consideration of the cultural history of the culture is divided into physical, mental and social. We include the political sphere of culture, as well as economic, environmental, legal, or talking about the economic, environmental, legal and political culture. Descriptions of national character and to the people of shared political, religious and other values even in antiquity are found in books on geography. Interesting in this respect History Herodotus and Geography Strabon generalizing 44

knowledge about the countries and peoples of Europe, Asia and Africa. From Modern Times can be the work of S. Puffundorfa (1632-1694), D. Viko Foundations of the new science of the general nature of nations (1725), S. Montesquieu the spirit of the law (1748), IG Herder Ideas for the philosophy of history (1784-1791), G. Hegel Philosophy of History (lectures 1820), etc. The very phrase P. r. belongs to the German philosopher IG Herder. A Ideas for the philosophy of history, in considering the political life of the ancient Greeks and Jews, he uses the term PK But research XVIII and XIX centuries. The term P. room is rare and often limited to the so-called politics of culture . The scientific concept of PK has been developed in the mid-twentieth century. in works of political philosophers, G. Almond and S. Verba, later Robert Tucker. For the first time introduced into scientific use the notion of P. r. American sociologist G. Almond in 1956, in the expanded form of the concept of PK has been presented in joint work with S. pussy 1963 Civic Culture: political attitudes and democracy in five countries . G. Almond and S. Verba consider the term culture only in one sense: the psychological orientation on the social sites. When we talk about the political culture of a society, we mean the political system, the lessons in the minds, feelings and evaluations of the population . G. Almond uses the concept of PK for the analysis of social consciousness that influences the emergence and functioning of political institutions, individual and mass political behavior. In 1963, the book Civic Culture. Political attitudes and democracy in five countries G. Almond and S. Verba define PK as the focus for a political effect. PK - is a set of attitudes about a certain amount of social objects and processes ... When we talk about the political culture of a society, we mean the political system, the lessons in the minds, feelings and evaluations of the population. They identify three types of orientation to political action: Cognitive (learning) orientation, covering the knowledge and opinions about the political system, its roles and the media. Afektivnye (emotional) orientation, reflecting the feelings experienced in relation to the political system, its role, effectiveness and 45

engagement in this political system of citizens. Evaluation targeting, containing personal attitude to the political system, its participants and their actions. But there is also a broader definition of the PK example, A.Ya. Flier believes that the scope of PK is composed of specialized areas of public policy, ideology, managerial work, military and police matter, etc.; everyday - interpersonal relations between people in a private interaction. In the area of interest PK is composed of not only the identification of specific forms of exercise of power, conflict management, cooperation, and social analysis of the mythology in the light of their rational and historical grounds. Regarding the typology of PK, the G. Almond and S. Verba in The Civic Culture identify three main types of PK: patriarchal; poddannicheskaya; participation. Patriarchal PK (PK or local communities). In these societies, there is no specialized political roles. Leaders, chiefs, shamans - are mixed political-economic and religious roles. For members of such societies on the political orientation of these roles are inseparable from the religious or social orientations. Patriarchal orientation to include the relative lack of expectations of change, initiated by the political system. Thus, in the central African tribes and principalities PK largely patriarchal, although no more specific policy roles in these societies may mean the emergence of a more differentiated the political orientations. Even large-scale and more differentiated political system may be in a patriarchal culture. But on the net patriarhalizm more likely to occur in simple traditsionalisticheskih systems where political specialization is minimal. Patriarchal culture in a more differentiated political systems, rather, affective and normative than cognitively. This means that people in the tribes of Nigeria and Ghana are vaguely aware of the existence of a central political regime. But their feelings about the regime of uncertain or negative, and they are not internalized [not accepted] relationship with him. Poddannicheskaya PK. There exist strong orientation on the differentiated political system and that the system gives outlet, but the orientation on the specific 46

objects at the entrance system and about themselves as an active participant in a very weak. The subject of such a system (subject) is aware of the existence of government and sensual focused on her, her pride might possibly not loving it and appreciating it as legitimate or not. But the attitude towards the system in general and to the fact that it gives outlet, ie to the administrative side of the political system or the downward flow, basically this is a limited form of passive knowledge and participation, which corresponds to poddannicheskoy culture. We are talking about pure poddannicheskih orientation, most likely in societies where there are no mature and differentiated from other parts of the system structures at the entrance. Poddannicheskie orientation in the political system that has developed democratic institutions, rather, will be affective and normative than cognitive. For example, French royalist knows of the existence of democratic institutions, but he does not consider them legitimate. PK participation. Culture, in which members of the community is definitely focused on the system in general, as well as both the political and administrative structures and processes, in other words, as the input, and in the off of the political system. Individual members of a political system can be positively or negatively oriented towards different classes of political objects. They tend to focus on the active own role in politics, though their feelings and evaluation of such roles can range from denial to acceptance ... Civic culture - is first and foremost, loyal to a culture of participation. Individuals do not only focus on entry policy, to participate in it, but they also have a positive focus on the front structure and input processes. In other words, using the terms imposed by us, civic culture - is the involvement of PK, where PK and political structure are in harmony and consistent with each other. Twentieth century. as examples poddannicheskoy PK gave an ideology and political practices of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, although its elements are present in more developed societies. Actually it should be noted that the patriarchal, poddannicheskaya culture and the culture of participation does not 47

always exist in its pure and holistic form vzaimoperepletayas and complementing each other. From the standpoint of cultural anthropology can be said about the unit PK for authoritarian / totalitarian private and civil society (the liberal-democratic) culture, characteristic of an open society (defined by K. Popper). K. Popper opposed earlier forms of social organization, tribal society as a closed - of modern society as open. The history of social thought in general, and PK, in particular, can be interpreted as the history of the struggles of these two opposing methods of social organization. It should be remembered that, originally, historically, society was closed - closed were tribal culture, despotism Ancient World, the Middle Ages. PK open society, viewed from the perspective of cultural anthropology - it is rather an exception to the rule than the rule. From the perspective of historical trends PK Open Society is an innovation. Closed society of the patriarchal or poddannichesky type PK in the classification of G. Almond, authoritarian or totalitarian type PK in the classification of KS Hajiyeva, PK closed or detainee Society for the classification of K. Popper. K. Popper analyzed totalitarianism in historical retrospect, draws a parallel between the different types of closed societies: the tribal organization, fascism, communism, religious fundamentalism. For a closed society is characterized by a tradition of legal team, expressed in absolutism, conservatism, totalitarianism and kommunitarizme. This tradition, with all the differences, does not negate the commitment to various forms of team, traced from ZH.ZH. Russo and G. Hegel to the VI Lenin, K. Schmidt, and other conservative revolutionaries, at least for Yu Habermas. For the PK closed societies tend to restrict amateur dramatic society as a whole and certain groups, including professional associations, self-governing territories (the limit of federalism), and other subjects of the political process. It is characterized by the dominance of the horizontal and vertical linkages, the 48

relationship of subordination, rather than cooperation, power monologue rather than dialogue with society. A man in a political culture took a clearly defined place in the social hierarchy, associating himself with the group, whose interests prevail over its interests. This PK is not nominalistichna, actor it is not an individual, a people or group: Are you - nothing, your people - all - this slogan of the German National Socialists was the highest expression of our collective grounds PK closed society. In tribal societies are socially established norms, rules and representations are sacred legitimation. Members of society do not refleksiruyut in relation to the action of forces which they feel the magic, to the authority of the priests, and later, and the secular authorities. Magic rituals and taboos regulate all aspects of life in society, including prejudice individual acts in a particular situation, eliminating him from the necessity of choice, the need to make decisions, followed by personal responsibility. As part of the PK closed society widespread idea of the common historical destiny for all individuals, otherworldly reward for any acts committed in the worldly life. The idea of a common destiny, shared salvation, or death, is dominated by the idea of personal destiny and dostizhitelnosti in all segments of the social and cultural life. J. Ellyul wrote: Think about all of the political, mask, all use of the word (along with references to philosophers, from Plato and others), to give everything in the hands of the state, to appeal to the State under any circumstances, to comply with the problems of individual group issues, believing that everyone is up to the level of political relations and sufficiently mature to deal with them - these are the factors that characterize the politicization of the modern man . In the PK closed society articulate the idea of social justice, understood not as a desire for equal opportunity for competition in different segments of the social and cultural spheres as well as equitable distribution (eg, in pre-revolutionary Russian village land distribution by the number of knife and fork, but not ablebodied peasants). This negative attitude toward profit, non-capitalist approach to 49

pricing, as the balance between supply and demand, anything that leads to the individualization and greater autonomization rights from the state, and local high society. But today is manifested draft rights to a culture of closed societies. Thus, the modern German dramatist Boto Strauss argues that the country is only so strong, how much of its sense of community, or spiritual unity: The history of calls ... revolt against the dominance of the total, which excludes the individual, denying him any kind of ill - past, the historical occurrence, mystical time . This thirst for life in a mystical time, far from being harmless, the fact is that as he wrote conservative theorist of revolution K. Schmitt, metaphysical picture of the world, created in a certain period, has the same structure, which is inherent in this era of self-evident form of political organization . In other words, mystical updated picture of the world is a threat to the restoration of the political organization of society, the next disruption in the Archaic, the treatment of socio heritage closed society. Characterized in that sense, the long and painful way to Germany from PK closed society in the PK open society. Back in 1923, a classic of German literature T. Mann said that the German request to be committed to ... that is called freedom of the peoples of Europe, it would be ... tantamount to a requirement to violence over its nature . As we know, such a disruption in the Archaic, the desire to cross the results of a new time and the French Revolution happened in Germany 30-40-ies. Twentieth century. In its totalitarian version of this PK seek to achieve the modernization of civilization for the rebuilding of obsolete socio-cultural traditions, while relying on rationalism and irratsionalizm, science and transcendental essence. K. Schmitt Substantsialnaya homogeneity is to be established - if necessary - by separation or destruction of heterogeneous ... The path to the liberation of the German people of the century-old distemper bourgeois constitutionalism was given by Hitler.

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In other words, all individuals who for one reason or another do not fit into this substantsionalnuyu homogeneity must be isolated or destroyed. Theory of the State, the proposed K. Schmitt, is one of the many attempts to impose unity and using the so-called absolute values to commit violence against the person of irreplaceable individuals. Thus, the PK closed society the interests of the individual are subordinated to the interests of known power, the nation state. Legal person is required to live in the paradigm of service, feel only a small part of the whole, with meaning only insofar as it serves the interests of the whole. In the second half of XX century. the situation has radically changed. Germany, beginning with its western part became part of and, subsequently, a key structural element of European Modernism. Enough to have already done the difficult way, or continue to do the other countries of the European continent, including Italy and Spain and later Poland, Hungary and other former socialist countries. Today on the way got up and some CIS countries, notably Ukraine. The process of expanding the geographical boundaries of the spread of PK open society is not complete. The latter extends farther to the south and east. It is important to note that PK modern, ie, an open, secular civil society. Today, in an open public confession of one's religion and adherence to atheism is a purely private affair of the individual, not as a state ideology. Since the French Revolution the church separated from state. In North America and much of the European states to build a society of abundance (or the consumer society), the most comfortable in material terms in relation to man. But atavistic ideology of private events are taking place in an open society, which is reflected in particular in relation to consumer society, his critique of secular and religious positions. Thus, John Paul II during his visit to Lviv, said that: We can not move from the communist regime to captivity captive consumerism, which is a form of materialism, which, although in words does not deny God, but denies his facts, except his of life .

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But the process of secularization immanenten PK open society, gradually spreading not only in the area of the Christian world, which is now referred to as a world posthristianskom, but outside this range, for example, in Turkey. From the speech of Ahmet Evin: It is rather difficult to find a man who would be willing to openly say that he does not believe in God (if there is, of course, does not refer to other denominations). However, such people with each passing year becomes more and more. Public opinion is learn that the question of faith - an area of privacy rights beyond government and society. Individualism gradually adopted in Turkey . This is one of many indications that the PK open society is gradually spreading throughout the world, although it is uneven and fraught with failures macro. And nothing, it can not do the group of religious fundamentalists, extremists suicide, preachers and administrators. Modern democratic societies of Western civilization are modernizing classic open societies, in the terminology of K. Popper. Open society in line with the liberal-democratic type PK (for classification of KS Hajiyeva) or civic culture (in the classification of G. Almond and S. Вербы). You can say that the civic culture - this is PK loyal involvement, characterized by consistency and conformity of PK and political structures. It represents a synthesis of PK participation in the patriarchal and poddannicheskoy political culture. In becoming parties to the political process, citizens at the same time not abandoning its poddannicheskih or patriarchal attitudes, which makes civil PK sustained in the process of reproduction, geographical and temporal translation. PK modernization, involving institutionalized activity of the free individual, it creates a functional mode of activity of executive power when the main branch has become a bureaucratic administration, a pragmatic and coherent policy management. Institutional order policy is becoming a complete system view, which corresponds to coherent hierarchy of legal institutions.

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Development of civil culture, creating a space free of political selfdetermination of the associated individuals, requires the executive to act not so much the state will support or managerial rationality, but rather a mediator and arbitrator of political communication, no coordination of efforts by the political order is possible. Human history can be viewed as accelerating the process of allocating rights of the first natural and then from a social environment. The most articulate and clearly this process was reflected in an open society, which arose and was institutionalized centrality of the individual instead of a tribe, group, nation. You can talk about modularity rights era of modernization, its ability to be integrated into various social strata, to choose the professional field of expertise, to participate in the election of the central and local (regional) authorities. Humans are increasingly beginning to determine their actions and bear the consequences for their full personal responsibility. The most important reason, which is based on the open society is protoliberalnaya / liberal tradition of normative individualism, the centrality of megatendentsy, characteristic of the modern era, genealogy dates back to the idea of social contract, which runs from T. Hobbes, ZH.ZH. Rousseau. In the history of social thought in this tradition include J. Locke, W. Bentama, I. Kant, B. Humboldt, J. St. Mill, John Rawls and others as a systematic concept of the person, property, society and state, liberalism promotes the emergence and the stereotyping of innovation, favoring individualism, antikonstruktivizmu and skepticism. In practical terms, liberalism promotes the development of a market economy, which dramatically improves the welfare of mankind for the past half century. Especially civil PK is its autonomy, rationality, democracy, tolerance and pluralism. Civilian PK has gradually become a reference political culture of modernity, not only in the area of Christian / posthristianskoy civilization. In the political sphere, the planetary expansion PK open society leads to the unification and gradual deconstruction colorful and heroic, but the types of anti-PK 53

For the last a zero-sum game is not typical, the problems most often removed in a compromise form, there is a balance of interests, none of the participants in the political process does not drive in the hopeless situation. The dialogue takes precedence over monologue, there is a willingness to compromise with an opponent. In the Netherlands or the Scandinavian countries there are already elements of a fundamentally democratic everyday life, which everyone knows that it is impossible to arrange. Political culture needs a good climate - no Prussian . A. Camus, said that in the Mediterranean (western) world Politics is for people, not people for policy. It distinguishes the refusal to sacrifice for this greater goodness, willingness to tolerate ambiguity and difference rather than to remove them from political life ... This tolerance is not typical of the northern world (we would say a closed society) - a world of order, violence and unimaginative tendency to wars, which is German people. These are the Germans before the Second World War, when they have not yet adopted the PK values of open society are not included in the Euro-Atlantic civilization to modernize its genealogy. Today, globalization is happening and in the PK, the cultural impact of modern society into the traditional society. Forecast Yu Habermas on the possible direction of further development of the current situation: The future of the various national cultures could otdifferentsirovatsya general PK. Features PK era of globalization, of course determined by the processes of globalization, when the global approach to culture, economics, policy precludes consideration of the strategies or actions of individual agents, when the old notion of state sovereignty loses its previous meaning. Globalization has robbed the nation state has the status of an autonomous player in the international arena, the center of decision-making has become international. This leads to lively discussions about world government and a new world order. It can be assumed that the planetary PK world peace could be a culture of civil, open society, if only because it led the process of globalization should be the state of North America and Europe, which is typical of such a model PK At the same time, the influence that globalization has on nonglobal form of civil rights 54

and collective action depends on the position in the social structure and place the country (region) in the geography of globalization. Processes of globalization relate to the sub-global trends in different parts of the world and are faced with many kinds of reactions and resistance. Man era of Modernism The existence of an objective human nature has always been a tragic, from the very fact of the finiteness of earthly life. Kind of psychological function to mitigate the tragedy of the original fabric of life, fulfill and perform the various world religions, religious sects and movements. The wide distribution and success of the exercises, apply to the transcendental spheres, largely due to the promise of eternity, initiation rights to something larger and stable than its short life. In medieval Europe until the Reformation of everyday life, human behavior define his place in eternity. Calvinist Reformation Roman Catholic Church has changed those perceptions about the possibility of human samospaseniya, as limiting the completeness of the divine sovereignty. Hopelessness predetermination of human place in eternity depreciated every effort to match the daily life of human affairs and thoughts of transcendence, allowing the person who ultimately do so, as if nothing good that is in excess, slow and powerful man simply does not exist. This feeling of personal freedom, especially in everyday life, allowing life to realize the project without the need of a correlate their actions with the world of the supernatural, on the basis of its potential approval or condemnation. The Age of Modernism to postulate that the definition of truth and falsity of events to verify the facts, to be confirmed or disprove empirically. Since the beginning of a new time in Europe has accelerated the process desakralizatsii world, part of the functions that were previously undividedly were in charge of the church, gradually move on to the emerging nation-state. In XIX century the process of samootozhestvleniya people with different ideologies,

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including the socialist and liberal, and later in the thirties of the XX century, and Nazi. Man tries to Modernism in the personal biographies allow the tragic conflict between the potency of individual reason and the finiteness of physical existence. As a stopgap measure to deal with this problem quite fit the various transvremennye fact, more or less resistant to the passage of time in comparison with the individual duration of human life. In the XX century to the clergy and ideologues addition of genetics, physicians, psychotherapists, or the problem of meaning and the finiteness of human life has become gradually shift the responsibility of science in general and medicine in particular. This engrossing care of the body, healthy lifestyles, proper, balanced diet, visits to health centers, sports clubs. In the era of modern body for the first time recognized as the main value, which has a man. Long time reconciliation with the finiteness of human life was achieved cultural compensatory mechanisms that are, in fact, mythological character. As a compensatory mechanism for a long period of historical time and used anthropogeliotsentrizm (man as the crown of creation, the Earth - the center of the world). The development of science and technology in the modern era of greatly devalued such representations, replaced them into the mythical. The processes of globalization have weakened the compensatory capacity of the national state, led to the limitation of national-state sovereignty in the economic, military, cultural and other spheres. These processes are ambivalent nature, ie, capable of causing as much personal freedom samootozhestvleniya, and a sense of psychological discomfort caused by the deconstruction site historically proven to be the era of modern man tied up a sense of national community, of belonging, empathy. Freedom samootozhestvleniya, modularity to expand the boundaries of modern human consciousness and behavior, razdvinuli boundary rules opened the way for intensive development of the innovation. Innovations are the air, that breathe Society and Culture of Modernism. Baseline characteristics of modernity is 56

ekonomikotsentrizm. The success in the economic sphere, involves not simply the creation of new goods and services but also new markets, which gives the greatest profit. Generation and use of innovation has become a vital economic stereotypes. The familiar chain of innovation-stereotype is undergoing the greatest change in the area of stereotyping, which loses its thoroughness and certainty as the norm. Rather, with a modernized society, it is a heterogeneous stereotypes that are relatively small time of existence. Heterogeneity is manifested in the lack of a unified style, ie in polistilistichnosti, locality stereotype. Expanding the borders of stereotypical behavior facilitates the dissemination of innovations. These new capabilities of information systems innovation becomes available (known) set of people not only in this country, but also in different regions of the world, where for this set up the necessary technical capabilities. Today, when deconstruction raised earlier samootozhestvleniya man, his need for the duration of existence (eternity), the first time in history, can not be achieved indirectly, ie through compensatory cultural and psychological mechanisms, and directly, as the decision of a man facing technological challenges. At the beginning of the XXI century, mankind has proved the new, never before facing the situation: continuing work on the restructuring, the utilitarian use of the environment, the material world, we come to the possibility of manipulating human anthropological parameters using modern science and technology. Features adjustment samomodifikatsii rights offer new options for the future, the likelihood that previously either not treated or were not related to the genre of scientific research and prognostiki. The development of science and technology is increasingly accelerating, exponential in nature. Thanks to new scientific discoveries and technologies are subject to practical solutions, removing the foundations of the fabric of life tragedy. Already today there are krionika, genetic engineering, may change the individual and species life span, improve its quality. The dynamics of scientific and technical sphere may cause some type of interspecific competition between homo 57

sapiens and his creations. Thus, the performance of human brain yields computer systems, but may move in the direction of their symbiosis, which can dramatically increase the possibility of rights. Since the N. Copernicus Astronomical Revolution, science has rejected the heliocentric model of the world, it became apparent that the man - dust in the universe and Land lost in the outskirts of the Galaxy. For the traditional, religious consciousness is - shock opening, undermining confidence in the election and the power of man. But in the era of modern humanity even better coping from a distance, communication, energy, transport substances designated possible development options. Science and technology are decisive factors anthropological evolution of species homo sapiens. Calls that are painfully trying to find a positive response mankind requires creative interpretation, a new interpretation of human capabilities, innovative approaches. Reference western civilization modernization is a significant acceleration of the socio-cultural and technological dynamics, supported by the daily rate of change may not have historical analogs. We are witnessing the turbulent race of capitalism, kaleidoscopic shifts surrounding human things. Real, material world is gradually losing its thoroughness, the duration of the temporary existence made similar in some theatrical scenery, subtly reminding the world created by Nabokov in the novel Invitation to a Beheading. Zygmunt Bauman leads the data contained in the report of the UN Development Program, dedicated to showing the drastic increase in consumption over the past fifty years. Since 1950, total world consumption of goods and services rose more than sixfold. The main increase was in the country's modernization, the most economically developed state. The question arises about the sustainability of the development model, defined resource potential of the world and human adaptive capacity. Predictive models of human development, an extrapolation of current trends into the future, may not take into account possible future new fundamental scientific discoveries are based on practical technologies. Civilization modernization is a creature of rapid socio-cultural and technological dynamics, 58

which not only causes global problems, but creatively interprets them, offering innovative solutions. Hope for positive options for the development of mankind is precisely in these creative people's modern, his faith in science and technology. This is important, because human existence has always been objectively tragic character from the very fact of the finiteness of earthly life. Kind of psychological function to mitigate the tragedy of the original fabric of life, fulfill and perform the various world religions, religious sects and movements. The wide distribution and success of the exercises, apply to the transcendental spheres, largely due to the promise of eternity, initiation rights to something larger and stable than its short life. In medieval Europe until the Reformation of everyday life, human behavior define his place in eternity. Calvinist Reformation Roman Catholic Church has changed those perceptions about the possibility of human samospaseniya, as limiting the completeness of the divine sovereignty. Hopelessness predetermination of human place in eternity depreciated every effort to match the daily life of human affairs and thoughts of transcendence, allowing the person who ultimately do so, as if nothing good that is in excess, slow and powerful man simply does not exist. This feeling of personal freedom, especially in everyday life, allowing life to realize the project without the need of a correlate their actions with the world of the supernatural, on the basis of its potential approval or condemnation. The Age of Modernism to postulate that the definition of truth and falsity of events to verify the facts, to be confirmed or disprove empirically. Since the beginning of a new time in Europe has accelerated the process desakralizatsii world, part of the functions that were previously undividedly were in charge of the church, gradually move on to the emerging nation-state. In XIX century the process of samootozhestvleniya people with different ideologies, including the socialist and liberal, and later in the thirties of the XX century, and Nazi. Man tries to Modernism in the personal biographies allow the tragic conflict between the potency of individual reason and the finiteness of physical existence. 59

As a stopgap measure to deal with this problem quite fit the various transvremennye fact, more or less resistant to the passage of time in comparison with the individual duration of human life. In the XX century to the clergy and ideologues addition of genetics, physicians, psychotherapists, or the problem of meaning and the finiteness of human life has become gradually shift the responsibility of science in general and medicine in particular. This engrossing care of the body, healthy lifestyles, proper, balanced diet, visits to health centers, sports clubs. In the era of modern body for the first time recognized as the main value, which has a man. Long time reconciliation with the finiteness of human life was achieved cultural compensatory mechanisms that are, in fact, mythological character. As a compensatory mechanism for a long period of historical time and used anthropogeliotsentrizm (man as the crown of creation, the Earth - the center of the world). The development of science and technology in the modern era of greatly devalued such representations, replaced them into the mythical. The processes of globalization have weakened the compensatory capacity of the national state, led to the limitation of national-state sovereignty in the economic, military, cultural and other spheres. These processes are ambivalent nature, ie, capable of causing as much personal freedom samootozhestvleniya, and a sense of psychological discomfort caused by the deconstruction site historically proven to be the era of modern man tied up a sense of national community, of belonging, empathy. Freedom samootozhestvleniya, modularity to expand the boundaries of modern human consciousness and behavior, razdvinuli boundary rules opened the way for intensive development of the innovation. Innovations are the air, that breathe Society and Culture of Modernism. Baseline characteristics of modernity is ekonomikotsentrizm. The success in the economic sphere, involves not simply the creation of new goods and services but also new markets, which gives the greatest profit.

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Generation and use of innovation has become a vital economic stereotypes. The familiar chain of innovation-stereotype is undergoing the greatest change in the area of stereotyping, which loses its thoroughness and certainty as the norm. Rather, with a modernized society, it is a heterogeneous stereotypes that are relatively small time of existence. Heterogeneity is manifested in the lack of a unified style, ie in polistilistichnosti, locality stereotype. Expanding the borders of stereotypical behavior facilitates the dissemination of innovations. These new capabilities of information systems innovation becomes available (known) set of people not only in this country, but also in different regions of the world, where for this set up the necessary technical capabilities. Today, when deconstruction raised earlier samootozhestvleniya man, his need for the duration of existence (eternity), the first time in history, can not be achieved indirectly, ie through compensatory cultural and psychological mechanisms, and directly, as the decision of a man facing technological challenges. At the beginning of the XXI century, mankind has proved the new, never before facing the situation: continuing work on the restructuring, the utilitarian use of the environment, the material world, we come to the possibility of manipulating human anthropological parameters using modern science and technology. Features adjustment samomodifikatsii rights offer new options for the future, the likelihood that previously either not treated or were not related to the genre of scientific research and prognostiki. The development of science and technology is increasingly accelerating, exponential in nature. Thanks to new scientific discoveries and technologies are subject to practical solutions, removing the foundations of the fabric of life tragedy. Already today there are krionika, genetic engineering, may change the individual and species life span, improve its quality. The dynamics of scientific and technical sphere may cause some type of interspecific competition between homo sapiens and his creations. Thus, the performance of human brain yields computer systems, but may move in the direction of their symbiosis, which can dramatically increase the possibility of rights. Since the N. Copernicus Astronomical 61

Revolution, science has rejected the heliocentric model of the world, it became apparent that the man - dust in the universe and Land lost in the outskirts of the Galaxy. For the traditional, religious consciousness is - shock opening, undermining confidence in the election and the power of man. But in the era of modern humanity even better coping from a distance, communication, energy, transport substances designated possible development options. Science and technology are decisive factors anthropological evolution of species homo sapiens. Calls that are painfully trying to find a positive response mankind requires creative interpretation, a new interpretation of human capabilities, innovative approaches. Reference western civilization modernization is a significant acceleration of the socio-cultural and technological dynamics, supported by the daily rate of change may not have historical analogs. We are witnessing the turbulent race of capitalism, kaleidoscopic shifts surrounding human things. Real, material world is gradually losing its thoroughness, the duration of the temporary existence made similar in some theatrical scenery, subtly reminding the world created by Nabokov in the novel Invitation to a Beheading. Today, increasing the dynamic tension between the highly developed countries, moving towards a postindustrial, information society and third world countries, for which malodostizhimoy dream is the construction of an industrial civilization. This conflict, which is often referred to as the conflict north and south, is dangerous for several reasons. The difference is huge demographic potential, the standard of living, economic self-realization possible in a world where consumer standards set western civilization modern. A lot of people in third world countries have razbuzheny global mass culture, bearing the high standards of consumption, reference behavior, including in the sphere of everyday life. In the foreseeable historical perspective to realize the new standards in the practice of life is hardly possible for an absolute majority of humanity. Massa razbuzheny, increasing migration to more prosperous regions of the world, especially in the United States and Europe.

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Historical experience shows that the necessary technical means capable to remove the most acute contradictions in the next spiral development of civilization, become available when a society prepared to absorb them, is their domestic needs, as articulate, as well as implicitly. Humans tend to identify themselves with something more sustainable, longterm and fundamental than the end of human life, he has a yearning for solidarity, group identity. The quest for cultural identity transvremennoy until the start of a new time in Europe in expressing religious sentiments, in a sense, giving the illusion of personal immortality. In Europe, Modern Times was a radical change in attitudes towards the human person. Sotsiogenez this process was driven transformations taking place in the later Middle Ages, when society has shown innovation, going beyond, due to socio-cultural tradition. Medieval society in Europe, limiting the possibility of individual choice, the person feels himself a member of a particular social group, parishioner parish, served as a gender role, and the process samootozhestvleniya with a collective identity has been sufficiently linear, predzadan, askriptiven. In the process of building societies modernize gradually receive legitimization of a new personality type. Individuality, independence of the individual against the collective (community), have theoretical justification, in the mainstream of moral, aesthetic and philosophical concepts. Status of human social predzadannost loses, the person can be integrated into various social strata, subculture, that is a possibility of personal, individual biographies. Unprecedented in the earlier sections of the historical dynamics of personal freedom samoosuschestvleniya led to greater freedom of identity, which also lost askriptivny status. Paul Sartre said that in modern times is not enough to be born bourgeois, you need to live like a bourgeois, which was committed unthinkable in the era of the Middle Ages. Moderniti replaces predetermination social situation of forced and compulsory self-determination. Sociocultural tradition begins at the very least, influence the process of facing the experience of stereotyping, the acceleration of 63

dynamic processes is accompanied by a stream of innovations. Man Modern Times live in a society at risk. For the first time in the history of the human personality is drawn to the possibility of rational choices open to a variety of possible actions. Since the beginning of a new time, a religious collective identity is weakened, the role of replacement divine discourse largely begins to play a national identity. Man tries to Modernism in the personal biographies allow the tragic conflict between the potency of individual reason and the finiteness of physical existence. As a stopgap measure to deal with this problem quite fit the various transvremennye fact, more or less resistant to the passage of time in comparison with the individual duration of human life. The man himself has become equated with the nation as transvremennoy essence, which is partly to satisfy cravings for immortality, was the process of desakralizatsii world, the religious feelings of national replacement. At a later period, the process of self-identification of people with different ideologies. Typical for modern socio-cultural dynamics of the intensity leads to a reduction of ontological stability. Today, in the late modern, dynamic processes of globalization, the speed of dynamic processes in many ways approaching the threshold adaptive capacity rights when nothing is permanent, when the risk becomes systemic in nature, the sequence is violated, the unity of the living world. National, ideological (partisan) identity gradually supplemented and replaced by new forms, its substitution of having a serious impact of restrictions on the completeness of geopolitical, economic and cultural sovereignty of the nationstate. New forms of identity is largely shaped by transnational (global) popular culture. Identity goes beyond national borders, the desire for personal immortality is expressed in heterogeneous forms of solidarity. As F. Girenok: In accordance with the laws of personalization, each wants to get its portion of the subjectivity of (ethnic, linguistic, etc.). Everyone now wants to have his memory, but not universal; your mind, not machines; their imagination, rather than something that developed in the bosom of faceless editorial and think tanks conscious machines. 64

But how to find (and understand) something, if it ever breaks down to something strange ... subjectivity away from the man and pressed to the car, which produces images. Subjectivity has become too serial . Identity becomes a modular, found the illusion of inclusion and choice to many forms of consumer transvremennym community, let us say, Coca-Cola drink as a brand and how to get there and it is unlikely that we will end. Today, forms of social prestige, reference patterns, norms and values are simulated and are broadcast within the emerging global information and cultural space. Now you can identify with transkulturnymi forms of social solidarity. Today, vertically integrated, institutionalized forms of social supplemented and replaced its network forms. Man era of late modernism can identify with the transnational movements, subcultures, groups of consumers defined marks (brands) of goods and services, and alleged that the reference is reproduced in this capacity, the media, especially in their electronic form. The trend towards diversification, greater variability of personal samootozhestvleniya not linear, since the observed effect of the contrary trend of flattening of the identity and culture under the influence of the growing technologization and standardization practices of everyday existence. Nevertheless, optimistic we can conclude that the necessary technical means capable to remove the most acute contradictions in the next spiral development of civilization, become available when a society prepared to absorb them, is their domestic needs, as articulate, as well as implicitly. III. The influence of the Russian mentality on the processes of modernization Considering the processes of segregation imported sociocultural experience in modernizing countries, T. Parsons notes that the constant attempts to divide imported inokulturny experience at an acceptable and not acceptable, there is a tendency to preserve the values of a culture of high-level opening at the same time, 65

radical changes in the way next level of value specifications, ie at the level of major functional subsystems . Expressed ambivalence of Russian culture makes it difficult to fulfill one of its key functions, which is to ensure the legitimacy of political and economic systems of society. How can a culture at its highest, archetypal level to reject private property, the desire to sverhmernomu, in her opinion, the enrichment of a legal right, opposing the truth of his folk, concepts, customary law, to downplay the significance of personality, giving priority to the community and the State, to perceive the destiny of the individual as part of the total (which is worldwide, then babemu son), and at the same time, prevent the realization of the opposite, rejected parts of dual oppositions. How effective are the following subsystem (subordinate) levels when the values of higher-level implicit blocking efficiency and functionality of subsystems. The answer to these questions is a very great importance to determine the prospects of modernization processes in the Russian socio-cultural sphere. Sociocultural environment resists the formation of well-functioning subsystems in the areas of law, economics, human rights. Soviet journalists, responding to accusations that the Soviet Union in the absence of basic civil rights, said that there is no freedom of speech, assembly, political life in the Western sense, but we are provided with basic, physiological human rights. The right to reproduce the life of their own with minimal effort the person: work for all, albeit with low pay, relevant, however, reached the level of labor productivity (the right to the minimum necessary to sustain life soldering), public concern about childrearing, which includes benefits , benefits, orphanages (to raise the present Soviet Man). The apparent possibility of salvation from the playing of the Archaic, the possibility of their elimination is the heterogeneity of society and culture. Speed interiorizatsii, creative development of a new man, which carry the modernization processes in the different social strata and subcultures. The maximum degree of adaptation to modernization processes demonstrates the most educated part of 66

society, part of the Russian middle class, which includes businessmen, representatives of scientific and artistic intellectuals, and managers. etc. Some of our fellow citizens combines a high degree of education with a strong entrepreneurial abilities. Minimum speed of adaptation processes of the least educated of our citizens, most of them opting pre-adaptation strategy, including the care of a large economy to a subsistence economy, in its maximum expression involving an appeal to an even more archaic form - collecting in all its forms, ie collect not only the fruits of the earth and everything that is bad. The choice of adaptation strategies, data showed on specifics of individual and collective thinking, limited or even impossible to operate capitalist abstractions, most important of which are money, different kinds of securities, and off-exchange transaction, ie any operations separated, apart from номиналистических manifestations of the material world. Typical for the Russian mentality implicit rejection of abstraction is not unique. In traditional European societies and the man resisted thing shematizatsii, mathematical abstraction as applied to the economy and society. In the transcendental sphere of the ideal idea of things is perfectly complemented by the divine-human prototype. These prefigurations were fairly abstract, but by definition, isolated, unique. In culture and society modernize numbers, and symbols, mathematical multiplicity corporeality are replacing the traditional world, where the thing and its production have been well understood, tangible, concrete. A man in his hypostasis, as some parish parishioner, member of the craft shop, consumer goods and services was also more nominalistichen, an individual, not as easy as the next era, fell under the law of large numbers, becoming of a formalized, an abstract value. New sprouts being sanctified in religious, social and cultural tradition of living in an old European city, changing the meanings, values, destroying the wholeness of existence, the warmth of human relationships, differentiation is replaced syncretic neraschlennosti: Everything that used to be tangible eye and hand, she turned to abstractiveness. Bazaar has become the stock

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exchange, the club, newspaper, restaurant, beer hall rallies. That was before color, shape, face, voice, - a figure, mark, letter, symbol . With regard to wealth and poverty, the Western European nations in their time share presentation, similar to those preserved in modern Russia. This attitude is reflected in the late Middle Ages in the social views of the Catholic Church. The richness of human perceived as God's gift that must be used for the benefit of an increasing number of people, relatives, employees, just the poor. The wealth is not condemned, but did not support the quest for its enhancement, European medieval society disciplined approach to abstract, depersonifitsirovannym, capitalist modes of economic activity, particularly in the field of finance. The Catholic Church is considered business as a subordinate locality in the context of the higher values of salvation, harshly condemned usury as a form of cash, non-productive, parasitic economy. Lay people, who give money at interest, subject to the condemnation of church, the priests found to have similar actions curse. With the Catholic Church sanctions contributed to the spirit of Christian values-regulatory system of medieval, precapitalist society. Usury has created a bill that divided the duty of personal relationship lender and credited. Veksel is prescind debt paper, which can be bought and sold. By the bill goes back the genealogy of shares and securities. A stock exchange, which occupies a central place in the economic sphere of capitalist society: float steamers, trains go - this is the result of what happened in the market. As part of the Russian mentality, preserving important elements of traditionalism, more understandable, and of course the mere reproduction of life. The money is already perceived as a sort of abstraction is not conventional, but preferably when it is necessary for the life of products made with their own hands, in the natural family farms, the fruits of labor are exchanged for the missing artifacts the material world, either directly or through a variety of money substitutes, such as drinking: moonshine vodka fulfill the role of Vice-money, since at least since the military communism. As part of the Russian socio-cultural tradition is legitimate rejection symbolization of exchange relations, abstract in nature, commerce, commodity-money relations in general, the exclusion of trading 68

sentiment, which is described M. Montaigne with respect to modern Dutch him: In countries where, as in Holland, dominated the mood of the trade, all human actions are moral qualities serve as a bargaining chip. The mere service caused elsewhere simple humanity, are bought for money . In his memoirs, S.Yu. Witte recalled the atmosphere was typical of Russian educated society in the seventies of XIX century, when over all dovlel: the spirit of the well-known hatred of those who by their status or material wealth are issued from a number of medium-sized people ... this is the mood prevailed throughout the intelligent liberal layer. This mood is stable, its replacement is quite conventional in the national socio-cultural traditions. It is present and in a long history of Russia, vyryvayas out of the peasant, Cossack riots Razin, Pugachev, Bolotnikova, a huge number of smaller disturbances, with a complete, teleological expression in the first decades of Soviet power in the USSR. In the art form is a grotesque attitude, but from the more strongly expressed MA Bulgakov in Dog Heart. The former pretty dvornyaga became a man of science will, at its core, the western, urgiynogo (created by labor), the approach to life, singing revolutionary songs in chorus, plays the balalaika, and the complexity of the world takes a simple recipe: take everything and divide. Since the late 50's beginning 60-ies of the Soviet Union rolled a wave of unrest, massive fights, bullying group, indicating a growing trend towards haotizatsii social and cultural space. Actually a similar situation was observed in Russia and after the abolition of serfdom, caused by decay, the transformation of the usual socio-cultural forms, the overall reduction of the repressive culture and society. Massive bullying suffered itself as the natural elements, there is little conscious protest against the external, material life, and were a reaction to the process of differentiation of the estate, income inequality, the ability to compare his and someone else's financial situation. Complementarity of people's truth in relation to the potency of socialist egalitarian ideology was one of the determining causes of the long socialist experiment in the USSR.

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Participants of the mass power of shares to consider their actions as a form of protection of the communist ideals, as an attempt to return the Party and Soviet power to the primeval form of the Soviet utopizma. It is impossible not to recognize that reducing the riots were in a sense, the defeat of the Bolshevik ideology, a symptom of loss of influence in society its original utopian ideal: it became less people able to go out of their protection . By the early 70-ies of the intensity of riots significantly decreased, indicating that the indirect losses of the peasants and workers, yesterday came from the peasants, the belief that equalization understood the ideals of social justice are separated by the supreme state power. Queer pravdolyubtsy, images of which are described with such love, VM Shukshina gradually attached to the city, (mass) culture, all the better sharing of public, social and private, local. Life in the first field of a part in the party, Komsomol, trade union meetings, subbotnik, other forms of public works, the execution of a certain social role, maintaining the conventional rules of the game. In the field of private space to relax, drink vodka and philosophize in the kitchen, to denounce officials, disbosom. Mutiny has been eliminated from the public in the private sphere of life, while maintaining its illogicality, clear (binary) division into friends and foes, black and white, good and evil. By the light pole and a good, unifying their are co-workers, convive, ie, as a rule, people who know each other personally. To the contrary, the dark pole of the universe, are the world zakulisa, imperialists, ochkasty private owner, regional or later the Moscow authorities, ie other strange, incomprehensible, and therefore likely to represent the forces of evil. In the private sphere of the collective unconscious expressing the same set of important phrases: We stick here, but they are there with Giroux besyatsya, I fought, with regard to actual participation in any military action. These mizanstseny includes the elements of nonverbal communication: a torn shirt on his chest, knocking a fist on the table, link dishes, a man asked from the world of another person: I am quite significant for the environment, to peace, I am quivering creature, or have the right, voproshanie expressed sacramental phrase: do you respect me? 70

The phenomenon of the desire for equal (for consumer reviews), distribution, state paternalism in relation not only to the need of some support for social and biological reasons, the citizens, but all the rest, including healthy and strong, not faded with time, modified and reproduced in accordance with the new historical conditions and socio-cultural dynamics. At izlete Soviet-era B. Yeltsin came to power on the same wave of consumer claims combating communist nomenklatura privilege, Prospecting and divide the money CPSU, the improvement of living standards without increasing prices etc. . The main accusations against the reformers were not even rebukes the loss державного status, and indifference to the power of social justice, public indifference to wealth and poverty, the lack of penalty for wealth and social support in poverty. During the post-Soviet reforms dislike to people, knock out the average number as a mental invariant, manifested in hatred of the oligarchs, the people of material success, and using the capitalist form of adaptation to a new quality of social and cultural environment. Equalization, which are prone to paternalism, the high level of redistribution of the mentality of Russian society in recent years has changed is not so much as the external cultural, social, economic design life. It is also evident as the total number of background event, and in separate, landmark events, shocking demonstration of the Archaic. Chairman of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, AI Volsky, so set out his vision of power relations and business: Relations with the power must be resolved through negotiation, direct and secret. But that problem did not arise again, the game should be conducted on the rules. And explained: Rules - Russian expression is specific and has a wider meaning than the law. Sam Mr. Wolski agreed that entrepreneurs pay for their freedom, for example, helping Putin fight poverty, or agreeing to increase the any special taxes on profitable industry. In other words, today, reform of Russia, the force is still not in the law, as in archaic folk truth, perceive the capitalist relations of treason, deviation from syncretism, distribution, weirdness of the DOS mounting earthly material life.

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In 90 of the last century in the Russian economy experienced an unprecedented use of natural exchange netting. The development of a natural exchange of goods was due not only situational reaction of the economic body to reduce the state order and the relative contraction of money supply, but also practical, real expression of collective unconscious, the truth of people's able to translate business visible. Considering the dynamics of modernization processes in the Russian sociocultural system, it should be borne in mind that a change in the external environment, both material and spiritual, has a significant impact on people's mentality, the question of intensity and duration of uniaxial impact. After the escape from Egypt, Moses led his people in the wilderness forty years, has not yet been grown by several generations of people who are not known slavery. The most important task is to preserve Russia's modernization in a sufficiently long period for a free socialization and inkulturatsii personality, more emancipated with regard to Russia's socio-cultural traditions. The need for a sufficiently long and continuous time interval of freedom, among other things, due to certain restrictions on the absorption of innovations in the unit of historical time, limiting the speed of the new personal interiorizatsii that carry the processes of historical and sociocultural dynamics. The dilemma is trying to deal with modernizing Russia, is historically determined the need to maintain an increasingly accelerated pace of dynamic processes, and at the same time, the need to avoid another breakdown in the social and cultural chaos, archaic egalitarian folk truth. This constant balancing on the verge of collapse especially pronounced during periods of revolution and reform. According to GP Fedotova: All the latest development of Russia to a dangerous run on the speed: that pre-empt - Liberation Europeanization or Moscow revolt, which will flood and a young freedom smoet wave of popular anger. Raznovektornaya direction implicit socio-cultural phenomena and processes leads to a critically high level of variability of possible directions for future development. In the multiplicity of options for the development of social and cultural spheres of Russian society is continuously variable, which is the result of 72

counter-mutual dissipation divergent processes are not planned for any of the parties, consciously or unconsciously initiated the process. As a result of continuous existence in a burdened division muzzle the opposition, the Russian socio-cultural system is in constant proximity to the critical zone of bifurcation, turning it into one, in another modality, resists entelehii, certainty, teleological harmony. What does a permanent thirst for physical nedelaniya, in the form of landmark events in images Emeli, Ivanushki-idiots in the Russian folk tale, bylinas about Ilya Muromtsev lying on the oven thirty and three years, if not a desperate attempt to preserve the integrity of vital capacity, transparency options for development . Ultimately, it is an attempt of emancipation from personal destiny. Preservation of the opportunity to live in the zone of bifurcation, and in close proximity to it, moreover, the persistence of belief in miracle, in the necessarily uneven cause-effect relationship is still significant elements of mass consciousness. This inherent desire to avoid uncertainty, finality fate was well-Ortega and Gasset: Life - this is an inevitable need to decide to write himself entirely to the exceptional destiny, accept it, in other words, it has to be solved. Regardless of our desires, we are obliged to exercise our character, our vocation, our life program, our entelehiyu ... Goethe refuses to subordinate their specific fate, which, by definition, a man leaves only one possibility, excluding all others. He wants to retain the right to dispose of. Always . In the historical fate of Russia is implicit ambivalent beginning, the desire to retain the right to dispose of, to avoid the certainty of fate. There reversionnoe movement, when the desire to modernize the alternates to the restoration of the Archaic. Raznovektornost, mental representations of ambivalence is manifested in a variety of practical actions, in all aspects of material life, society and culture. Hence, the output in the practical results obtained either se, but hell knows what, a cash position of things in the 90 th of the last century has received a capacious description of V. Chernomyrdin: We want it better, but it turned out, as usual . As the success of Russia's modernization, and the degree of radicalization, directly correlate with the ability to adapt archaic popular truth to the socio-cultural 73

foundations of civilization modern. AS Akhiezer, in this regard, said mediation, translating to a value-normative, mirovozrencheskogo, technological language to another, initiating processes that can result from a historical perspective to the elimination of dual opposition between archaic and liberal civilization of modern. The success of modernization processes quite clearly correlated with the rate of per capita income, the level of which may facilitate or block samoosuschestvlenie person here and now, in the horizontal plane of existence. Creating meaningful opportunities for the mass of material zhizneosuschestvleniya and would mean catching the completion phase of modernization, achieving a desired collective unconscious end of history, but its irony in secular rather than religious forms. Combating poverty is important in the context of the formation of massive layers of successful consumer goods, services, products of culture. The more successful consumers in Russia, the less will be the life, sense of space not only for people underground mining vysey and the abyss of the spirit, but also for the pre-human at all. Zhizneosuschestvleniyu in the plane of material life komplimentaren image of the world, reduced to a supermarket, where much has the formal (monetary) equivalent, complementary formed man of late modern life opportunities of open space. There are some alternatives, a choice between a successful self-realization in the horizontal plane of existence and the sublimation of unrealized potential, the possibility of earthly, horizontal samoosuschestvleniya identity and significance for the mass awareness of alternative, eskeypistskih life scenarios. Self human mass in the horizontal plane being pushed out by other, including asocial and vertically oriented life strategy marginal. If this is not possible, compensatory options zhiznestroitelstva come to the fore as a Deputy samoosuschestvleniya in the earth's physical life. Implementation of the horizontal zhizneustroitelnogo project that, in fact, involves the modernization, leading to streamline, kosmologizatsii Russian social and cultural space. The modernization of complementary personality, with its internal loci of control, self-discipline, willingness to obey the median culture, able 74

to control their vital activities, correlating them with the conventional ideas of norm and pathology, to be vital projects. A person with a dominant internal loci of control may well do without standing behind the backs of Police. Human life in late modern society appears as a projective chreda dostizhitelnyh action for implementation, creation, making, albeit often in reduced forms of mass consumption, which is opposite to a religious worldview nedelaniya: If there is any religious matter, it is not of this world, and if there is a religious object as the value, it is conceivable that only the outside world, we are given . In the absence of meaningful opportunities samoosuschestvleniya in the material plane of existence unrealized energy cards sent in the marginal area, which includes the deviant behavior, including alcoholism and drug abuse, and compensatory scope nationalist, messianic teachings, religious fundamentalism, secular and religious ideologies. The priority of the vertical measurement of life and all derivatives, bearing in itself the elements of the measure, including those related to domestic religious and philosophical tradition, most clearly articulate in a complex of representations, referred to as the Russian idea. In the post-Soviet Russia, this set of representations have a symbolic, symbolic meaning, the attitude that divides society into supporters and opponents of the projects that have a significant vertical component: The further movement is possible or how to overcome the Russian ideas , - that is, translated it into purely ethno-cultural terms, inherited, in history you'd like to remember and know, or as a movement back - to the national mythology, as a principled rejection of rational approaches to the problem of the historical path Russia . At the same time having a vertical dimension of the ideological construction is effective in the process of mass resocialization of people in marginal areas of life. Determinancy personal projects zhizneneosuschestvleniya basic material possibilities of society is the rule, the most effective in respect of the masses. This rule has номиналистические certain exceptions, a person can be quite active in both horizontal and vertical dimensions of life.

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In

practical

implementation

zhizneustroitelnyh

projects

for

which

immanenten ascending or descending vector coordinates in the vertical dimension of existence, there Delocalization marginal areas, expansion of bearing expressed apocalyptic overtones. Dionisiyskaya element of folk life, pent within a framework of repressive mechanisms, culture and society, in times of radical acceleration of the historical and sociocultural dynamics of revolutions and profound reforms took the bulk of life, when the dominant attitude, life practices, norms and values inherent in the collective archaic. In a letter to the PB Struve, written in 1918, when the revolution and civil war begins slightly archetype of mass man, found him bright and emotional assessment, the VV Rozanova: I was very clear that the Russian people, Russian soul - totally anarhichna; that she - wistfully, fantastic, so to hell with little or no class ... I was afraid all his life and hated Gogolya: in 62 years I think: You won, terrible toupee . No, he saw a darling of the Russian Sheol content . This feature is quite consistent with one of the branches of the Russian literary tradition of the XIX century: The identity we have yet naklevyvaetsya, and because Gogolevsky types - while the most loyal Russian types. Belinsky said about it without much regret, rightly believing that the emancipation of the individual not as a quick historical process. Pain of this process in the second half of XIX century was not so obvious, it seemed that the mores alleviated, barbarism is gradually being replaced by civilization: In all countries covered by the historical lives, social concepts several reduced forms of life have become somewhat more reasonable than it was before the end of last Century . These views are consistent with the European worldview XIX - early XX century, the sublime ideas of man and culture, on the rationality of human behavior, the entire range of submissions, broken the First World War, demonstrated the fragility of civilization and humanity. At the industrial stage of development of modern society to achieve a certain level of punctuality, of assembly, technological complementarity and identity of the industrial economy. Bolshevik terror years 1917-1953 was not only ideological, but also partly utilitarian justification. This was an attempt, using extreme violence 76

to instil winning in the context of orthodox values-regulatory system of Soviet man a moral imperative, even in a simple, utilitarian forms. Historically, in the Russian socio-cultural system dominated by the external form of control over the individual, internal locus of personal control did not become dominant in society or in the Tsarist Russia, nor in the post-period, it did not contribute to the formation of the revolutionary years of chaos and civil turmoil. From memoirs AS Izgoeva for the period of civil war: Russian people only such a government and should be. Others do not cope with it. Do you think the people you (or cadets) respects. No, he laughs over you, and respects the bolshevik. Bolshevik him every minute shoot can . In the thirties, forties, at noon, the Stalinist era, in the public consciousness peg simple truths: do not be late for work, take off (the law of Koloskov), peg nails almost literally, as in years of civil war, when the same people not allegorical, but in the literal sense of nail in the officer's head and shoulders. Barbaric methods solve the problem of mass changes precapitalist Russia's rights, adapting it to the needs of the Soviet industrial model of modern society. The problem faced in the various sections of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics in the process of modernization is Interlaced horizontal and vertical measurements of Russian life, an abundance of pre-, marginal life policies, all that does not fit into the framework of rational behavior, with the understanding of freedom as anarchy and about as authoritarian. The limit point of the Russian understanding of freedom as anarchy and war of all against all (Hobbes on) was passed in autumn 1999, a sign there were explosions of residential houses in Moscow and Buynaksk, after which began reversionnoe motion to order as interpreted in line with the national socio-cultural traditions. In this limit the field of freedom of deconstruction of external control over the person only partially offset by increased internal locus of control, radikalizuetsya social and cultural chaos, a general weakening of the normative, the reduction of capacity of government, accompanied by localization of potential emerging civil society. Sociocultural space proved penetrated raznovektornymi, chaotic impulses, but it is in transitional periods in culture and society was called 77

the maximum degree of freedom for innovation, competitive selection, the struggle for the future, for the opportunity to move the individual elements of innovation in conventional modality. In a further innovation occurs stereotyping, which combine a complementarity with regard to socio-cultural traditions with the instrumental efficiency in the new stage of historical and sociocultural dynamics. A major natural constraint is the modernization processes inversion of dynamic processes in the sphere of social and cultural life of Russian society, an abnormally high degree of localization of the median area of culture and society. Some of the amplitude fluctuations inherent processes of historical and sociocultural dynamics in general and are apparent including the most developed countries modernize, the question of the extent protivohoda, presence or absence of common sense and a certain ambivalence extreme positions, the overall semantic space for dialogue. For the countries of the Western classical modernism, these variations provide a means of breeding innovation, incorporating parts of them in the conventional space of the social and cultural traditions. The subsequent stage of development remains a high degree of continuity with the previous, are subject to correction of the local, номиналистические trends and artifacts. As part of the Russian socio-cultural system, not the terrible oscillation, but the magnitude of its amplitude, the absence of the minimum necessary complementarity between the poles, reversionny move-protivohod modernization processes. By the end of the past historical period is accumulated considerable potential for inconsistency between the underlying fundamentals of syncretic folk truth and the trend towards more discrete, specialized in the sociocultural sphere. Ship breaking the old order is perceived in excited tones, there are widespread hopes for an absolute, revolutionary rebuilding lives. Here, thank God, was launched, said a trooper in the memories F. Stepuna of the February Revolution of 1917, becomes the earth, is baptized. Upon learning about the revolution in Petrograd, noncommissioned officer of the people near Tchoulkov said: Now is not a sin. The new historical stage in the beginning perceived as an attempt to build the kingdom of God on earth, or at least reward for the sins of the ruling elite, and later simply 78

intellectual, a man with glasses and tie. The Bolsheviks were able to get and retain power in Russia is largely due to coincidence with the people's true understanding of original, though drowsy, hostile Russian people not only to the fist and tolstosumu as to the gentleman, that is, man may not be rich but bearing a coat and collar, read books, living unintelligible and useless people of life . A part of society, the losers from the changes in the last period, has considerable negative energy directed against post-Soviet reforms, perceived as a form of destructive development that destroys the legitimate within the framework of national socio-cultural traditions of value-regulatory system of the Russian society. Just a cautious attitude towards the gradual departure from the paternalistic model of the welfare state, a radical increase in income inequality, divergence of life chances of young people, growth strategies individualistic life personality. What we are witnessing today is a form of public reaction to the interim results of the post-Soviet reforms. The question of the extent of radical action, arising from the results of this reflection, remains open, causing concern for the rational and intuitive levels of the successful and adapted to the reform of society. Extreme elements of the post-Soviet era have become the ethnic separatists, criminal and semi elements in virtually all spheres of society, holding the media merchants of fear, negative information shock. Consequently haotizatsii socio-cultural space in Russia's public consciousness emerged sustained dichotomy, a choice between freedom, redutsiruemoy to anarchy and security, perceived as an authoritarian order. The reaction is always and everywhere is the inevitable consequence of the appearance on the stage of extreme elements, a general historical law. The question is: what is the reaction and how does it work? Vosstanovlyaet Is it only what you need, based on the healthy and moderate forces of society, or she, in turn, run to extremes, and thereby cause further fluctuations? . The genesis and stability of civil society is clearly correlated with the level of economic development, so that, as a result of this development gets people. According to E. Gellneru civil society can be likened a bicycle: it crashes when loses speed when loose economy can no longer ensure the continuous 79

improvement of the welfare of the majority of its members. Most of it is ready to abandon the great principles, sacrificing for the welfare of illusory real freedom . Post-Soviet wave of modernization has brought the triumph of locally defined vector of the dominant social and cultural development from general to private, polistilistichnosti values and relativism. What used to be public, while in the interests of the state, was kept private. There is an enormous expansion of private, while narrowing the scope of subject to public control. Go, man, be free - he alchet Grand inquisitor, who said: I know how to. This is the only Russian. Not much idea, but physiology - the feeling of freedom as something bogoprotivnogo slavery, as a charitable ... In Freedom - sinful, slavery - the saints. Saints slaves. Holy Russia - the land of saints slaves . Exchange of freedom, autonomy, locality for authoritarianism and the Cathedral, conditionally speaking, the festival of beer at a military parade and torchlight procession, giving a sense of unity: I was not alone, many of us, we the people. Formation of the Society for the dominant type of personality, with internal loci of control, tolerance to different ethnic groups and cultures, is a consequence of long historical processes and sociocultural dynamics. Let us recall the policy of sanctions, substantial fines imposed by authorities of medieval towns of mud, debris and dirt in front of private home, a policy which eventually led to the formation of responsible and balanced behavior of Western Europeans, their aesthetic relationship to the surrounding material, including the natural environment . As a grass lawn becomes a complete, teleological form of a few hundred years, and a rational, civilized, median human behavior is achieved for a sufficiently long historical time. Literature 1. Parsons T. Essays social system / / A social systems / Per. England. A. Harrasha, Ed. VF Chesnokov, and SA Belanovskogo. M.: The Academic Project, 2002. S.543-686. 80

2. Iglegard R. Modernization and postmodernizatsiya / / A new wave of post in the west: An Anthology, ed. VL Inozemtsev. M.: Academia, 1999. S. 261-291. 3. Voloshin MA Faces of Creativity. Book Four. L.: Nauka, 1989. S. 416426. 4. Shafarevich IR spiritual foundation of the Russian crisis of the XX century / The two roads - one left off. M.: Iris Press, 2003. S. 360-428. 5. MM Kovalevskiy Spirit of Laws / On Liberty. Anthology of World of liberal thought (I half of XX century). Moscow: Progress-Tradition, 2000. S. 413490. 6. Koivisto AM Russian idea / Per. with FY. YS Deryabina. M.: All World, 2002. 244 pp. 7. Akhiezer AS and DR Social and cultural reasons and the meaning of Bolshevism. Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 2002. 610 pp. 8. Kara-Murza A.A. Americanism and psevdoamerikanizm as the phenomena of contemporary Russian consciousness / / Between Empire, and distemper: Selected socio-philosophical journalism. M.: IFRAN, 1996. S. 31-35. 9. Op. by: P. Netreba Arkady Volsky left the legal field / / Kommersant. 2003, № 134. C. 2. 10. Op. by: VK Kantor ... There is a European power. Russia: a difficult path to civilization: Istoriosofskie essays. Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 1997. 704 pp. 11. See, eg.: Akhiezer AS Russia: Reviews of historical experience. (Sociocultural dynamics of Russia). T. II. Theory and methodology: Glossary. Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1998. Pp 390-394, 160-162. 12. Ortega and Gasset, J. In Search of Goethe / / Aesthetics. Philosophy of Culture. AM: Art, 1991. S. 433-462. 13. See, eg.: Akhiezer AS Russia: Reviews of historical experience. (Sociocultural dynamics of Russia). T. II. Theory and methodology: Glossary. Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1998. S. 267-273.

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14. Merezhkovsky DS Land mouth / / Patient Russia. SPb.: Public benefits, 1910. 15. Stepun FA The tragedy of creativity (Friedrich Schlegel) / / Stepun FA Compositions. M.: ROSSPEN 2000. 16. Volkogonova OD Russian idea. Dreams and reality / / Postzapadnaya civilization. Liberalism: Past, Present and Future / Under total. Ed. SN Yushenkova. M: A new factor in 2002. 17. Pipes R. Struve: right Liberals, 1905-1944. T. 2 / Pec. of Ed.: Richard Pipes. Struve: Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 1980 / Per. England. Zakharova. Moscow: Mosk. School of Political. Studies th, 2002. 18. Belinsky VG Letter to KD Cavelin (November 22, 1847 g) / / Full. SOBR. cit. Moscow: Publishing House of USSR Academy of Sciences, 1955 1956. T. XI. 19. Chernyshevskiy NG Foreword to the publication of the full translation of the basis of political economy Mill (second version) 1864 / / Full. SOBR. cit.: 15 tons / A total. Ed. V.Ya. Kirpotina, BP and others Kozmin M.: Gos. Izdat. Hood. lit., 1939 - 1950. T. IX. 20. Kantor, VK ... There is a European power. Russia: a difficult path to civilization. Istoriosofskie essays. M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. 21. Tchoulkov GI March days / / The years of wandering. Moscow: Ellis Luck, 1999. 22. B. Three Veydle Russia / / Dying Art / Comp. and auth. poslesl. VM Tolmachev. Moscow: Republic, 2001. 23. Chicherin BN Russia prior to the twentieth century / / About freedom. Anthology of World of liberal thought (I half of XX century). Moscow: ProgressTradition, 2000. 24. Gellner E. Conditions of Liberty. Civil society and its historical rivals. M.: Ad Marginem, 1995.

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25. Merezhkovsky DS Land mouth / / Patient Russia. SPb.: Public benefits, 1910. IV. Russian modernization project in the context of globalized world In recent decades, a trend towards the formation of a single prototsivilizatsii Modern, where the institutions and to some extent the value of the Western world have become reference for a large part of non-humanity. We are witnessing not the end but the beginning phase of globalization, when the private, in large-scale starts to go to the periphery of history, is compensatory, complementary role. Referring to the view of anthropologist Peter Uorsli, E. Giddens notes that so far as the whole of humanity did not exist, the formation of social ties in the whole of humanity. The world has become a common social system as a result of increasing interdependence, now affecting almost every human being. Social, political and economic ties across borders and the power of States to invade the fate of living in them people. The increasing interdependence of the global community can designate a universal term globalization. It would be a mistake to think of globalization as a process of growth of world unity. Globalization of social relations must first be understood as a transformation of space and time of modern existence. In other words, our lives are increasingly affected by actions and events taking place sufficiently far from the social reality within which our daily activities. Despite the fact that today it is developing most rapidly, globalization is by no means something totally new, since this process began about two-three centuries ago, when Western influence was spread throughout the world . We are witnessing and participating in the process of creating the infrastructure for future global peace, the overlap and complementarity of information, energy, financial systems.

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This natural interlocking of markets caused by the improvement of the industrial, transportation, information technology, on the one hand, and virtualization money and money from another. Ideological basis of modernization and globalization is a Christian universalism (neither the Hellenes, or Jew). Modernization is a vector change in the socio-cultural sphere, the reduction of local and universal component of the increase, megatrends of lokalizma to universalism. Globalization also updates the universal, promoting deconstruction of national, local. Globalization is the product of accelerating the socio-cultural dynamics of the whole world, that leads to a location geographically, socially, culturally remote locality in a single spatio temporal continuum in a space of a causal effect. A mosaic of humanity as a whole, when in some part, not indifferent to what happens in other parts, especially the dynamics of money and commodity markets. Important events at any point on Earth is reflected in the common information space, suggesting, if not a direct response, at least some formation of public opinion. Increasingly, the processes limiting the role and functions of the nation-state, much note of the functions of local government (postal services, part of the education system, police powers, etc.). The most important of them - the completeness of geo-political sovereignty on its territory - subject to a radical rethinking, deaktualiziruetsya. In the period of globalization, fewer states can seriously talk about national security with the help of the armed forces, economic, educational (the distance form of education), fiscal space is increasingly becoming supranational character, all the less control at the national level. In recent decades, an intensive process of formation takes place in international, globalized elite, which is the basis sotsiogeneza activities of transnational corporations, the emerging interdependence of economic, cultural, political and media space. Globalized elite is a heterogeneous formation, consisting of segments of national elites, the foundation of economic, cultural and information activities, which makes use of, primarily, the capacity of integrated international (global) markets. The interests of the new international elite gradually 84

diverge from the interests of that part of the elite, which maintains the national character, guided in its work for the most part on the national market. It is envisaged increasing the income gap between the part of society, mainly uses the national economy and the part that is more use of the potential of international (global) markets. National and, increasingly, the emerging globalized elite, not only susceptible to accelerate the socio-cultural dynamics, but more than that, they are largely of its source. Globalization is a process of forming a unified institutional space, leading to a maximum permeability of the borders of national socio-cultural systems and their contextualization, when a number of features of the system are transmitted to the transnational level, to open the channels of intercultural communication. Genealogical new global commonality in their origins in many ways goes back to the modern Western civilization. She sees it, above all, institutional environment and of the value-normative system, where institutions and, to some extent, the values of the Western world have become reference for a large part of nonhumanity. In this part of its globalization process is repeated, overlapped, reinforcing the process of modernization. Perceived by those elements that are either able to demonstrate its operational efficiency, promote the development goals, or are still perceived as such, the rest of the world. As an example can serve as a policy commitment to democracy, which promotes a higher rating of the nation-state, providing a greater flow of investment, increasing stock prices, government and corporate bonds, etc. Another question, how democratic governance works adequate to the level of development, which is the State. In the context of globalization, nation-state, forced to play by certain rules, can not, any time obstruct the process of modernization, including in the political sphere, these processes are largely autonomous from the requirements set by the social and cultural tradition. The processes of globalization are a synthesis of progressive and inverse dynamics. Backward movement is possible, in particular, as a reaction to the 85

financial and economic crises, for example, a vast drop in the regional financial and commodity markets as a result of the process of the steep decline in the mobility of financial capital. Globalization processes are open, nonequilibrium, nonlinear nature, which largely determines the specific features of national social and cultural dynamics. Historical, social and cultural alternatives that we can handle, have a certain limit, determined by the amount of cause-effect relationships, accumulated in the process diahronnogo development, they are in many ways and that номиналистическую determine the proportion of local and universal, that is in the culture and society of experiencing the impact of globalization processes. Speaking of globalization, it is necessary to avoid the reduction to the model of makdonalizatsii world, international interests, transnational business, in terms of maximizing profits, given the prevailing demand of national cultural characteristics, as the successful promotion of national markets as a universal consumer product in the field of tangible and spiritual (cultural) consumption, it requires a partial interpretation in the spirit of national socio-cultural traditions. We see globalization as a movement towards universal economic, legal, informational, educational and, ultimately, cultural space, in large part as a modern adaptation transformation project, the next, we advanced, stage of modernization. Globalization is a modern stage, we deploy a single and universal project Nouveau. An important question is whether it should be considered a complete modernization, embodied shot process in achieving the main characteristics of modernism in various spheres of human life. The processes of historical and sociocultural dynamics not only slowed, but show dramatic acceleration continues samotransformatsii as in the modernization of Western civilization, and its new eastern area (Japan, dynamic Asian countries). What are these processes: the continuation of modernization, or postmodernizatsiyu? If postmodernizatsiyu, she continues to deny or modernization process? Globalization, rapidly unfolding in a changing world which is losing many of the established characteristics, genealogy go back to the dawn of a new time. AI Neklessa notes that the New World time 86

rapidly back and forth, accompanied by the systemic crisis of the foundations, structures of society, based on the sustainability of national cultures and forms of value-rational world. Nation-state system of international relations, international law, based, beginning with the Peace Treaty of Westphalia, on the inviolability of national sovereignty subject to the processes of deconstruction. Going through a serious transformation of the classic manufacturing economy, is superseded by the pressure of the virtual neoekonomiki on the periphery of economic space, not less serious transformation in the field of ideology and national culture. Put into question as a model of the evolutionary arrangement of the world, its modernization, and the very concept of progress. Today, globalization has become affixed a planetary community of people, of humanity as a whole when any significant event in any part of the Earth is becoming the province of a single information space, suggesting, if not the reaction, at least some formation of public opinion. The processes of the world division of labor in a world where prevail Western capitalist civilization, can hardly be equitable and fair, as it is not within the rules of the game that are the strongest. The countries of Western civilization were almost complete monopoly on the so-called closing Technology, that not only can bring their owners excess, but also economically destroy competition, closing the entire industry. They are able to produce goods with a maximum added value, export of new technologies, make the production of a large part of financial products across national boundaries. Newly industrialized countries have to import technology, largely paying for the scientific and technological progress in a post-capitalist economy, especially in the United States. They can produce and sell products with less added value. Developing countries, third world countries are forced to sell raw materials, ie, the first processing products, for which the typical minimum value added. This nonequivalence is caused by the exchange of basic, systemic causes. The most problematic countries in the post-transition group, since the achievement of this objective goes far beyond the industrial breakthrough, which, in particular, showed 87

the world the new Asian tigers. Industrial efforts, using other people's technology will inevitably lead to further build and perpetuate the industrial civilization. To move towards postindustrializma needed its own creative interpretation of the problems of scientific and technological progress, developing its own technology. Since this is the way makes it possible by maximizing the value added to obtain the maximum profit and to achieve maximum efficiency. Western civilization is modernizing the locomotive of global development, accelerate the socio-cultural dynamics of a planetary scale. The domination of modernist paradigm, suggesting accelerating turbulent race of capitalism, in which the rate of change reaches a certain critical level, including in relation to adaptive capacity of human psyche. Medical statistics reported a significant increase in mental health, psychosomatic diseases, indicating that people are simply not able to adapt to the flow of social and cultural change, where nothing is permanent, when the risk becomes systemic. Real, objective world is losing its certainty, duration of existence, is accelerating the change of fashion, almost every year are updated range of technical devices used by humans. A kind of ideal was the single thing that after a single or a very short use of the name of further development of the economy can even simply discarded. Permanent economic growth, requires for its maintenance of a growing number of resources, many of which are irreparable, leading to environmental pollution. Climate change is also largely a consequence of the continuous growth of production and consumption. Models, which dealt with the development of these trends over the next century, clearly show that the system can not grow sustainably over any long period of time. Are effective resource, environmental, social restrictions, a general depletion, degradation of natural systems, and as a consequence, the issue is not only achieved the quality of life, but also the physical survival of a large part of humanity. Environmentalists, антиглобалисты offer in this regard go to the deceleration in growth, move from the expansion, the expanded reproduction of humanity to a simple reproduction, balanced with the capacity of the environment. 88

These attitudes in many ways similar to traditional beliefs, dominant in the more traditional, non-civilization, which assume a more harmonious coexistence of human and natural environment. In this century, humanity faces a difficult and extremely important in its consequences the choice of two paths of development. The first involves the further acceleration of economic development, social and cultural dynamics that in the medium term, lead to disastrous consequences for biocenosis the planet, including mankind. The second path involves the transition to a more static society, which is characterized not only by the use of new, energy-saving technologies, and a slowdown in all the forms of human dynamics, the move away from the ideology of progress. This development is not a conflict of good to the best, so characteristic of the artistic method of socialist realism, leaving little room for historical optimism. When considering biocenosis, the resource potential of the planet Earth as a whole, as a closed system, both ways are a difficult dilemma. This choice is valid for closed, equilibrium systems, and becomes less important when considering today's environment as an open and nonequilibrium systems. Western civilization, focusing on the explosive development, which by definition is synonymous with life, understood as the expansion is the only leader of mankind, can literally push him into space to begin a new great epic space colonization. In a universe of matter, which could serve as a resource base for further expansion of the capitalist economy and humanity, which is, in this context that Western civilization is modern. Economic man receives habitual physical motivation, much like the one that moved people in the process of colonization of the planet Earth. It was the lack of harmony, biocenosis practical destruction of the planet Earth, that is, in many ways samoedsky nature of Western civilization can lead either to a serious systemic crisis of humanity, or, as a positive alternative to the space expansion. Probably not a coincidence coincided with the beginning of the modernization of the great geographical discoveries and the closure round the 89

world expedition of Magellan, and the beginning of globalization - with access rights to the space that gave the opportunity to see the entire planet and the instrumental work on a planetary scale. Globalization has become yet another step in the process of modernization and historical perspective leads to the formation of a common humanity, united by the economic, informational, and possibly Police integration. It would seem that today's globalization is not an ideology. Formally, this is the case, but the general background ideology of global peace is still visible. This background is represented the ideology of global mass culture. Despite its global spread, mass culture of origin, the production of predominantly Western, in fact, American. This is largely secular culture, with multiple inserts and pagan neyazycheskih motivation, mysticism and superstition. This is clearly not monotheistic culture, it is increasingly turn away from the Judeo-Christian religious tradition, or rather not providing it a host of pagan gods, extraterrestrial minds, games of light and darkness. This is in stark contrast to what is happening in the area of non-primarily the Muslim world. Becoming more crowded, the world still remains committed to religious tradition. According to population projections, examines the potential for population growth in some regions and the whole planet, its strength will reach a historic high at the end of XX century, after which begins a long historical process of depopulation of mankind. Population growth during this period will be achieved by developing countries, with their lower per capita income, education, health care, women's inequality, ie the developing countries for some time will continue to follow their own socio-cultural traditions. In the northern regions of the Earth today and prevail over this century finally established a very different model of human reproduction, implying a nuclear family with one child that does not provide a simple quantification of population reproduction. In the coming century XXI society are huge non-demographic potential, introducing a lot of people, gripping material temptations, assuming 90

dostizhitelnuyu modernist motivated, dynamic, but largely for good reasons not likely to get what they perceived internally as needed for a decent, modernistkoy life, the success of the personal life project. The variance of demographic potentials poses a threat to the conflict between North and South, but in the longer historical perspective, becomes a very real threat of dissolution of the Western, modernist, faustovskogo humanity in the ocean more than an inert non-most. The processes of globalization contribute to the creation of special support groups, neophytes West, took not only its institutional environment, but also of values, the organization of daily life behaviors. This is the least smaller, but most vesternizirovannaya and laicize of non-peace becomes a chance of western civilization while maintaining cultural continuity with change in the ethnic, racial relations between different parts of humanity. It is relevant to conduct a historical analogy between ancient Greece and Rome, where the process of cultural expansion has led to the perception of the Greek cultural tradition as the common traditions of antiquity. Something similar to a new spiral of historical development may occur in relation to modern Western socio-cultural traditions and this is likely, is the historic mission of globalization. We believe that the acceleration of the historical and sociocultural dynamics dramatically alter our usual card evropotsentrichnogo peace, progress, leads to a deconstruction of the elements of modernism, which have lost their effectiveness, have become too stiff, exhausted, or are close to the exhaustion of its adaptive capacity. In particular, the above applies to the wide use of the heritage of European instrument of education and the French Revolution, with its sacramental slogan Freedom, equality, brotherhood. With the passage of time is quite clear realization that this part of the European socio-cultural heritage is not technological, can not be used for the purpose of effective implementation of policy in a non-peace. This policy is pursued at the level of political, economic, social and cultural activities has expressed ambivalent basis. On the one hand, it is a posteriori awareness of the ineffectiveness of the practical application of the European 91

cultural heritage, on the other - for greater pragmatism, cynicism and double standards. Several redutsiruya, you can talk about the different standards in the West and non-peace, the various approaches to the Western and non-Western world, which have different types of strategies and technologies of human existence. In the context of violent institutional and value-normative transformation, which is experiencing a modern world, primarily the most modernized, dynamic parts, both in the West and the East, the question arises about the effectiveness of strategies for catching the modernization that practice, many non-Western countries, including and Russia. Not only is the most advanced countries have moved to a post-industrial society, they are still part of dekonstruiruyut inefficient with low adaptive capacity, the effectiveness of institutions and values of modernism. In these circumstances, we (Russia), or is completing a national project to create a modern society, with the subsequent deconstruction of its elements, or once again try to turn history. Today, the trick may be to try to enter through the door post, go directly to the post-industrial economy, multicultural, multikonfessionalnomu society and culture, the legalization of our local differences, treating them not as a brake on development as well as the source of excessive creativity, innovation potential, which may be claimed at the present and future stages of the historical and sociocultural dynamics. But it should be understood that the danger of such creativity, the next search third way zashkalivayusche high. We know that the modernization of the earlier era of globalization has created. Globalization has become a source and resource upgrading, initiating dramatic changes in the living world in which Western societies have been pioneers. This is a long, historical process, which includes a number of defining elements of culture and human emancipation. Globalization is an exogenous engine of modernization in the local communities, affecting their reproduction and the degree of radicalization. The intensity, depth, focus of modernization in many ways defined by the processes of 92

globalization, resulting in adaptive responses, and restructuring of the sociocultural system. The processes of social and cultural regulation in the modernizing society are determined by the action of the two, in many ways opposite, the sources, namely the social and cultural traditions on the one hand, and the influence of exogenous (globalization as an exogenous agent of Russian modernization). Sociocultural tradition, in turn, is ambivalent, which in no small measure, due to adaptation processes of modernization, which the socio-cultural spheres of society is exposed for about three centuries. During this period, with the failures and retreat, the process of adapting the economic, military, socio-cultural and political spheres of society and the state of Western civilization to the challenges of modern, mature in the New Era. I. In today's world, in which a single information space, ideology pochvennichestva (samobytnichestva), Third Way is not a good option for Russia. The global interchange of ideas, technologies, knowledge becomes the determining factor in the historical development of mankind on the path to creating a common space of culture. II. The successful modernization of Russia's socio-cultural system requires openness both external and internal socio-cultural and economic communications. III. Further movement of Russia on the path of modernization in many ways equivalent to the movement of ecumenism, tolerance, rejection of the messianic role of political, economic and cultural integration in a unified Europe, the western model of civilization of late Modernism. IV. Critical to the success of modernization processes is a departure from the archaic syncretism, which to a large extent, determines the characteristics of the Russian socio-cultural traditions, can be on the way polikonfessionalnosti, improving the overall level of tolerance in culture and society. V. The success of the modernization project in Russia requires a clear understanding of what Russia is part of the European (Christian) civilization, in the direction the Russian socio-cultural system in a long historical period. 93

VI. Globalization is the next stage of modernization, marked by the formation of an integrated economic, informational, political and cultural space. VII. Globalization is a vector flow changes, the movement of inter-related and complementary to peace, based on the institution and, to a lesser extent, the values of Western civilization. VIII. Globalization is a powerful exogenous engine of Russia's modernization, its influence on reproduction and the degree of radicalization. The intensity, depth, the priorities of modernization processes in Russia is largely defined by the processes of globalization, resulting in adaptive response of the Russian socio-cultural system. IX. The dichotomy of universalism and lokalizma in the Russian sociocultural system is reflected in the variation of regional development, the availability of pre-industrial, industrial and postindustrial areas. Russian modernization constitutes a hybridization and enclaved development. X. The emerging Russian middle class is a potential subject of Russia's modernization, political power. XI. Heterogeneity of the Russian social and cultural spaces is a challenge, find the answer to that is continuing today, as well as a source of excessive creativity, capabilities, options for future development. We know that starting with the New European time and historical sociocultural dynamics in Russia is characterized diahronnym megatrends of a movement from traditional to modern institutions and values-regulatory systems. Formation of megatrends is due to adaptive response to the explosive growth of social and cultural dynamics within the framework of Western civilization. There is a different degree of intensity of the dynamics of megatrends movement unevenly carried out fits and starts (reform, revolution), followed by back (inversion) motion. At this stage, establishes only a part of innovation characteristic of the the inherent social force that can make the process samopoderzhivayuschimsya, regardless of the will of the modernization of the

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period of intense dynamics. Nevertheless, the inverse, reflexive movement should be considered only as a fluctuation in the megatrends. His appearance is a response to the challenge of Western civilization, which the Russian empire could not accept. Megatrends is inherent inertia, but the nature of the inertia varies in different historical eras and in different social strata. During the period of the Russian empire, the Soviet Union and the first post-Soviet years (90-th years of XX century) the nature of inertia modernizatorskimi determined by the supreme power, the society has played only a complementary (additional) role. The current stage of development of social and cultural areas of modernization of Russian society is developing in the context of globalization, which is seen as a continuation of our modernization project. The processes of globalization in many ways the role of external actors of Russian modernization, resulting in adaptation response of the Russian socio-cultural system. Literature 1 G. Almond civic culture. Political democracy and the installation of the five nations / / Anthology of world political thought. 5 v. T. II. Foreign political thought. XX century. M., 1997. 2 Arendt H. The Origins of Totalitarianism. M., 1996. 3 Akhiezer AS The specifics of Russian political culture and the subject of political science (historical and cultural research) / / Pro et Contra. 2002. T. 7. Number 3. 4 Belik AA Psychology of cultures: from the archaic societies to modern culture. M., 2001. 5 Giddens A. Sociology / Per. England. V. Malashenko, E. et al Kryukova Nauchn. Ed. VA poison. M.: Editorial URSS, 1999. 704 pp. 6 Benedict R. Chrysanthemum and the sword: Patterns of Japanese culture. M., 2004.

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7 Butina NA The people of Papua New Guinea (from tribal structure to an independent state). SPb., 2000. 8 Neklessa AI The end of civilization, or a zigzag history / Global Community: The mapping of post-World / Comp. and TOB. Ed. AI Neklessa etc. M.: East. lit. 2002. S.109-142. 9 Bhaskar R. Society Moscow: Progress, 1991. 10 Girts K. Interpretation of Cultures. M., 2004. 11 K. Klakhon Mirror for man. An introduction to anthropology / Per. England. Ed. AA Panchenko. - St. Petersburg: Eurasia, 1998. - 352 pp. 12 Kradin H.H. Political Anthropology: A manual. - M., 2001. 13 Levi-Strauss C. Prehistoric thinking. M., 1999. 14 Political Culture: Theory and national models / Gadzhiev KS, Gudimenko DV, Kamenskaya GV M. et al:, 1994. 15 The political system and political culture of the East / wash roc Institute of Intern. Relations (un-t) Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. M., 2006. 16 Terborn G. Globalization: Measurement, historical waves, regional effects, regulation / / Social and Human Sciences. Domestic and foreign literature. Ser. 11, Sociology: RJ / RAS. INION, Center for Social. scientific inform. Issled. Otd. sociology and social. psychology. M., 2002. Number 4. P.11-16. 17 Popper KR Open Society and Its Enemies. M., 1992. 18 Taylor EB Prehistoric Culture. M., 1989. 19 Schmitt K. Glossary: 1947-1951's Notes / / Political Science: Types of power in the comparative-historical perspective. Problem-thematic collection. Vol. 3. - M., 1997. 20 Savitskaya TE Post world: the changing cultural paradigm / / The global community: the mapping of post-world / hands. project status. and TOB. Ed. AI Neklessa etc. M.: East. lit., 2002. P.76-104. 21 Bauman Z. individualized society / Per. England. Ed. VL Inozemtsev. M.: Logos, 2002. 390 pp.

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22 1.Ilin MV, Inozemtsev VL megatrends of world development. Moscow: Economics, 2001. Chapter II. After the Empire I. History of Russia and the USSR of A. Akhiezer, J. Klyamkin, I. Yakovenko and E. Gaidar In October 2005, the fund Liberal mission and New Publishers published a new book of famous Russian culture and political Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin and Igor Yakovenko - History of Russia: the end or new beginning? Despite the fact that the court presented to the reader the philosophical, cultural, political oposredovaniya sensitive historical events in Russian history, is written, it surprisingly simple and clear language of literature. There is the impression that the book is written in one go in one sitting. But this presentation is misleading, like the ease of writing is achieved only work, work on many of the text. The text itself was sealed and very helpful - this is a rare case when the words closely, and spacious thoughts. Finally, the book is simply fascinating, very soon notice that you can literally start reading from any page, and away from the text is already difficult. Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin, Igor Yakovenko, combined their efforts to ensure that the reader can better understand the phenomenon and the evolution of the Russian state, its basic political-ideological and socio-cultural reasons. Authors and, accordingly, readers interested in ways to consolidate political power, the elite and the population used the state at different historical stages. Nevertheless, the reader might be quite a fair question: Why, again appeal to the stories? - The historical events described in a long time, and many of them entered the reader at the rate of school history. Rhetorical question, but how many of our fellow citizens to read not only the shell of Pipes and Robert M. Geller, and the classics of historical sciences - SM Solovieva, VO Kluchevskoy, GV 97

Vernadskogo, MN Pokrovskiy ... A new book by Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin, Igor Yakovenko, the reader can not only refresh and renew their knowledge of Russian history, but also an explanation of causes and effects of certain historical events and processes. Based on a representative for the works of national history, the authors examined the enormous historical material, the chronologically covering a period from the origins of the formation of Kievan Rus to the present day - we are immersed in the flow of Russian history, in many ways defines our present and possible future scenarios. But the main reason for this interest in history that the Russian (Soviet) past did not go now, and in order to better understand the possible alternatives to current and future of Russia, we need to think about in the history of unresolved problems and faults nesrosshimisya social and cultural divisions. Suppose that in the new form, they played today - we have to tackle them in the name of the free development of the Russian and European elections the country. Despite the rather fashionable in the 90-th years of last century the alleged end of history, this is not about us, we still live in its midst. Note that many well-known events, and even a textbook of Russian history and modernity, Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin, Igor Yakovenko reflect in the context of a liberal approach, which corresponds to the original intent of the book. We fully sympathize with authors wish to draw the attention of the reader how the Kievan Rus and Muscovy to take root in the first axial time and in the process long and painful, but not yet completed entering Russia in the second axial time - the time of the rule of law, respect for human rights and property rights - Learning country of the European values. But they do not leave unattended, and macroreproduction, and gradual izzhivaniya of authoritarianism (or so-called Russian systems). Since it is especially Russian Systems directly determine the content of our history, and indirectly, and the present, we point to its main features. First of all, Russian system - a system in which the Russian Authorities block subjectivity of elite groups, with the passive or active support to deprived people subjectivity 98

(126). In other words, the policy is the subject of power, personalized to specific historical images of the great prince, king, emperor, general secretary of the CPSU Central Committee - and they alone possess the fullness of subjectivity. The people of this subjectivity does not have, except for times of severe crises of statehood (vague time major Cossack and peasant revolt, revolution). But the peculiarity of this system in that the subjectivity of elite groups in society is also undergoing the largest possible in the given historical circumstances, the restriction. Specific historically caused, methods of blocking subjectivity Russian elite are in a wide range: from massive physical repression to a relatively mild extrusion of some members of the elite teams in the Russian political and economic fields in the European and North American emigration. As a historical example of such repression can recall antiboyarskuyu oprichnina I. Grozny and the destruction of the party elite I. Stalin, but there are also intermediate methods, for example, can now serve the arrest and imprisonment MB Khodorkovsky and PL Lebedeva. The basis of Russian System is the so-called father - paternalistic - the matrix based on the provisions and powers Bol'shakov in the patriarchal peasant family. For a typical military / paramilitary matrix organizes society and the state, which is especially evident in times of internal crises and turmoil, when the system itself grassroots people's movement, and in the foreign policy of the state, it manifests itself in an effort to voennoderzhaviyu. Military / paramilitary matrix organizes and Russian authorities: Russian power - is, of course, the powermonosubekt. But only because and in so far as to limit it - Power-militarizator, hence, ultimately, its historic identity. For its existence and reproduction of this authoritarian system has to seek and find external or internal enemy, divide the world into we and them. According to his mental grounds she mobilization and isolationist-defense, but its adherents are inclined to look for the causes of injuries are not flaws in the system, but explain them in a spirit of konspirologii and the criminal neglect and errors of individual performers. Sama Russian system infallibly, she only suffered from the 99

machinations of internal and external enemies, as well as errors and neradeniya artists from which you can always choose the perpetrators in all. So, intimidate enemies and about punishing the perpetrators, you can continue to pursue similar policies, commit an error and nelepitsy, which, incidentally, from the viewpoint of the system itself, are not. Together with the authors of the book The history of Russia: the end or new beginning? Would alert the reader to another source of the formation and reproduction of Russian systems. This feature of our adoption and interiorizatsii Christianity. We know that European Christianity emerged as a popular movement in the geographical boundaries of the Roman Empire, with all the excesses of a period, while maintaining continuity with the late antique culture. Later Christianisation captured and marginal European nations where the spread of Christianity was no longer the bottom, but on top of power, not having this any serious conditions. By the time the spread of Christianity in the Kievan Rus local paganism was still very viable, for a century thereafter, while the foundation on which overbuild Institutes of Christian churches. The result was the postponement of their pagan genealogy presentations on the evolving institutions, including institutions of power. In a phenomenon popularly dvoeveriya when spontaneous rural pagan accepts external (ritual) Christian piety, without changing its internal quality. In government there are similar processes, when the orthodox direct successor to the king and the embodiment of the pagan totem, of course, in the frame of Christian phraseology. Thus, during the centuries of Christianity there is only a form separated from content, the weak and partially penetrating into guschu people's lives. In summary, one could argue that the Russian system is expressed in the synthesis' paternal 'cultural matrix, a pagan interpretation of Christianity and the army of life. With sustained volatility, this system is, paradoxically, of its archaic dogosudarstvennogo beginning of the relationship and the state contributes to the reproduction of deep socio-cultural division, drawn up in the spirit of the time 100

situational shape. And the main reason for replacement of old and new lines (cracks), the social and cultural divisions in national history was that the cultural foundation design has remained divided. Divided, it was because of the large, state-organized societies have been transferred model of the fabric of life of localtribal, worlds dogosudarstvennyh. It is important to remember that in itself a social and cultural division is not unique and isolated, through him all peoples were at the stage of their transformation into a state. We are different from other people, only a special resistance to the flow split of historical time, its reproduction when the nations of Western Europe, he was not only broken, but has become a distant past. Naturally, the exterior design and informative content of specific forms of social and cultural divisions in each historical epoch with its unique conditions, and that they are expressed by its main contradictions. With regard to the intensity of division, it differs in different periods of Russian history. Not going into empiricist its many historical manifestations, such a thorough review of the book The history of Russia: the end or new beginning?, Dwell only on the transformations of social and cultural divisions in Russia XX Century. In pre-Soviet Russia the situation is the social and cultural schism was evident - but the various social groups and subcultures gravitated to one of the two poles of stably reproducing the binary opposition. We believe that by the end of XIX - beginning of XX century with the well-known shares can be formed to talk about extreme social and cultural dynamics, which is grouped around the educated and economically successful social groups - consumers and creators of the technical achievements of civilization and high (elite) culture, in a sense, modernists striving for the future. The second pole, conventionally referred to us as a pole of sociocultural statics, led to the archaic, often dopismennoy popular culture around it focused the bulk of the peasantry and Philistinism small Russian towns. Once in power, the Bolsheviks gradually weakened both poles, depriving them of their former strength and certainty. We understand that as a socio-cultural 101

reality, and its poles can not be played back in time without the living, human action, and contemporary events accomplice. The Bolsheviks gradually destroyed physically, out of the country, ousted in the marginal area of the vast majority of educated and economically successful people, often removing the very name of their social groups. But the social and cultural dynamics of the pole can not be completely eliminated, because it means the disintegration of society and the loss of the state. The Bolsheviks filled modernist socio-cultural dynamics of a pole, but it was already a high-quality content, particularly after large-scale purges of Stalin's Party cadres second half of the 30-ies of the XX century. With respect to the poles of sociocultural statics, the archaic and the mass of the peasantry Philistinism been fragmented and grind Moloch collectivization, industrialization, state repression. Here, the Bolsheviks have not able to make full or preferential elimination of members of these groups, because they collectively accounted for more than 90% of the population. Therefore, although their physical destruction was partial - it is millions and millions of our compatriots - the exact figure of deliberately killing people we do not know today. As a result of the Soviet period of our history, the second expressing the Archaic, pole of a binary opposition, lost the certainty of its quality system, has weakened and partially dismantled. As a result, has become a very dilute binary opposition sociocultural poles, markedly decreased, and the symbolic distance between them. For a number of historical and cultural factors have both in the realm of Moscow, Russia and the USSR was formed comparatively slowly cultural meaning complex mediating breeding these cosmological poles. Torn country lacked mediation, dialogue between the poles as the conversation of people and ideas, which reduces the interests of the existing median area of culture and social life. However, the formation of such a mediating cultural-semantic complex dramatically accelerated in Russia / Soviet Union during the last century. Mediation, dialogue with all occurred during most of the XX century in the camp barracks, on the fronts of the world wars and local conflicts in communal apartments, stuffy eseninskih beer, on trains, in geological expeditions in the 102

development of Siberia and commodity stocks rise Kazakh ground. Thus, at the expense of physical and social isolation useknoveniya ordinary people that were previously the basis of social and cultural dynamics of the poles, on the one hand, and the introduction of universal secondary education - on the other hand, podtyanuvshego to middle-level people from the social and cultural sectors of the Archaic, the society by the end of the Soviet period became much more homogeneously. Returning to the text of the book The history of Russia: the end or new beginning?, Which led us to these thoughts, noting that it dealt with four periods of development of the Russian state, each of which will sooner or later ended in disaster. The book, in fact, consists of historical periods corresponding to these sections: Kievan Rus': the first state and the first crash, Russia Moscow: Second state and the second crash; Empire Romanovs: the transformation of the new Russian state and the third accident, Soviet Russia: rebuilding державности and fourth crash . And only the last, fifth, part of it is called post-Soviet state in retrospect and prospect, when the current period has not yet been completed and the future is still probabilistic. But in today's post-Soviet period, we relaxed and played a reduced systemic weaknesses and flaws formed in the realm of the Moscow, the Russian Empire, Soviet sociocultural traditions Russian systems. And it is inheriting these ills and shortcomings, despite the marked decrease in the depth we have and reducing the intensity of the traditional socio-cultural division, suggests the possible opening of this disastrous series of national history. What is, in fact, we see a possible future socio-cultural prerequisites stall, where the trend indicates the potential volatility of the next stage of development of the country? Unfortunately, these trends are already evident today, when historical time is accelerating, and the result of errors does not make itself wait too long. We believe that finding recipes for solving new problems and challenges in the era of authoritarian socio-cultural tradition, updating the experience forced the Moscow kingdom dopetrovskogo period in our history - leads to a repetition of the 103

same historical mistakes. Now pull the company back in the Middle Ages, not only claiming orthodoxy as the dominant state religion, but considering it almost as a state ideology - there is a danger of confusion. This action can not consolidate, but to undermine the socio-cultural foundation of the post-Soviet states, thereby calling into question its territorial integrity. Despite such serious implications of such policies today are more distinctly heard voices of modern pochvennikov, denying the universal essence of Christianity, which has no Hellenes, nor Jew, voting, in which all semantic emphasis shifted to underline bogoizbrannosti, nothing on like the identity of Russia and Russian human self. In doing so, Christianity itself is considered merely as a convenient tool for the consolidation and mobilization of the ethnic Russian people, a marker that can clearly divide humanity on the we and them, our, and not ours, righteous and sinful. The idea of such a privatization of Christianity and use it for these specific needs is not new, but in pre-Soviet period of our history such plans, to some extent overlap with the sociocultural reality in which the country lived. We fully agree with A. Akhiezer, J. and I. Yakovenko Klyamkin that ... Derzhavnaya-imperial and orthodox forms of public identity in those days were not as relaxed as after the collapse of the Soviet empire, despite everything over the course of time to impose a country atheism and to deprive the church of its traditional functions: a source of legitimation of the supreme power, it ceased to be a return to that role in a secular constitutional state is not possible. But the erosion of traditional values that have taken place in recent decades as the late Soviet Union, both in post-Soviet Russia (in the most explicit form), today led to a sharp activation of protective traditionalism. Today hear the statement, according to which a person can consider themselves Russian only in the case of belonging to orthodox religion: Orthodoxy for us, the Russians - our matrix and the base of our historical existence. Yes, for many centuries of Russian history that was so, but after more than seventy violent repression of various faiths such generalizations questionable. The Russian empire was predominantly 104

Orthodox country. But by the atheistic Soviet period and the post-agnostic, during which maintained the secular nature of education and mass culture - the Russian society has become far less religious. It needs no further explanation of why, today, after the Soviet period of our history, we live in a fundamentally different reality. Specify only the results of sociological surveys conducted in 2004, the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, where only just over half (51.7%) of respondents belonging to a variety of ethnic groups in Russia, said that they believe in God. More than half of them (57.5%) in parallel, like just in case, believe in such supernatural forces and phenomena such as witchcraft and magic, the resettlement of souls, destiny, horoscope, signs, UFOs and aliens. In addition, the majority (48.8%) positive attitude of Russians to the proliferation of festivals in Russia, came to us from abroad, such as the Catholic Christmas, Valentine's Day, etc., are not revealing any desire to defend traditional country religious values. These statistics also show that of any anti allegedly inherently peculiar Russian man who does not have to say. But all the same that the data of opinion polls indicate prevailing in Russian society, indifference with respect to matters of faith. Today votserkovlennyh Orthodox people is not much in the total number of those who in some way identifies itself with the Orthodox faith. In other words, all attempts to build on Orthodoxy as state ideology have little instrumental capacity, as a few per cent of Russian citizens constitute an absolute minority of the population. In addition, to Orthodoxy as the dominant state religion and the only true ideology is not only government but also the actual ecclesiastical dimension. We know how to Marxism in the USSR became responsible for the horrors of Leninist-Stalinist period in our history, although the inherent prerequisites for that at the very Marxism was not so much. The Orthodox Church, putting the burden of state ideology, thus assumes responsibility for the goods and secular, by definition, public policy decisions that are not always popular. As an example, a recall has caused so much public interest law on monetization of social benefits. And if the 105

My Kingdom is not of this world, and human hands to build the kingdom of God on earth is impossible, then is it worth for the sake of psevdopatriotam and lzhepravoslavnym worldly temptation to yield to another? And here we think it appropriate to recall the admonition Russian philosopher Ε.Η. Trubetskoy, noting the dangerous tendencies of his time, quite clearly, and reproduce in the bottom of this: Gromily, lzhepravoslavnye, lzhepatrioty, and with them new and false prophets will prepare a new and more horrible than now, the explosion of Bolshevism - in our current reality can pave the way for a new, fifth on the account, the Russian catastrophe. In modern Russia are increasingly visible, and of ideological innovation Patriots-pochvennikov is that reliance on Russian ethnic nationalism. This nationalism is a particular kind, it aims rather than on building a nation state, but the revival of the empire. Another thing that is meant the construction of ethnonational - Russia, not the world - ideokraticheskoy empire. Suppose that in varying degrees, but the Russian empire and Soviet Union were the world aspire to ideokraticheskimi empires. The trouble is that coming from the aforesaid category of innovation, our fellow citizens, as well as an appeal to archaic social and cultural, is exactly the same to the country and the tragic events of contemporaries consequences. Here, the author of these notes is difficult to avoid the few ernicheskogo retreat. If it is in the Patriotic-pochvennicheskom spirit pofantazirovat on the World (zhidomasonskogo) conspiracy against the holy Russia, the Russian Empire, Soviet Union, the picture emerges as follows. Imagine some kind of powerful and zlokoznennye forces that not only planning to destroy the holy Russian government, but also provide for these purposes bogomerzkih some money, have the information and other support of the projects, tasuya stocks available in the country of political forces, choosing - who will be able to address the role of such an unsightly pogubitelya? The answer, at first sight paradoxical, but a closer look at all becoming to their seats. In multi-ethnic and multi-state bid for Russian nationalism and 106

nationalists could only lead to a radical increase in nationalism small peoples, to strengthen the country is not centripetal, but the centrifugal force. In ethnic and polikonfessionalnom Russian society is extremely dangerous to play on ethnic sentiments - the emphasis on ethnic and religious identity to anything except increase the likelihood of the collapse of the state, can not lead. Unfortunately, the rudiments Russian Systems present in the mentality of the Russian political elite and of society, functioning as an integrated system presented in the wide range of historical variation. For the Russian public consciousness not lost long selection of power work, where any personal wish is gradually deprived of authenticity, and translated into a relative outsider to the impersonal and at the same time personalized public need. Moreover, it must be seen not as something imposed and prescribed from the outside, but as the ultimate expression of personal want. In other words, the person required to want only the conscious and strictly subordinated royal will, seeing in it the supreme virtue. We fully recognize that the Society for the most part, rejects attitude towards himself as a passive object of state administration and guardianship. The Russian system, it has developed during the communist regime, which has become the main cause of the fall of the latter. Further modernization is blocked is not the mentality of people and the Russian elite are not ready and not able to control the free people . However, the Russian elite is also a part of society, and its unwillingness to control free human beings, coupled with the latent persistence of the mental elements of Russian systems, even a part of society, with a particular confluence of historical circumstances may lead to trying to institutional reproduction. The fact that any such attempt will fail - it is understandable now, we are in solidarity with the authors that the vital soil, feeding projects, XX century left in the past. Nevertheless, obviously fails this Project does not reduce the degree of their danger to man, society and state. Recall that the national-socialist project in Germany, too, was unfortunate, but how was the tragic attempt of its implementation for the Germans and other European nations.

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To paraphrase Chekhov, one can say that all of us, regardless of our shared scientific concepts and practiced political views, to one degree or another are forced to drop out of a residual mentality dogosudarstvennogo rights and державного / imperial servant. Note that the residual mentality dogosudarstvennogo person down to the archaic doosevomu time and державного / imperial servant - by the time it has taken root in the first axial time. The process of healing, with the understanding of the norms and values of the second axial time, difficult and tortuous, but without him the unenviable prospects of Russian society and people - and this book helps to heal a lot of Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin, I. Yakovenko History of Russia: an end or a new Home? So, for the very existence of the post-Soviet Russian state is not only inefficient, but extremely dangerous as the reliance on ethnic nationalism and neoimperskuyu policy, and attempt to transform Orthodoxy into a national ideology. Today, citizens of Russia are in front of another historic choice, but the clear answer to the question of what Russia we want to build - there is not a political elite, nor the society. It is clear that the main options for this building are grouped around two fundamentally different alternative projects. Either we build a democratic, rational, successful and high-tech post-Russia, or the desire to reproduce the spiritual, and even the institutional elements of Russian systems. Today in society there are both heterogeneous and multidirectional trends. But the desire to simultaneously translate the leads not only to a maximum of inefficiency, but to knowingly infeasibility project to build a new Russia, incidentally contributing to a split of mass consciousness and introduce into society a well-known element of schizophrenia. We, as the authors believe that the strategic building of development can not be simultaneously transmitted in opposite directions, sooner or later will have to make a historic choice. As Russian political elite and society at large enough coquet and hide from history - Russia is Europe, the political will needed to identify the strategic vector of development of the country: Giving Russia a

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European identity, its integration in the whole western civilization with its strategic interests, not less than the interests of the West. Adhering to a rigid belief that the strategic vector can and should be aimed at the integration of Russia into the Euro-Atlantic civilization to modernize its genealogy, we note that this type of integration can not be edinomomentnoy, a complex and lengthy macro. Recall, for example, that Turkey is seeking to Europe since the time of Mustafa (Kemal) Ataturk. Yes, it is long, but now Europeans are seriously discussing the institutional integration of Turkey into the European Community. But Russia is far more reason to include Europe, not only a clear political choice, and patience, and whereas a tactical failure on the scale of several years - not decades - forced political elites sharahatsya from side to side, eskeypistski to turn away from the present and future in the name of a distant past. It should be noted that the main problem of Russia is the need to transition to organic intensive self, can not be solved within the framework of Russian systems, as it always used the extensive model of development. It is obvious that the extensive development - the development by the attribution of others' resources. Resources may be natural (land, people) and cultural (knowledge, technology). But in both cases they were assigned to the shelf ... extensive modernization, ie appropriation and exploitation of other people's cultural achievements, is different from intensive that includes a drawing of the results of innovation, without acquiring the ability to self-innovation, which can not borrow. With regard to the use of extensive modernization, the process of transition to a postindustrial economy, inefficient methods of the period of accelerated industrialization. Today nekonkurentosposoben slave labor, can not return to the status quo, in which non-free scientist and engineer to achieve the militarytechnical parity with the most developed countries of Europe and North America. Of the witnesses recollections of events, historical documents and artistic works, we know that pay-for scientific discoveries and technological inventions have served on the acceptability compared with the rest of the living conditions of the Gulag system - beds with linen and plenty of bread with a little oil. 109

The success of modernization in the post-Soviet Russia determine the availability of free and open to the world, the formation of productive innovation sociocultural space. Need modernization is not for the sake of permanent strengthening of the military and political power of the empire, but for the sake of development of society and man. Need an air of freedom, which is so little space in the socio rife efflux Russian systems. In terms of post-Soviet Russia extensive type of development maloeffektiven to maintain its resource base is not old. But we now live mostly in the extensive paradigm, using the last resource of extensive development - an abundance of oil, gas and other natural resources. The availability of abundant natural resources in prolonged opportunity for extensive development, in making the transition to an unknown far-intensive innovative development on the basis of revolutionary technologies. Living through the use of the natural rent, you can skip the next technological revolution, smooth and stepwise increasing the catching of the regions, using the paradigm of intensive development. With regard to the resource constraints of extensive development, but today is almost impossible territorial expansion of the Russian state, is difficult to establish political and economic control over the neighboring territories. Although there is not all lost, remember at least a project to establish a liberal empire. For a relatively new restrictions that prevent extensive development is the reduction of manpower and dissemination of the European model of demographic reproduction of population. Note that this is not only the most important domestic constraints to extensive development, but also for the institutional reproduction of Russian systems, including in its державно / imperial hypostasis. The most serious internal restriction transforms Project to restore the imperial grandeur and power in a purely ideokraticheskuyu plane belongs to the field of demography. Without going into a detailed consideration of this matter, we note only that, rooted in modern Russia model of the nuclear family with one child, fails to provide not only an increase, but a simple reproduction of the population. But the more valuable each human life, the fewer opportunities for large-scale 110

military action, koimi was so rich in Russian history. In the stories were the words, General Field Marshal BP Sheremetev addressed to depressed by the huge losses Narva Emperor Peter the Great: Do not sorrow, the father-king, Baby still narozhayut. In the post-Soviet Russia - will no longer narozhayut, as long as you want, you can dream of imperial power and greatness державном - without the large patriarchal family, these dreams will remain in the area of utopia. End of the patriarchal family in Russia, the transition to the predominantly nuclear family with one child - and this is synonymous with the end of Russian imperialism. No masses of young people - not the physical ability to retain, much less restore the empire nor in the 1991 borders, much less 1913. For the Russian political elite, conservative and authoritarian policies neoimperskoy most serious external constraint is the institutional expansion of the European Union and Euro-Atlantic defense alliance. Today Russia is in contact directly with NATO in the north-west, and indirectly, through Ukraine and Belarus, almost throughout its western borders. We are witnessing unprecedented in its scale and speed of the ongoing expansion of a united Europe, to seize and Slav brothers, which makes absolutely unequivocal choice in favor of the West rather than East, European integration, rather than a union with Russia. Thus, the majority of Orthodox people today focus on the integration of Western civilization and the leadership of Russia and care on its part needs no (682), and ... (Ukrainian people. - SG) demonstrated clear willingness to sell in imperial primogeniture chechevichnuyu pottage membership in NATO and the EU. But if there is independent Ukraine, then there can be no full-fledged empire. If there is a Ukrainian nation, there is no imperial Russian people, which includes large-, small and belarosov. Ukrainians are our eyes betray a great principle of otherness Russia in relation to Europe, a great deal of confrontation, fear and hatred toward the West, have bequeathed to us by Alexander Nevsky. Much is seen at a distance, and more or less adequate understanding of the importance of what happened in autumn / winter 2004/2005 in Ukraine will be recognized as a people, and some later historians, for their more distant outcomes. 111

We believe that the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, was not local and reparable, but a final and irreversible defeat of the draft of a new Russian imperialism, not enough to start, failed attempt skolachivaniya anti-Western bloc of the CIS states. So, the Russian society and political elite are dealing not just with the expansion of European and Euro-Atlantic structures to the east of Europe, but also with the active participation in this process as close as the Russians Slavic peoples. Today, an independent Ukraine, tomorrow, with great probability, Belarus. We believe that pro-choice Slavic nations dramatically narrows the possibilities for any form of imperial restoration, this can only dream, but such projects are inherently untranslatable into the language of practical politics. Thus, all neoimperskie Project like that are doomed to maintain its simulation-farcical character, as well, and other attempts to recreate these or those elements Russian systems. We completely agree with the authors that the integration of the European (western) civilization presupposes a merely sequential zhiznevovoploschenie those legal principles which are recorded in the current Russian Constitution. But from the Soviet history, we know also that the declaration of democratic principles does not mean their actual compliance. Here is enough to remember Stalinbuharinskuyu the constitution in 1936, and negotiations with the 1965 presentation of human rights under the slogan - Follow your constitution. Today we are witnessing the restoration of the model simulation and legal state, where imitational inevitably extends to democracy, ie the sphere of political rights and freedoms (658). Moreover, Simulation - this is the way to the functioning of the state in society protogosudarstvennoy culture, and yet protogosudarstvenna culture and society atomizirovano - can not a priori exclude the possibility of negative scenarios of our future. Russian Europeans can not samouspokaivatsya and blagodushestvovat: playing great rhetoric, the political elite is able to tune up, under the influence of their own propaganda to go beyond the boundary of common sense, against his will be dragged into a situational logic neoimperskogo process. Follow neoimperskoy practical politics catastrophic, inevitably fraught with human 112

suffering and the territorial disintegration of the Russian state, the destruction of its geographical integrity. Today we are all contemporaries and involuntary witnesses / participants of events occurring in the country. We know that in the post-Soviet Russia, said the word little effect on changing the social and cultural reality, but can lead to scientific and public interest. We also know that the role of personality in history, opened today, yet we remain contemporary events, we have at least a theoretical chance to change something, try to avoid the most negative scenarios of Russia's future. Tomorrow, when the ordinary historical events already occur, it will be is impossible, so we followed the authors of the book The history of Russia: the end or new beginning?, Trying to catch today. This desire to have explained our desire to not only respond to the analytical discourse Alexander Akhiezer, Igor Klyamkin, Igor Yakovenko, but also to identify their academic and citizenship in relation to the changing interpretations of our past, our hope for a historic European choice of our present and future.

The death of the Soviet empire. Look Egor Gaidar. The death of the Roman Empire, Byzantium, the Empire heroically Romanov took place, a thriving, providing a bright, invoice material for future generations of historians, poets and musicians. This material is for the ancient tragedy, epic, for Wagner, finally. Not that the loss of Soviet empire - it's not Shakespeare, not for the romantic poet and not even for Prokhanov. This story for an economist - and here we book economist Yegor Gaidar on the death of the Soviet empire. This is a story about the time that it did lose about an insane organization of the economy, massive food imports, saving and deadly surge in oil prices. The Soviet empire fell under the blows not external enemies, but decayed from within, its economy has not been able to not only introduce the Soviet people in the consumer society, but just feed him. 113

It seems that the loss of empire happened so recently, but over the decade and a half, managed to grow up and socialize a new generation of Russians for whom the empire was left in the tender recollections of a happy childhood pioneer, pyatachka at Metro and other small, but so lovely joys of the Soviet era. For them, there were children, and no matter how good they were today, wealth and a high level, stand in the social hierarchy - is still a child, there, in the Soviet era, it was better. Just believe, and many more of their adult compatriots, for which the beautiful Soviet far-left youth, hiking, singing at the campfire, endless conversations in the kitchen. The property of human memory is such that all the bad with time spent on the second to the third plan, a good, even if it was quite a bit, remembered as the most important as main contents of the era. We had a wonderful era, we are ahead of world-wide, we are respected and feared - we had a great empire. And there was supposedly no good reasons for its dissolution, so evil will geopolitical rivals yes sold they fifth column - Democrat. These are the sentiments and evaluation occur in the mass consciousness, so is born so well described by Gaidar postimpersky syndrome. But when it comes to the breakup of the Soviet Union, the same here with Russia, which these lessons can be for the modern Russian state? After all, most recently 90 years the new Russian government tried to curtail naezzhennoy with centuries of imperial gauge, but it seemed that we are forever renounce the imperial ambitions. The Soviet experience shows that the imperial way of development of the country leads to disaster. Nevertheless, today the risk of movement in this direction is high. Gaidar compares the post-Soviet Russia with the Weimar Republic, citing examples of almost verbatim matches out of the spirit and the symbols of democratic nation-state in favor of the imperial past - imperial national symbols has been restored in Germany in 8 years after the collapse of the empire - in 1926, in Russia - through 9 years - in 2000 . But postimpersky syndrome in Russia is inextricably linked to the syndrome of the authoritarian, in fact to the authorities so great a temptation to avoid the long and sometimes painful procedure of approvals 114

under the democratic system, the various economic, political, social and ethnoreligious interests. Gaidar formed today, the system calls the closed (managed) or the soft authoritarianism of democracy. Indeed, it is difficult and at times excruciatingly difficult in negotiations, public dialogue to align the interests of different social groups, territories, so far from each other both geographically and culturally, such as the North Caucasus and the Far East. Where is easier to build the power vertical, piercing being the top down, amounting to every social, professional and ethnic groups, economic actors, political parties and nonprofit organizations - to send them to the power supply chain orders and superiors. But if the simple solutions authoritarian course, their effectiveness is quite conventional, in fact, they can bring only the current, short-term gains. Winning in tactics by raising the current level of controllability, authoritarian power plays in the strategy, jeopardizing the future of the country, our own future. Gaidar believes that the appointment of the presidents of the autonomous republics of the federal center provides a powerful trump card in the hands of nationalists, allowing them to easily prove that Moscow sees no Autonomies residents as full citizens, but as conquered subjects. The best gift to the separatists think hard. Authoritarian politics in the spirit of the Russian socio-cultural tradition leads to self-destruction, as evidenced by repeated failures can serve as our history, revolutionary rather than evolutionary path of development, where each subsequent stage negates the previous one, comes a gap of historical and cultural continuity. Only in the twentieth century the country experienced two break with the past, the first - the tragic gap first decades of Soviet rule and the second purificatory, surprisingly mild, in the social revolution of the 90-ies. Introducing the reader to specific figures, excerpts from a strictly secret, and then letters of memoranda from various levels of the Soviet nomenklatura, E. Gaidar shows how neadaptivnaya authoritarian system was to his self-destruction. In the last period of its existence, the Soviet empire had ceased to meet the challenges of our time, in fact solve the accumulated problems. Even under Stalin 115

their decision to deliberately substituted the removal of people and social (ethnic) groups who voice these concerns. But even after the disappearance of people, turning it into camp dust, not artikuliruemaya a problem remains, gradually destroying the system, which has nothing inside, all decayed to ashes, and left only one outer envelope. Gaidar believes that it was Stalin largely responsible for the collapse of the Soviet economy, in fact it lays its foundations: I. Stalin, the model of industrialization, the opposite buharinskoy, laid the foundations for economic and political system, which over time have been formed large cracks, creating the risk of their destruction with relatively modest external impacts . But the Soviet empire collapsed not only due to defective economic foundation, insufficient funds for the maintenance of grain imports, a sharp drop in oil prices and a surprising intellectual weakness and rigidity the ruling bureaucracy. All this with the arguments and facts, with the set and the little-known archival materials, academic, and strictly told readers E. Gaidar. There is another important reason - when there is no democracy, there is authoritarianism, then the probability of self-destruction system increases dramatically. It does not need an external conspiracy, it is part of an authoritarian system, and therefore unavoidable, is not known in advance only to the specific time frame. These dates are unknown poet, but known economist. Today, Russia as the USSR and the seventies, eighties, depends on the situation of world commodity markets, particularly hydrocarbons, is dependent on food imports. And if we add to this economic crisis of a possible rejection of democracy - the harmonization of interests within the country and the open and covert imperial expansion outside - but a repetition of the fate of the Soviet Union is becoming increasingly likely. Only far from clear that the stories there is another version of this surprisingly gentle dismantling of the continental empire, as was the case with the collapse of the Soviet Union. So no need to tempt fate tendency towards authoritarianism and empire, that has been making the same mistakes, it is necessary to learn lessons, teach the Soviet Union, the lessons, which so clearly and cruelly reminded us all Yegor Gaidar. 116

Literature 1. Akhiezer Α., Klyamkin I. Yakovenko I. History of Russia: the end or new beginning? Μ.: The new publishing house, 2005. 708 pp. 2. Akhiezer AS Russia: historical experience of the critic. T.I. M.: Philos. Society of the USSR, 1991. 318 pp. 3. Akhiezer AS The split / / Russia: historical experience of the critic (Sociocultural dynamics of Russia). T. II. Theory and methodology: Glossary. - Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1998. S.390-394. 4. Akhiezer AS No attempt to split the dialogue in Russian culture nepreodolim / / Westerners and nationalists: Is dialogue possible?: Proceedings of the debate. Moscow: OGI, 2003. P.73-76. 5. Akhiezer AS The specifics of Russian political culture and the subject of political science (historical and cultural research) / / Pro et Contra. 2002. T. 7. Number 3. P.51-76. 6. Three B. Veydle Russia / / Dying Art / Comp. and auth. poslesl. VM Tolmachev. Moscow: Republic, 2001. 7. Dugin AG Russian Orthodox Church in the space of Eurasia: A speech at the VI World Russian National Cathedral (December 2001, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior) / / Basics Eurasianism. M.: Arktogeya Center, 2002. 8. John, 18, 36 9. Trubetskoy, Prince. From a refugee travel writing / / of the past. Memoirs. From travel writing refugee. Tomsk: Aquarius, 2000. 10.Kutkovets TI, Klyamkin IM Modernist project for Russia / / Vedomosti. 11.Besancon A., Russia in XIX century / / Soviet and now Russian history: The collection of articles / Per. with fr. A. Babic (Chapters IV-XI) and M. Rozanova (Chapters I-III). M.: Publishing house IMCINE, 1998. 12.Yakovenko Igor, Ukraine and Russia: Subjects relevance / / Herald of Europe. T. XVI. M., 2005. С.63-76. 117

13.Gaidar Е.Т., The loss of empire. Lessons for Contemporary Russia. M.: The Russian political encyclopaedia (ROSSPEN), 2006. 440 pp. II. Russia in postimperskom the geographical and socio space The problem of geo-political leadership today as well, and in other historical eras, did not have and can not be easy and volyuntaristicheskogo solutions. An attempt to achieve leading positions must be backed by significant socio-cultural superiority over the alleged agent, a local expression which are available innovative technologies and strong investment potential. The desire for formal and informal leadership is inseparable from the formation of a field of attraction and affection, positioning itself as a referent, a model sample for the world at large and / or its individual regions, to model the desired state of the state and society. It is the achievement of these positions allows the reference to broadcast near and distant peoples of their norms, values, patterns of everyday behavior. Such a collective leadership is showing the old country in Europe Germany, Britain, France, for its success creating an example to be emulated, resulting in a desire to join these successes, to integrate into the interstate system, capable to promote the development of less developed nations. To a large extent on such grounds is constructed as a rational and informed, and the subconscious desire for European integration in the second half of XX - beginning of XXI century. Today we are seeing more and more institutional expansion in Europe, where the expansion of the European Union to the east includes all new regions, including those who have never belonged to traditional Europe. The observed expansion of European borders is unprecedented, but even more curious possible future transformation of the EU. We have in mind that perseverance, which seeks a united Europe in the Republic of Turkey, aims to catch on to the concepts of a clash of civilizations and cultures, despite their confessional past and present, in

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spite of the imperial tradition, which so consistently and confidently fought Turkish reformer Kemal-Westerners Mustafa (Atatürk). In Moscow, a lecture Dilemmas of Europeanization in the light of competition within the elite, on the comparison of Turkish and Russian modernization experience, made the founder of the Istanbul Center for Political Studies Ahmet Evin. Matches are probably greater than the differences, but these are the matches more to the period of imperial Russia and Turkey. Only in the Turkish imperial tradition was interrupted in the early 20-ies of the last century, while in Russia the empire still existed around seventy years. Soviet Union and became a perelitsevavsheysya, assuming the new Marxist-Leninist ideology of the Russian empire, the new wine, pour it into old bottles, quickly gaining the usual taste, color and odor of Russian imperialism. It is amazing perseverance Turkish elite, with which it is not simply seeking to united Europe, but also takes on its own genealogy of western norms, values, behaviors, and that relates to the erosion of traditional Islamic values. We believe that the main difference between Russian and Turkish political and cultural elites, despite the similarities of social and cultural tradition, which involves long periods of authoritarianism and empire, is as follows. Turkish elites since the times of Ataturk's sincere desire for the West, to Europe. For several generations of representatives of the Turkish elite, not only civil but also military, got a full Western education, complete a full course of study at leading universities and military schools in Europe. The duration of this process over many decades, resulting in the progressive Europeanization of the Turkish elite. Today, European identity - it is largely her own identity, so deeply entrenched that it is ready to protect it by all possible means, including use of military force. We know from history that at the slightest threat from the Islamists, traditionally oriented part of the Turkish people to always joined the Turkish army, which for decades has been and remains a stronghold of the Turkish Westerners, by force guarantees the West, the secular path of development. So changing attitude elite, but it is usually the first change their cultural and even religious identity. 119

In the Russian case, easily reproducible, with a different historical and sociocultural circumstances, the desire to preserve its special, self, search for a mythical third way, the desire to remain competitive with the collective subject of Western power. Imperial ideology and empire as the natural and socio-cultural education have the potential to serve this a priori, something even the subconscious to the objectives of the Russian establishment. It is within this self-picture of the world empire is seen as a great value because it is imperial resources can bring this military-political, economic and cultural confrontation with the West beyond the situation obviously anecdotic. Note that this is why the post-modern Russia, at least its political and military elite, so pulls to create a kvaziimperskoy grouping of countries satellites. A key role in this neoimperskom construction was to play a pro-Russian Ukraine, but after the popular Orange geopolitical revolution, these dreams are not only preserved but also strengthened its virtual status. Today the Ukrainian political elite is very clearly identified with their ideology and value preferences, including the geopolitical orientation. The orientation is quite clear: Ukraine - it is an integral part of Europe, the Western world in general. We believe that the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, was not local and reparable, but a final and irreversible defeat of the draft of a new Russian imperialism, not enough to start, failed attempt skolachivaniya anti-Western bloc of the CIS states. Much is seen at a distance, and more or less adequate understanding of the importance of what happened in autumn / winter 2004/2005 in Ukraine will be recognized as a people, and some later historians, for their more distant outcomes. The author is a wish to believe, and this is very serious and significant assumptions that are not so very distant, no later than 2008, the result of Orange Ukrainian revolution will be the dismantling of authoritarianism and democratization, and neoimperskosti in the modern post-Soviet Russia. Another question that the geopolitical game in the post-Soviet space has not yet been played, and here we can expect some surprises. Part of the Russian elite is increasingly clear browsable on a course of authoritarian rule. We know that this 120

has dragged on for such, so now inevitable search of those regimes and political leaders who profess themselves of authoritarianism values, identity, confront the West in all spheres of life. And here the choice is limited, if any exist. Perhaps one or two leader in the strength of the political situation which it is possible to doubt today, and no doubt probably not tomorrow. You can probably try to play a wah-bank, as has already been played, Mr. Slobodan Milosevic, several recent rearguard battles, and even win some of them. But the current state of affairs in the world is that in the struggle against the collective entity the West can be won, if very lucky, some fighting, but you can not win the conflict in general. What courage, kurazhnee will play against Western institutions and Western culture authoritarian elites in the former Soviet Union the higher the level of final costs, both for them and for the peoples of these countries. The paradox of history is that the reckless and tough play, the faster will enter the Hague, and is not as carefree tourist. Of course, the prisons in the EU are better similar institutions in Russia and other CIS countries, but still .... In addition, an example of that Slobodan Milosevic can be seen that beyond hard-earned money kept in Western banks, which are not free of loose political expediency. In consideration of these constraints on volyuntaristichnoy domestic and foreign policy becomes more understandable reluctance persistent E. Shevardnadze, Kuchma and L. A. Akayev to play tough, to use in the fight against the people's revolution and the army special services. It may be that not all have forgotten, and the fate of C. Ceausescu - is history and so .... But you can try to avoid such developments, to repent, to seek a strong nizhayshe world immunity from prosecution, in fact backed their petition exemplary conduct during the period of revolutionary crisis. Following common sense, consisting of the recognition emerged in the world balance of power may well get their reward, including a calm and secured a long vacation in the picturesque corners of the planet - somewhere in Tahiti, the French Riviera, etc. Such a fate may well be expected to politicians adaptive, able to dialogue at the 121

level of ideological abstractions, but of interest. We talk about the possibility of choosing political leaders, but their choice seriously affects the life of the nation. Yes, it would be my choice, but the degree of humanity and bloodless change depends largely on national leaders, political and military elite, it is their historic responsibility. But the rulers have come and gone, but people still remains a geopolitical situation remains moist wind from the Baltic and Europe, remains a historical inevitability of European integration. We believe that major positive strategic foreign policy objectives for the peoples of the European part of the post-Soviet space is the integration into the EU and NATO. Such integration not only means a change in the geopolitical orientation and foreign policy in general, but also change the internal situation, which includes democracy, human rights, social and cultural space of the alignment on the European model. We have no illusions with regard to ease this way, knowing that each successive step in the direction of European integration will require changes to the mental, and institutional levels. But we must understand not only the complexity of the task, but its practical solution in the not too distant historical perspective. The historical alternative to the developments in the post-Soviet version of an imperial restoration, is not compatible with political democracy, observance of a minimum set of democratic rights and freedoms. We believe that the attempt of imperial restoration leads to the inevitable narrowing of the personal living spaces, dramatically reduces the likelihood of self-human in virtually all occupational fields except those that directly or indirectly serve the interests of neoimperskogo state. There are two main actors - official and siloviki (a man with a gun), and Catch - providing ideological cover for active new generation of advocates and outreach workers. Implementation of such a historical alternative to us is not satisfied, we believe that we must now clearly and most severely to say no neoimperskim popolznoveniyam in the former Soviet Union, to try to prevent further extension of the existence of the empire, as it was after the Civil War in Russia / USSR. 122

What's happening in the country now - the construction of a national state or a path of imperial revenge? The issue in relation to Russia no longer seems rhetorical, as it would have been even ten years ago. And here we do not save history, because her experience is to be realized otrefleksirovan society - just as an antidote can be developed from the imperial ideology, and imperial forms of government. Work on historical errors had not been in the public consciousness has become a popular false impression that the Soviet empire has become a victim of short-term external circumstances and treachery of the political and intellectual elite - Democrat. But if all that easy, but rather try to change external circumstances, enhance geopolitical position of the Russian state, attached to the Transdniester, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and, what features are not jokes, Ukraine and Belarus. That's is organized neoimpersky project - glove would perceive it as a bad joke pervoaprelskuyu, but hampered by an increasingly clear sense that this project not only real, but is already in progress. It is evident that its implementation can not lead to the most serious foreign policy costs, put Russia on the brink of war between the cold - latent and hot - open. Naturally, however, that the most serious losses from this military-political confrontation will be very Russian society, so apathetic dealer Today the democratic gains of the Yeltsin-Gorbachev period. But democracy - this is the only way to protect yourself from society foreign policy adventure, because it is kept to a decorative, purely external, are devoid of references to the refusal of most foreign-policy Insurance. We know what a huge price to pay the people of Germany for the rejection of democracy and the unleashing of the Second World War. Just as the price paid for this choice of the German political elite and the peoples of Europe. But this is someone else's historical experience, too distant for Russian society, the analogy, we even own historical experience teaches nothing. Building in Russia of controlled democracy minimized public participation in decision-making, both domestic and foreign policy. Decisions of this takes part of the political elite, which is known to share can be defined as nostalgiruyuschih 123

of the Soviet empire statesmen. The key question, to which they are responsible, is as follows: Russia - is part of Europe, the potential of the West, or an independent power center - as the EU, USA and China? From the answer to this question depends our present and future. If the Russian political elite said that the Russia part of Europe and the potential of the West, along the lines of Germany, which is just after the Second World War joined the Euro-Atlantic civilization, then the expansion of the EU and NATO to the East and South, on Ukraine and Georgia do not not only dangerous, but also desirable. Then this movement, along with Russia - they are in NATO and the EU before, we again later. Naturally, the integration of these international structures in the small Georgia and Russia can be a big different. There is another option - Russia is an independent power center, an independent Eastern Christian civilization, embodied in the earlier Russian and Soviet empires, and which should translate into a new empire. This response suggests that NATO is a military and political rival, whose promotion to the borders of Russia poses a serious threat - a threat to the very possibility of imperial restoration. How serious that threat is perceived and how far can go the Russian military-political elite in order to neutralize this threat? In the case of Ukraine the most serious threat is perceived. Because only together with Ukraine, Russia may in some way to go back to the imperial ways of development based on OrthodoxSlavic identity. Without the Ukrainian Center of the Russian empire will inevitably shift to the East, the two heads of double-headed eagle will be rotated from the Euro-Byzantine heritage to the legacy of the East, Mongolia, China. And if you do not have long to Byzantium, the growing economic and geopolitical power of China is today. Without Ukraine, a new Russian neoimpersky project could be just the project return to Ordu, ideological and military-political distancing from the West, the departure from Europe. Today the Russian statesmen sympathetic to the traditional imperial project Russia, headed the Slavic state of education - at the head of Ukraine and Belarus. 124

This kernel is the dissolved Soviet Union, the traditional core of the Russian state so, let the language of geopolitics, the majority of the Heartland. For some, very little historical time, it may be enough resources to deal with the European Union and NATO, will be followed by another geo-political and social disaster - is also a repetition distance. It is important for the Russian political elite is that when neoimperskom uniting Slavs label on reign will be issued in Moscow, in the case of the East, to China, the distribution of labels may move to Beijing. It is clear that under this set of alternatives neoimperskaya part of the political elite of Russia is desperate to fight for Ukraine, for its imperial integration, or at least the pro-Russian course. Indeed, the integration of Ukraine into EU and NATO removes even the theoretical possibility of the traditional imperial restoration. The stakes for Ukraine zashkalivayusche high, it is here possible powerful geopolitical scrapping with Russian participation, in contrast to developments in the Caucasus, in Georgia, which, with all its severity and the possible tragic could not go beyond a local conflict. Not the Caucasus, but the Ukraine sent the geopolitical edge of imperial restoration. Do this geopolitical scrapped, the division and the division of the country to its west and its east by the Ukrainians? I think not - irrespective of political and party loyalties, even regardless of the language - Ukrainian or Russian. And it is not already, it is important to support the Ukrainian voters' Party of Regions, Yulia Tymoshenko, Our Ukraine - all of them do not need. This is just outside the Ukraine neoimperskim forces. No imperial restoration and the peoples of Russia - prekrasnodushnye neoimperskie dreams a cup of tea costly when you try their practical implementation. The main issue that arises in the political, economic and cultural elites of post-Soviet states, is taking place within the globalization process limits of national sovereignty. This restriction includes the transfer of national sovereignty to the supranational level, it is quite objective and rigorous in its embodiment of the

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process. You can take it and under it to adjust, but it is possible to resist and go against confusing the feet of the wind of history. The fundamental mistake of the Russian political elite who believe that there is a chance to build an effective and viable poluavtarkicheskoy political system that preserves within its territory the full sovereignty, it splits into a series of more localized errors. So, try to address some of them. First, the process of democratization on Western, not only introduced from the outside, but also has a certain number of followers around the world, including in Russia. Let the number of these people are not so great, at least not predominantly, it is the most active, young and successful part of the nation. This is a strong people who do not need paternalistic state, people who do not want an empire, the people who will not sacrifice their resources, energy, and even more lives in the name of any anti-Western political project. In addition, they are not dissipated in a huge country, but mainly concentrated in the two capitals - Moscow and St. Petersburg. Needless, perhaps, to recall that revolutions tend to occur in the capitals. And nothing spishesh to konspirologicheskie theory, foreign financial assistance, and the machinations of the CIA Mosada. This is all outside and inside of these people is almost instinctive rejection of authoritarian and imperial state. Secondly, we have very recent experience of political-military confrontation with NATO, the confrontation, accelerated the fall of the Soviet Union. But the Soviet Union was much stronger than modern Russia in various fields, including economy and the military. The Soviet Union possessed a much larger demographic resources and benefit geopolitical position. All of this is lacking in modern Russia, the attempt of military-political confrontation with the West will lead to a rapid collapse of the new post-Soviet state, will accelerate the onset of the third phase of deconstruction of the empire. The paradox of history is that any attempt to impose its influence in the former Soviet Union, to begin the next phase of arduous gathering of Russian lands will lead to a serious risk of losing even the remaining land.

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In addition, an attempt to confront an objective process, forming of antiWestern political-economic project will inevitably require resort to the mobilization of ideology, as the only outright violence to such a regime can not exist for arbitrarily small historical time. In this regard, we note that Russia has experienced a historic temptation of international socialism, to raise public consciousness, even a certain antidote, but not in relation to socialism as such, but at least with respect to its international dimension. The Temptation of national socialism, more or less aggressive forms of nationalism is still ahead. The essence of the next wave of velvet revolution is otbrakovyvanii political regimes that claim to the traditional, but the excess in the current context control of the processes taking place in the national territory, in the traditional sense of national sovereignty. Who wants to consciously resist the stories - this performance of their personal crosses, the path leading to the end, if not in Nuremberg in 1946 samples, at least in a comfortable and civilized time trial of the Hague, Slobodan Milosevic. But, gentlemen, as the jump from the aircraft with known defective parachute - it could be your personal political choice - no need to involve people in it, there is no need to insist on a collective suicide subjects. We insist that any political project that would preserve the traditional level of national sovereignty, has a more or less significant anti-component, and therefore doomed to failure. The ratio of power in the world is not in favor of those who relied on such projects, it is known to be losing. Worst ill for their peoples, as patriots, statesmen, now just does not exist. As you know, the road to hell is paved with good intentions, and patriots, statesmen can lead people into this hell, nothing more, they are not able to lead. Some Russian politicians, in particular, G. Pavlovski, argue that the revolution was over, the time counter. Note that the question of whether the finished really a revolution, both in Russia and throughout the post-Soviet area, remains at least open. Velvet revolutions in Eastern Europe (Yugoslavia, Romania) and in the former Soviet Union (Georgia), and today, and Ukraine show: the revolution continues. In other words, the third wave of liberation revolutions, the 127

wave, which changes the authoritarian political regimes, insist on the full national sovereignty and with hefty anti-Western accent. This release of the European countries is part of a general process of the dismantling of authoritarian regimes around the world, from Afghanistan, Iraq continues, then everywhere. This new wave of liberation goes back, in particular, to fight the Soviet Union and the countries of Western democracy with national-socialist, fascist and authoritarian regimes in Europe and Japan during the Second World War. The process of ridding the world of anti-Western wing authoritarianism, and continued during the Cold War years, when able to stop the spread of communism around the globe, and later when in 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed, is the most serious and sustained anti-alternative to global development. What is happening today and will be tomorrow - is a continuation of the deconstruction of the global anti-Western authoritarian regimes. We allow ourselves to assert that in the world, there is no force capable of stopping the dismantling of these regimes, at least in the geographical limits of Europe. Orange revolution in Ukraine, with all the attendant risks of destabilization in the post-Soviet geopolitical space is undoubtedly good for the liberal modernization project in Russia, our institutional integration in European structures, particularly in the EU, and eventually to join NATO. A positive response to the challenge of the era requires compliance with the rules of the game the West, including respect for human rights, the maintenance of parliamentary democracy, a compromise policy with regard to the western counterparts. In the economic sphere, the adoption of this process involves building the system of global division of labor, cooperation with leading manufacturers, multinational corporations, where their interests are taken into account in the fullest possible extent. A positive response to the challenge of the era was the shift from national security through military means delegating responsibilities to the international (western) institutions. Russia as part of NATO, not only leading, but also knowledge-tuned their policies under the policy of the block - that's a real

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opportunity to solve the problem of national security and the democratization of post-Soviet space.

Postimpersky transit

We consider the strategic choice between the preservation / restoration of the imperial / kvaziimperskogo state and the nation-state formation in Russia, the contradiction between the policies of imperial conservation / revenge and politics of modernization. Since the era of Ivan the Terrible, when adherence to Moskovia Astrakhan and Kazan khanate, and continuing until the end of XIX century the Russian empire expanded, absorbing the small and large adjacent, and even quite distant peoples. Since the defeat in the Russian-Japanese War, and later with the Russian Revolution of 1917 - megatrends gathering a growing number of the surrounding land was completed, the process has gone backwards, with the tide of territorial expansion was followed by its ebb. The Russian Empire began to leave with the will and captivity associated territories, and this process is no less long than the collection of large and small land. During the XX century the Russian empire experienced a deconstruction of two phases - in 1917-1921 and 1991. Two recent phase - this is not an end, clearly ahead proglyadyvaet and the third stage of deconstruction of the empire, where the most likely candidates for independence and statehood, becoming the North Caucasus republic. The famous paradox of the Russian socio-cultural system is that its separate parts (subsystems) closer complementarity with respect to Western civilization than others. Historical phases accelerate the socio-cultural dynamics of lead, as a rule, to dezintegratsionnym processes, since the rate of change acceptable to the various territorial, ethnic and cultural entities, much different. At different periods of the Russian state in the orbit of its military, economic, political and cultural influence reached neighboring territories during the long 129

historical period, with varying degrees of intensity process of their institutional integration into the empire. Russian Empire went to their natural geographic frontiers, at times their passing, as in the case of territorial expansion in North America, the colonization of Alaska. But the challenge facing any imperial state, is that the territory not included in the state, it, figuratively speaking, it is necessary to digest, obzhit, equip, ie included in the integrated economic, political and cultural space. To solve this problem could not be in any empire, of course, that was unable to do so either in the Russian Empire or the USSR or its legal successor - the Russian Federation. Neorganichnye no longer part of the Russian state in 1917 and 1991 XX century. The Russian state at different stages of development resembles a kind of incubator, where the stage of national, state preparedness vyzrevayut protonatsii and protogosudarstva. Then, usually in times of turbulent institutional transformations of the Russian state body, was more or less painful process of separation, secession from the Russian state ripe for the beginning of an independent nation-state of living entities. During the entire XX century, in the first half of XXI century is likely to continue the painful process of searching for national borders, the exclusion inotsivilizatsionnyh, inokulturnyh entities in due ripe to initiate and okrepnuvshih as independent public entities. Some of the regions is capable of finding consensus on the chosen direction of the country's identity as a democratic nation state, either as neoimperskogo education. The other part, did not support a choice for Russia, but at the same time is not ready for an independent state living will, though on other grounds, to grow within the Russian Federation. The Russian state is different from other countries, not only size, but also a different level of development of their regions. Russia is divided into regions that are at various stages of modernization development. It includes post-regions, such as: Moscow, near Moscow, St. Petersburg; industrial: Norilsk, the Urals, Nizhny Novgorod and preindustrial presented in the national republics, in particular, Tuvoy, Altai mountains, Chechnya, Kalmykia . The country is not simply divided 130

into a variety of social and economic development areas, but this division is clearly correlated to the ethnic composition of the population, are living, most vividly in relation to pre-industrial regions. Russia has evolved long enough for imperial type, seeking to unify certain legal, economic, social and cultural space that is not always coincide with the aspirations of ethnic minorities. Modernization processes taking place in such diverse socio space, would inevitably have lost the homogeneity, internal coherence. Regions, which for any reason will not be able to develop in the post area, are likely to contribute dezitegratsionnym processes. Russian modernization is largely self-hybridization and enclaved development. The processes of hybridization most likely in the preindustrial regions, where the modernization projects could be reduced to local conditions, losing their semantic content, the depth, authenticity. In contrast, hybridization, enclaved develop more typical for the most advanced on the path of modernization postmodern regions surrounded by regions of Russia, which is usually at the early stages of modernization development. Creation of interregional transport, information communications, linking the horizontal, achieving the economic basis of greater interregional personal mobility can, to some extent, mitigate the effects of enclaved, ie uneven modernization. It should also be noted that the process of gaining national independence, the state does not edinomomentny, not to declare independence, and even get her confirmation by the international recognition - it should still reach actually reach some of the safeguards against popyatnogo motion, or unwillingly, the reintegration of the former metropolis. At the same time, the status of our state postimpersky troubled. Russia today is not yet full-fledged nation state, but pokalechennoe, lost in time and space postimperskoe education, then, that the empire remained. In the public mind there is no consensus about the legitimacy of state borders - it is very difficult to clearly answer the question of why the state is composed of some regions, and why others are not included. The country still has a imperial body (EA Pain), get us a legacy of the imperial phase of territorial expansion. 131

Until now, most of society and political elites perceive imperial territorial heritage as an almost sacred value, what can not be set aside under any circumstances, regardless of socio-cultural proximity or alien controversial territories. But the most unpleasant for his contemporaries and collaborators of events is that Russia has not yet become a nation state, and the threat of the third stage of the disintegration of Russia, as public education, the remainder of the empire, remains. The legacy of the empire, we won and ethnic and sociocultural blossoming complexity (KN Leont'ev) regions belonging to the three civilizations, the three world religions, in different stages of economic development: pre-industrial, industrial and postindustrial. In addition, Russia has not formed any nation in its ethnic or postetnicheskom, civic sense. Traditional has a question - when nesformirovannoy nations to agree on such a diverse regional interests, moreover, that in some cases these differences are cultural, civilizational, religious foundation. But it is not only in the cultural and civilizational differences. Because of its geo-economic situation and the difference stadialnogo development have different interests and property of the Russian regions, where the ethnic Russian, in stark differences in living standards, income and social security. Marginal regions of Russia today tend rather than to Moscow, but to the world's centers of economic power. In western countries, in Königsberg / Kaliningrad, the economic attraction for the more developed EU stadialno stratify on the historical and cultural attraction. On the east of the strong economic attraction of becoming the Asia-Pacific countries, especially China. In this case, it still is not a proper cultural and civilizational reorientation of Siberia and the Far East, but rather on the absolute economic integration in the economy of this part of Asia. But, as we know from the history of economic integration often should the political integration. This is largely just a matter of time, perhaps a distant, but this danger should not be underestimated.

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Although we are dealing with processes that are not only subjective but also objective component, the strength of their human accelerate or retard, choosing a policy. We believe that we should not help but be against the process of disintegration of the country, choosing for this purpose the relevant policies. Maintaining State within its present borders is only possible within the framework of the harmonization of the interests of regions, but not build them into a single a by order of the neoimperskokoy policy. Despite the apparent current efficiency, it is losing not only in the long term, but in the medium-term historical perspective, dramatically increasing the likelihood of future decay. We once again draw attention to those things known to stress the difference between the interests of Russian regions, once again turn to the question of how to possibly negotiate a variety of regions of interest within the past, but not yet gone before the end of Empire, the Russian state? World historical experience provides two main solutions, individually designed for different historical and sociocultural contexts. The first option involves networking etnofederativnyh relations, procedures, harmonization of regional interests, a clear distinction between the delegation of authority. This will be a long, often painful process for the Russian authorities. Too great a temptation to revert to the traditional, albeit historically izzhivshim a form of governance, simplify the harmonization of interests, to abandon them, to manage the order, a de facto authoritarian governance and the unitary state. This is the second path. In the framework of the interests of the regions agreed to a minimum, the major decisions taken at the center, the process of agree takes place in the tradition of a unitary imperial state, which actually was the Soviet Union and the Romanov empire. Although the Tsarist empire and was known exception to the autonomy of Finland, the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland ... The construction involves the use of violence against dissenters, not a harmonization of regional interests, but the imposition of solutions federal. This is a legacy that today's native Russian government with the imperial state. I close the definition of the key properties of 133

the empire, the E. Yasin: Empire impossible without violence, no matter how soft or its form. This is the main identifier empire . The theme of empire and postimperskogo development includes an additional dimension. I am referring to the problem of international leadership. The problem today is, however, and in other historical eras, did not have and can not be easy and volyuntaristicheskogo solutions. An attempt to achieve leading positions must be backed by significant socio-cultural superiority over the alleged agent, a local expression which are available innovative technologies and strong investment potential. The desire for formal and informal leadership is inseparable from the formation of a field of attraction and affection, positioning itself as a referent, a model sample for the world at large and / or its individual regions, to model the desired state of the state and society. It is the achievement of such leading and attractive to other positions allows broadcast near and distant peoples of their norms, values, patterns of everyday behavior. Such a collective leadership is showing the old country of Europe, its success creating an example to be emulated, resulting in a desire to join these successes, to integrate into the interstate system, capable to promote the development of less developed nations. To a large extent on such grounds is constructed as a rational and informed, and the subconscious desire for European integration in the second half of XX - beginning of XXI century. Today we are seeing more and more institutional expansion in Europe, where the expansion of the European Union to the east includes all new regions, including those who have never belonged to traditional Europe. The observed expansion of European borders is unprecedented, but even more curious possible future transformation of the EU. I have in mind that perseverance, which seeks a united Europe in the Turkish Republic. Endeavor of the fashionable concepts of the clash of civilizations and cultures. Endeavor, despite their confessional past and present, and its imperial tradition, which so consistently and confidently fought Turkish reformer-Westerners K. Mustafa (Atatürk).

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Matches in the modernization of two postimperskih States is probably greater than the differences, but these are the matches more to the period of imperial Russia and Turkey. Only in the Turkish imperial tradition was interrupted in the early 20-ies of the last century, while in Russia the empire lasted another 70 years. The main difference between Russian and Turkish political and cultural elites, despite the similarities of social and cultural tradition, which involves long periods of authoritarianism and empire, is as follows. Turkish elites since the times of Ataturk's sincere desire for the West, to Europe. For several generations of representatives of the Turkish elite, not only civil but also military, got a full Western education, complete a full course of study at leading universities and military schools in Europe. The duration of this process over many decades, resulting in the progressive Europeanization of the Turkish elite. Today, European identity - it is largely her own identity, so deeply entrenched that it is ready to protect it by all possible means, including use of military force. We know from history that at the slightest threat from the Islamists, based on the traditionalist-oriented part of the Turkish people, to always joined the Turkish army, which for decades has been and remains a stronghold of the Turkish Westerners, by force guarantees the West, the secular path of development. So changing attitude elite, but it is usually the first change their cultural and even religious identity. In the Russian case, easily reproducible, with a different historical and sociocultural circumstances, the desire to preserve its special, self, search for a mythical third way, the desire to remain competitive with the collective subject of Western power. Imperial ideology and empire as the natural and socio-cultural education have the potential to serve this a priori, something even the subconscious to the objectives of the Russian establishment. With this self-picture of the world empire is a great value because it is imperial resources can bring the militarypolitical, economic and cultural confrontation with the West beyond the situation obviously anecdotic. Note that this is why the post-modern Russia, at least its 135

political and military elite, so pulls to create kvaziimperskoy groups of countries satellites. I believe that the orange revolution in Ukraine the draft of a new Russian imperialism suffered not local, and remediable, but the final and irreversible defeat. Another point is that the geopolitical game in the post-Soviet space has not yet been played, and here we can expect some surprises. Part of the Russian political and power elite is distinctly browsable course for a more hard than it is now, of authoritarian rule. We know that this has dragged on for such. Therefore, Moscow is inevitable search of regimes and political leaders outside of Russia, who themselves follow the authoritarian values, identity, confront the West in all spheres of life. But the selection is small, if at all there. Well, two or three leaders, the durability of the political situation which it is possible to doubt now. You can, of course, try to play a wah-bank, as Mr Milosevic has already played, several recent rearguard battles, and even win some of them. But the current state of affairs in the world is that in the struggle against the collective entity the West can be won, if very lucky, some fighting, but you can not win the conflict in general. What courage, kurazhnee will play against Western institutions and Western culture authoritarian elites in the post-Soviet space, the higher will be the ultimate level of costs for them and for the peoples of these countries. The paradox of history is that the more reckless and tough play, the faster will enter the Hague, and is not as carefree tourist. Of course, the prisons in the EU are better similar institutions in Russia and other CIS countries, but still ... In addition, the example of Milosevic shows that earnings for the years of money kept in Western banks, which are not free from political considerations. In considering these arbitrary constraints on the domestic and foreign policy becomes more understandable reluctance persistent E. Shevardnadze, Kuchma and L. A. Akayev to play tough, to use in the fight against the people's revolution and the army special services. Perhaps not all have forgotten, and the fate of Ceausescu K. ... I think the main positive strategic foreign policy objectives for the peoples of the European part of the post-Soviet space is the integration into the EU and 136

NATO. Such integration not only means a change in the geopolitical orientation and foreign policy in general, but also change the internal situation, which includes democracy, human rights, social and cultural space of the alignment on the European model. I have no illusions with regard to ease this way, knowing that each successive step in the direction of European integration will require changes to the mental, as well as at the institutional level. But we must understand not only the complexity of the task, but its practical solution in the not too distant historical perspective. The historical alternative to the developments in the post-Soviet version of an imperial restoration that is incompatible with political democracy, observance of a minimum set of democratic rights and freedoms. Attempts by the imperial restoration lead to the inevitable narrowing of personal living space each, radically reduce the likelihood of self-human in virtually all occupational fields except those that directly or indirectly serve the interests of neoimperskogo state. There are two main actors - official and siloviki (a man with a gun) and picked up - providing ideological cover for active new generation of advocates and outreach workers. But, as shown by historical experience, the people will sooner or later, it refused to accept. And today over the country, the authorities and society still dominates the goods Geography and History, limitations, they asked, actions and decisions in many ways continues to define the old gauge imperial life. To change the vector of development and escape from it, you'll need to make great efforts to build a genuine federalism, working on the formation of civic nation, to build democratic institutions and traditions. To continue to move in a historically familiar, lived-and nakatannoy lines of imperial life, so much effort is required. You can almost observe the removal of self mechanism authoritarian unitary state. But if earlier, until about the Crimean War, during the reign of Nicholas I that track has been in the mountain, that is, the benefits of the imperial state and the authoritarian rule exceed the costs, the postwar costs exceeded the benefits gradually, becoming today the most significant 137

constraint to development country. Again, I refer to the close position of E. Yassin: declining empire began long ago. Developing countries, the empire - there are increasingly becoming a brake on the development of the country . Today, Georgia imperial heritage influences the choice between a de facto unitary and a federal / confederal state determine the choice between democracy and various forms of authoritarianism. Many of those who now will of fate was in cohort of people, policy-makers, conducted internally neoimperskuyu policy of unification of the social and cultural space, minimizing the harmonization of regional interests. It seems that the choice between two options is made. De facto, you choose the re-establishment of a unitary state. In many ways this choice stems from the denial of democracy in favor of controlled, but something even decorative option. But ethno-religious differences and stadialnye regions make a unitary form of organization of the state (de jure or de facto) and Democracy malosovmestimymi. The choice of unitarity greatly influences the actions of authorities on the case of building formal and informal vertical in politics, business, media. It may be that this way is effective today, but this effect is temporary, purely tactical. If long-term and relatively stable coexistence of different joint regions, people living in them, may, in principle, this possibility is based on two main principles: real federalism and confederation with the elements of civil-ethnic nation. Civic, not an ethnic nation is generic link to the nationality of the empire. We, at K. Leontieva, blossoming complexity imperial legacy here may be useful, for this reason we can not build an ethnic nation, but we can polyethnic and civil. In terms of respect for civil and political freedoms, human rights in general, this option obviously preferable. What can help prevent zhizneosuschestvleniyu these principles, and hence the further joint life in the territory of the Russian state? Civil nations living together in a federal / confederal state could build on the principles of consumer rights dostizhitelnoy activity. In pursuit of Russian dream in Moscow, Yakutsk, Daghestanian design, it can at least do not remember, who is 138

he, where is and where, or, at least, went before - forget about its cultural civilizational identity. While it it forgotten, as it is on the periphery of his consciousness, until it determines its social activity - postimperskoe The Russian state will exist in its present borders. Even today, despite all popyatnye, retrograde movements, traditional religious identity of various ethnic communities present in the public consciousness largely in the latent, dormant form. It is blurred and the Europeanization of the unification of different degrees of intensity and duration, in the case of Central Russia - from the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich Peter and I, and the total secularization of politics pursued by the Soviet regime. As a result of this policy, large, and in some regions of the country and the majority of people indifferent to religion. As rightly observed I. Yakovenko, the number votserkovlennyh people in the Orthodox Church is only a few percent and will not grow up seriously. And this is the indifference of a country united, smooths the ethnic and religious contradictions. As soon as the process of ethnoreligious revival will be a truly massive, these contradictions seriously worse, calling into question the territorial integrity of the country. The more events, updated civilization, the early religious life of Russia's regions, the less stable structure of Russian statehood. The degree of latency determines the degree of the strength of traditional Russia. Today part of the Russian political class is trying to build on these or other elements of traditionalism, especially in its religious guise. This course besperspektiven, the former imperial integrators today is not only not work, but also directly harmful. It seems that you need great courage to set in motion a historical dead end, the initiation of a regular in the Russian history of civilizational catastrophe. But for seventy years of Soviet rule have been the most relaxed, not only traditionalists but also society as a whole. Comparing the democratic potential of Russia and Russia one hundred years old today, this comparison does not give a clear advantage of the day today. 139

For

decades,

Soviet

authorities

have

seriously

moved

towards

modernization, carrying the demographic transition, collecting the remains of his people in the cities, destroying the patriarchy, including religious, traditions. The country has been industrialization, has a sufficiently high level of education. But this time, particularly before 1953, had lost a multi-layer of educated people, not only seeks to establish in Russia a democratic, republican form of government, but also willing to personally participate in this process, ready-to-daily, rough work in the name of the republic. Before the 1917 revolution, millions of people in the country based on an extensive system Zemstvo agencies, sought to send the country into the European way of development. They wanted a democratic European choice for Russia, and actually worked for it. Peacefully, evolutionarily do not succeed, it took a revolution in 1905 and then in February 1917. The fate of the formed layer of Russian society is tragic, it was destroyed in the flames of civil war and the Leninist-Stalinist repression, embossed in the emigration. But these people were. In the late Soviet period, the layer of people, comparable to the prerevolutionary in size and personal qualities - a professional and civil in the Soviet Russia was not. There were dissidents and sympathizers, but almost none of them went to the post-policy, is not added to the ranks of bureaucracy. With the exception of items no one wanted to work for the Russian republic. In politics, people have no democratic experience working with a known percentage of accidents, those who were nearby, and began to power, someone became the owner of the former state. In Soviet Russia there was no broad democratic movement, as in other countries of the Warsaw bloc. Nevertheless, in the country have found themselves hundreds of thousands of citizens who came out to demonstrate the 1990-1991. There were people who were willing to die for the new Russian republic, in August 1991, at the White House, and in October 1993, at Mossovet, but was not required of those who would be able to live for the sake of the republic, to withstand daily routine work, to preserve the ideals, cherish them more tangible benefits. In other 140

words, there was not the right number of idealists, enthusiasts of the country. Moreover, there was not enough number of people willing to consider democracy as a value, to enjoy democratic rights. Democracy - Public order to free people. The freedom and confidence create prosperity, particularly in post-industrial society of XXI century. But democracy - it is a sport in which not enough to be fans, then you need to participate. Not one who enjoys his freedom . And if so, just do not have enough layers of people to whom you can rely, people who want to work for free, democratic Russia, then the other, those who, regardless of their views and the last can and knows how to work, able to draft , officialism daily work. Those who are willing to work for their material interests, those who possess a certain inner discipline. So the growing number of people in power from the power structures in this sense should not be surprising. To this were added, and the traditions of public administration. If not for one reason or another rely on the society, the power based on power structures. Thus closes a circle. Based on the input, cash conditions before August 1991, this result was more likely to occur, because, perhaps, and has become a reality. Our common historical luck that реализовался a homogenized version of a possible future, not very good, but not the worst. The most horrible practices of the social transformation of Russia showed the world in the years 1918-1921 he was the Civil War., A multinational federation of transformation - in 90 of the last century showed the world S. Milosevic and Serb nationalists in the former Yugoslavia. Given the nature of the Soviet inheritance, the extreme weakness of the political class, not to mention the practical absence of political elites, we still get off light. The political class began to emerge, and to ensure that it was formed, from its ranks to play an effective and responsible elite, we need at least a decade. In the meantime, he had just formed, incorporating in its structure and otbrakovyvaya applicants, not only for their political views, but also on managerial effectiveness.

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Authorities internally diverse, because it is necessary to learn to understand the tripartite grayscale. These are not, of course, differences in the shades of color and cut bureaucratic costumes, but the differences of political views of their owners. The political class in contemporary Russia with a well-known shares can be divided into two main groups: liberal bureaucrats and power, holding, according to the capital's political ostroslovov, various Kremlin towers. Of course, that each of these groups of their own picture of the world, their understanding of the due and undue, that's OK, and what is bad for Russia. What is this division is in keeping with the way in which it was during the great reforms Alexander II. For example, Francis Vchislo in his book Reforming Rural Russia Identify two types of political culture that characterize the enlightened bureaucrats-Westerners, and so-called police officers. Value system of political culture first included the rule of law, equality of citizens, individual initiative and the legitimate political power. Central to the police political culture were the values of paternalism, care and recognition of the primacy of personal power of the monarch, not the law, as well as negative, suspicious attitude towards the public and independent peasantry. At the same time, features police mentality show and author of philosophical reformers because of their views was based on the recognition of the primacy of public interest and conservation (conservation) of the order and stability. The groups officials have expressed different public mood. And the greatest threat to the democratic development postimperskogo Russia during the transition from Soviet authoritarianism to a modern Western democracy is emerging civil conflict, avoidance of constructive dialogue between the authorities and society. Responsibility for this lies with the authorities and society, the liberaloriented part of which contributes to migration corridor of power in an increasingly shrinking opportunities from bad to worse. Those who demonize power, helping it to strengthen the authoritarian Orthodox autocratic corridor capacity, commits a great error. I believe that the monologue, the consideration of the current government only as absolute evil, sometimes showing good damaging to those 142

who believed, and damaging to the government, and democratic prospects in Russia. We need an ongoing dialogue with the charges against the people in power, regardless of their past and current occupation, regardless of shared political views. There is no need to demonize the former and current power, to crush the large number of people from the power structures of power. Dialogue is eroding the position of both parties, since it could lead to compromise. Because so hard to make the dialogue. It is easier to just stand by and with the full intellectual superiority to explain why power is always wrong, and how bad all the initiatives, actions and inaction end. Yes, the dialogue more difficult monologue, especially when everyone has it as can, and using their professional skills. Such dialogue is excruciatingly difficult, but it is preferable to dialogue Parties prohibited marches dissenting and the OMON. Arrange regularly mix with people in the form of fastening means of confrontation, division of society in our not our, in other words, the reproduction of confrontation white and red, a situation of permanent civil war. I do not want to. Enough is enough, won. With the power you need to speak the language of interests rather than ideals and principles which, as you know, can not be set aside. Today, the only real opportunity for our civil society to promote the democratization of Russia - in conjunction with the power not only through words, but, above all, through effective participation in public and corporate governance. Establishment of democracy in the country is not possible with non-system nature of the democratic opposition. Without losing the democratic, liberal opinion, you should try to become part of the system to stop fear and intimidate each other. There is a need to advocate for the legitimate, peaceful, democratic resolution of conflicts, for an evolutionary rather than revolutionary path of development of Russia. This does not mean that you need to a priori agree with everything going on in the country. This means only the desire to solve problems 143

through dialogue rather than monologue, focusing their attention not on what divides us all, and that unites us. But we see little willingness to engage in dialogue with society and by the authority. When it is in one form or another, impedes Marches disagree, the motivation of such acts can be understood, although the issue of self more efficiently solved in another way, in an open, reasoned dialogue, open to advance their positions. The defense, as it is defense, not very effective with respect to the objectives pursued, but also possible. It is rational in terms of conditionality, political and economic interests. Unfortunately, we see a reluctance on the part of authorities to dialogue not only with political opponents, but with social movements strictly apolitical, subkulturnymi, destroying the foundations of traditionalism. And this is action, if not explicitly irrational, it is not due to interest and certain vague values. Prohibited statements of sexual minorities, hemp marshes ... The result is a radicalization subkulturnyh youth movements that had previously been about politics and not thinking. We know, as in recent years, the reign of Alexander II became unwind the spiral of confrontation and hatred between the Russian societies and power. In this way, it was bloody great, exploded the Emperor, the Governor-General, hanged and shot dead revolutionaries, shot the royal family ... It is unclear why today imitate such confrontation. To ensure that there was another Russian turmoil, do not need preventive violence on the streets and television propaganda, and a calm dialogue between the authorities and opposition, desire to solve problems on its own merits. OMON batons, and a hundred years ago Cossack whip, this is not the path to stabilization. For long-term stabilization can lead a broad public dialogue with the prospect of free competition of political forces neekstremistskih. Today's Russian authorities have not yet had a historical time, it is possible to engage in dialogue, to speak with the public, to try to convince people in an open, transparent discussion. Persuasion by means of naked violence only 144

radikalizuet society and no one in the rightness of power can not be persuaded. This is deeply in all of us sitting, regardless of political affiliation, and the difference between the estimates of the situation - God is not in force, but in truth. Rubicon non-return to democracy does not pass, the historical movement towards democracy is not only possible, but we are now, are inside of this historical period. Police batons on the backs disagree disgusting indefinitely - but it is still not firing workers Lenskiy mines in 1912 and not Bloody Sunday in 1905. Today, a constructive dialogue between the authorities and society is the only way to lift the emerging civil conflict, while strengthening civil society and the Russian State. Although the author now raises strong doubts about the very possibility of such a dialogue. Dialog successful if the result of compromise. But how can this compromise, and on what basis it can be achieved? It is ironic sounds temporary, situational compromise obtained spontaneously, and is it possible for some time to avoid the historical choice of committing to a definite decision about the reflection of our imperial / postimperskogo status, Togo, where sent to the vector of historical development. And allows spontaneous temporary compromise, the world economic environment, rapid economic growth in Third World countries, a sharp increase in the consumption of raw materials and energy. In an era of industrial raw materials and energy is quite enough for the economic needs of golden billion, now have enough for the rest of the world, but it will have very different, much higher prices. Naturally, such a situation in international trade will lead to additional financial and geopolitical benefits for the countries exporting raw materials, which include Russia. A short version of the medium-energy, raw materials Power. There is rare in the history of the situation: for some time, you can get the ever-increasing revenues due to growth in world prices for raw materials and energy, without fear of changing the price trend. Naturally, the local correctional movements in these markets is quite possible, but long-term upward trend of minimizing the risk of external economic shock for Russia. 145

This, in turn, minimizes the risks of internal political turmoil. And if we can avoid the ideas of national-patriotic impasse, as well as the sharp deterioration of the pre-competition between the various Kremlin towers, we virtually guarantee political stability and economic growth. In other words, the positive external economic environment, particularly the ability podmorozit etnofederativnye relations of Russian regions, the maximum muffle the real and potential separatism, push in the vast distant future a possible third phase of deconstruction of the state, rolling from imperial to a national form of organization. Naturally, indefinitely to maintain the status quo, to avoid the certainty of solutions to society and the authorities did not succeed but will be able to defer the issue of choice in the supposedly more prosperous and wise future. Given the history of break Energy Power, which gives the opportunity not only to preserve the current state of affairs, but also to claim the inheritance of the imperial Romanov empire and the Soviet Union, may become story of a lost time, the path to progress in Russian history, socio-cultural and historical catastrophe. But it could enable more predictable and sustainable self-determination of the Russian society and state, which here do not have to amuse themselves illusions and futile hope, by definition, can only be a European, and all other possible choices for Russia obviously devastating. Conclusion. History is moving quickly, and recently the power zamahnulas police batons on the ATP. Rubicon is not a return to democracy, seems to proceed, and the positive scenario of the country, which is so painful and contradictory to build the author, in an effort at least in dreams and illusions to stop the looming authoritarian / totalitarian catastrophe - overturned. From Kazakhstan to the Republic of Moldova and Prednistrovyu What is happening today on the outskirts of the former Russian / Soviet empire, it is legitimate. At the post-Soviet space remain enclaves empire, consider

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themselves part of it, left the mass of people, considering the realities of the current political geography as a purely temporary. Over a century of Russian-Soviet empire's life, people have become the new community, so the Soviet people, which for so long, and, as then seemed quite unreasonably hard, we party propagandists. Referendum of 17 September 2006, at which the citizens of the unrecognized Transnistrian Moldovan Republic voted in favor of free accession to Russia and to re-entry into the Moldova shows exactly this. But it is not only in imperial nostalgia, but also in world-wide trend, leading to uneven development, enclaved living, competition for the same area of different racial, ethnic and religious groups. These groups are stable, they do not want to integrate into the great society, adjust to the prevailing ethnic group title. People are willing to live independently, to speak the native language, explained in their native language in state and local authorities, schools, shops, on the streets. They often choose their life's problems within the local communities in their - in spirit, the blood culture. The separation of people on the principle of otherness, of various domestic habits, religion, language - an ancient practice, and motivation samoprichisleniya rights to a community where his - friend, a stranger the enemy. Today, the tragic practice of re-separation of demand - are burning cars in France, Chayntauny distributed worldwide, newly arrived in the United States come from Latin America have been slow to learn English. Local ethnocultural group do not necessarily require a state of independence, but set in the emigre enclaves its authority, its de facto sovereignty. And nationstate is increasingly unable to obtain or oppose this seizure of power. Of course, he has a police force, special forces, army, finally. But all of these tools of despair, last resort, they start up when the war is essentially already lost. Emigrants to create, Parallel World, in which its laws, rules of conduct, their understanding of the honor.

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The situation in Transnistria, of course, differs from the situation with new immigrants and new ethno-cultural enclaves, but its otherness within the overall trend. Historically, Transnistria was part of a border zone of the empire, its strong acting part, firmly tied to the metropolis. Distant and recent history and this determines the development of the region. Sunday was not the first referendum in Transnistria, the two have been: in 1991 and 1995. But the most important and brutal referendum was war, and shared the results of which people on the left and right bank of the Dniester. Her pain is not forgotten today, between Transnistria and the Republic of Moldova there is no trust, without trust and build some relationships difficult, especially in such difficult and sensitive area, as a civilized state building. This pain can be treated with time and deliberate policy of mutual concessions and compromises, find what unites rather than divides people. It should try to understand and forgive each other. The relationship of Moldova and Transnistria this is just a case of bad peace is better than a good quarrel, which do not have to make sudden movements. The situation is to restore the national integrity of Moldova and difficult by the fact that the republic is not the richest state in Europe. As living standards closer to Moldova to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, non-European States and frankly poor. Be it in another way, if the income of the citizens of Moldova closer to the earnings of Poles and Hungarians, the search for possible compromises on the state system was the republic would be much easier. With regard to the recognition of the results of the Sunday referendum, the international community, the situation is quite clear. The outcome of the referendum did not recognize neither the U.S. nor the EU. With respect to the position of Russia is not so simple. Already, we hear statements by a number of politicians-Patriots, welcomes the outcome of the referendum. If all of these cities, if the case does not come until the Trans-Dniester in the Russian Federation, then you can take it that the Russians, and Europeans in general, get off light. In fact, 148

they and policies that attract public attention, attracting the attention of potential voters, drawing on all relevant information about it. However, if a referendum on prodeklarirovannye objectives will be seen the Russian authorities and the public seriously, and Transnistria will join the Russian Federation, the chances of new military-political confrontation the West and Russia, brinkmanship cold and hot. We recall that the opposition has greatly contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the burden of the arms race has proved to him nepodemnym. Not able to resist the West, through NATO and the EU and Russia. This is a very serious risk, and it can not be underestimated. There is a serious risk that the legal incorporation of Transnistria into Russia, the beginning of the gathering land empire sooner or later send the latest European history on this channel. Collection of land is always accompanied by blood and then it falls on the severity of usual, immersed in their everyday caring person, is for his personal living expense. So no need today to shoot Archduke Ferdinand, do not need to provoke history, wake famously, do not have to play in August 1914 on.

Relation to Georgia

In Russia there are the beginnings of civil society. This is evidenced by a letter on behalf of the Russian artistic and scientific intellectuals in defense of the Georgian national minorities living in Russia, as well as spontaneous, reflective decision on the adoption of Georgian nationality ethnic Russians, there was no special relationship with the Georgia does not have. Old Russian attitude to life, as expressed in the famous maxim God is not in force, but in truth, explains much of this, at first glance, a paradoxical solution to our compatriots. Their position is obvious, something even geroichna, but these extreme actions caused by despair, the inability to reverse the massive anti-election campaign. Today in the mass-Russian nationalist, archaic minds of Georgians gradually took the place of Jews: a dark, destructive, which contains the biological nature of 149

man in relation to the other, is unlikely - spilled on our long-standing and very close neighbors. And this despite the fact that the intertwined history of Georgia from the Russian history, the Georgian aristocracy faith and has served the Romanov empire, Georgian people, together with the other peoples of the Soviet Union ruled by the hardships and suffering of the Great Patriotic War. Today compatriots Bagrationi dynasty could not safely walk the streets of Russian cities, and their children have received special attention from education officials. The practice of human rights violations on ethnic grounds, of course, terrible. Perversely, however, that the country is trying to live by the law selectively: for other illegal immigrants, the non-Georgian ethnic criminal community close their eyes - on the guidance (raznaryadki?) Was not yet, but for persons of Georgian nationality already have, then look more tax violations in the culture of Georgian origin ... First, severity of Russian laws is alleviated requirement of their application. But really when the decision to apply the law, its use to campaign, the full force of the, with the overlap, so that other nepovadno it. But does this mean that the Government of Georgia, President Saakashvili, began to talk to Russia and its troops are not on concepts, and the laws of the Georgian Republic, the rights from a moral point of view? No, I do not mean. I am not leaving the impression that demonstrative arrest of Russian officers, charged them with espionage and, most importantly, the blocking forces of the Georgian police headquarters of Russian troops went beyond the usual showdown between the agencies. It was the political will of the Georgian leadership, will to the utmost to destabilize relations with Russia to receive the maximum hard-Russian response. It may be that such an example, at first glance, the reckless behavior of the Georgian leadership, obviously trigger more powerful state, was the tactic of the Shiite movement Hezbollah, applied against the State of Israel this summer. By provoking Israel, Hezbollah sought to cause excessive reaction force, excessive use of force against Lebanon, the Lebanese civilian population. Substituting Lebanese civilians and its soldiers, under the blows of heavy weapons the army of Israel, the 150

leaders of Hezbollah did so in order to win the information war. And in many ways they have won. On the whole world broadcast images of dead and wounded among the civilian population of Lebanon and destruction of infrastructure, livelihood of its people, and not just terror infrastructure. The Israeli state has got to the information trap, rasstavlenny Hezbollah. A few months later the Russian leadership has got to the same Information trap, rasstavlenny the leadership of Georgia. He also was aimed at the emotional, going beyond the common sense reaction of Russia. To a greater extent have succeeded. Relations destabilized, the strength of the Russian reaction зашкаливает response for all conceivable limits. Today, relations between Russia and Georgia reached an impasse, a country on the brink of war cold and hot. And, as always in history, suffered most from the common people, those who had never engaged in politics, but the thought of settling their own lives. On the eternal Russian question what to do? You can only reply that it is necessary to move from a conversation at the level of emotion to talk at the level of interest. We must begin the difficult and, apparently, the long negotiations on the entire range of Russian-Georgian relations. Topics of the talks must include the future legal status of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, questions of economic cooperation, the possible membership of Georgia into NATO, the Georgian cultural autonomy of national minorities in Russia and Russia in Georgia ... Today there is a space to search for a batch of agreements based on mutual concessions and offs, there is an opportunity for serious and civilized diplomatic haggling. From threatening species, sudden movements on both sides, it's time to move on to the dialogue. In other words, it's time to grow. European integration and the problem of displaced cultural values

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Today we are witnessing an acceleration of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, where significant changes in various spheres of human life. Currently, a single economic, political and information environment, the processes of integration apply to the sociocultural sphere of European states. There have been major transformations in the institutional organization of Europe, where the European Union and the North-Atlantic Alliance to expand its influence in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the next wave of expansion of these international organizations to capture and a number of states formed at the site of the former USSR. In the area of European settlement, we are dealing with a reformulation of the outcome of the Second World War, with the geopolitical changes that are on a scale comparable to that determined the development of the continent after the World Wars. Change the spiritual borders of Europe, which have always been fluid, but had never before been distributed so far to the east. Reinterpretation of the results of the Second World War, the inclusion of Russia in a serious dialogue with the unified Europe allow in a new context to address the issue of restitution of cultural property. Nazi Germany, more than half a century ago vtyanuvshaya world of the Second World War is widely practiced capture and export to the territory of the Third Reich of cultural property in the occupied lands of Europe. Physical, demographic, cultural damage done by Germany to Europeans, especially the peoples of the USSR, enormous. An effort to offset losses caused by war, the leadership of the country, it was decided on the removal of economic and cultural values in Germany and its satellites in the USSR. This policy was an attempt to restore the impaired balance of mutual damage, the response of Germany to the same political language, action, based on the old as the world, the principle: An eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Expropriations of public policy on both sides accompanied by irregular mass outflow of assets, which include cultural values. The problem of restitution, return of cultural property to pre-war owners of long-term burden inherited from the past, the division of Europe into militarypolitical blocs, the lack of political, human and cultural understanding. In this 152

sense, the situation today is changing dramatically, Germany is an economic and political locomotive Single European State, which can and should agree, to search for non-compromise solutions to old problems. The modern interpretation of the problem of restitution of a certain asymmetry, the possibility of its decision in the context of German investment in Russia, the cancellation of the old Soviet debt, the prospects of Russia's integration into a united Europe. The problem of restitution of cultural property splits into innumerable individual episodes, the facts, the complex interplay of property, political and legal problems. The issue of restitution may be generally palliative (partial) solution, we can not resolve the final, just as we can not fully recover, recreate the original look of the destroyed aircraft of European cities, medieval castles, cathedrals and universities. In different historical era restitution issues are perceived by us in a different context. An attempt to resolve them is a kind of search for the balance of history and modernity, historical justice and political calculation, rationality and a sense of pressing human tragedy, grief and historical injustices. Unable to solve the problem of restitution in general, the decision to only its individual, private matters. The most important aspect of the problem of restitution of cultural property is a need to respect the national interests of Russia, involving in particular the establishment of expert groups, the involvement of professionals, public, open discussion of each restorative project. Moving cultural values are part of intercultural interaction, which often happened in history during the hostilities, was the nature of aggression. Military production, trophies, the most ancient form of familiarity with foreign cultures. These archaic mechanisms were first used on such a scale during the Second World War. In Nazi Germany, the looting of cultural property in the occupied territories, and their concentration in the territory of the Reich, was a form of material support of the claim to world domination. For the peoples of the USSR, the confiscation of artifacts of culture and then export them to its territory was a form of acquaintance with European culture, break the iron curtain, estetizatsii everyday life. Left 153

picture, dining sets, furniture, utensils, books filled the void (simplicity) of proletarian life, at least in part sufficient to satisfy cravings for burger well-being, filled the vacuum of property, a meaningful world, making it more solid, substantial, bourgeois. At the level of mass consciousness is perceived as a small fee for the grief and suffering experienced by the peoples of Russia. Today, we can greatly alleviate the problem of opening up the trophy restitution funds through collaboration with the European Union, UNESCO and other international organizations, charitable foundations, conservation projects, organization of cultural values, their inclusion in the scientific, museum, exhibition turnover. And the brunt of financial participation in such projects could take a unified Europe, because it is on the conservation of European cultural heritage. In practical terms, perhaps the establishment of permanent exhibitions, including in Germany, while retaining legal ownership of their exhibits for the Russian side. Perhaps some dissolve the problem of restitution in the programs of cross-cultural contacts, including the inclusion of cultural property in the panEuropean cultural revolution. With good management, the scope of restitution may be another cultural bridge to Europe, but in a utilitarian sense, the source of the new museum of technology, joint ownership of museum collections, revenue, receipt of which may not always involve the legal transfer of property rights. Today the pain of the Second World War, blunt, Germany is no longer perceived by us as thirty - forty - fifty years ago. The issue of restitution is gradually transferred from the emotional to the rational plane, the area calculation, compromises, political bargaining, purged of feelings of revenge, getting a raid cynicism. It is part of the wider issues of historical memory, forgiveness, guilt, reconciliation of peoples of Russia and Germany. Literature

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1. Pain E., Between empire and nation. Modernist project and its traditionalist alternative to the national policy of Russia. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2003. 164s. 2. Yasin EG, Phantom pain bygone empire / / After the Empire. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2007. C.7. 3. Ibid. C.10. 4. Yakovenko I., Empire and the Nation / / After the Empire / Under total. Ed. AM Klyamkin. M.: Foundation Liberal mission, 2007. P.60. 5. Yasin EG, Choice whether democracy in Russia. Μ.: The new publishing house, 2005. S.339-340. 6. Bolshakova OV, Russian Empire: The control system (modern foreign historiography): Analytical review / RAS. INION. Social Center. scientific inform. Issled. Otd. otech. and abroad. History, Ed. Ed. Shevyrin VM M., 2003. P.14-15. 7. Wolf L, Inventing Eastern Europe: Map of Civilization in the minds of the Enlightenment / Per. England. I. Fedyukin. Moscow: New Literary Review, 2003. 560 pp. 8. Markov and markovtsy / Nauch. Ed. V. Tsvetkov Zh. M.: NP Sowing, 2001. 551 pp. 9. Brzezinsky Z, Great chess board. The domination of America and its geostrategic imperatives. M.: Intern. Relations, 1998. 256 pp. 10. Treyvish A., Town, village and regional development / town and village in European Russia: One hundred years of change: Monografich. Sat. Moscow: OGI, 2001. S. 337-373. 11. Deutsch K., National Integration: an overview of some concepts and research approaches // Ethnicity and Politics: Хрестоматия / Auto. status. AA Prazauskas. M.: URAO, 2000. S. 190-202. 12. Neyrn T., Internationalism and the Second Coming / / Nation and Nationalism / Translated from English. and there. LE Pereyaslavtsevoy, MS Panina, MB Gnedovsky. Moscow: Praxis, 2002. S. 347-363.

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13. Kemal M., New path of Turkey. T. III. The intervention of the Allies. Greco-Turkish War and the consolidation of the National Front for 1920-1921. M.: Gos. socio-economic izd-vo, 1934. 14. Vlasov A., last step in the Europe / / Expert. 28 March-3 April 2005. № 12 (459). 74. 15. Water B., A. Chernikov, S. Strokan Ukraine gave the Allies. Kommersant, April 22. Number 72. C.9. 16. Pomeranz GS from the depths of the cold distemper / / unheeded voices. Volume 2. M.: Independent Publishers peak, 2003 17. Fedotov, GP A new image / / The fate and the sins of Russia: Selected Articles on the philosophy of Russian history and culture: In the 2 TT 2 / Sost., Introduction, notes Boikova VF SPb.: Sofia, 1991. 18. Model of modern civilization and their historical roots / JN Pakhomov, SB Crimea, Y. Pavlenko et al Ed. YN Pakhomov. Kiev: Nauk. dumka, 2002. 19. Yakovlev, AN Dusk. M.: Materik, 2003. 20. Gurova T. revolution, its leaders and its technology / / Expert, 13-19 December 2004. № 47 (447). 21. Bykov, P. Vlasov Oleg Why do we need a Ukraine / / Expert 13-19 December 2004, № 47 (447). 22. Dzhanguzhin (Zhangozha) RN post-Soviet Kazakhstan. Kiev: The Union, 2002.

Chapter III. From Modernization to restoration
I. Conservative No Reviewing developments in the country socio-political processes, allow yourself the assumption that the actions of the current government are more clearly a tendency for the great imperial backlash, of course complemented by an atmosphere of fear and konspirologicheskim's perception of the world. Today, the number of facts confirming and illustrating this hypothesis is growing in geometric 156

progression, particularly those trends experienced in the autumn of 2003 - the beginning of 2004. As part of the trend toward imperial revanche it seems logical to look to the approval of the construction of a multipolar world, obygryvanie illusory possibility of collecting economic, political and military resources of Russia, China, India, with a view to exerting pressure against the collective entity west. Threats to these utopian, the probability of their implementation - is negligible, but their very appearance is a sign character. And the sign - a message from the city and the world - quite to decoding and interpretation: defend against claims of ancestral rights to the west of the imperial (authoritarian and totalitarian) domestic socio-cultural traditions, in which no authority exists for man, but man the sake of power. The logic of this traditional, in today's geopolitical environment has completely irrational passion for imperial power, evident in the policies aimed at preserving the power of the CIS countries aimed at Moscow authoritarian and corrupt regimes against democratic / velvet revolutions in the former Soviet Union (Georgia, Ukraine ), and zapadnoorientirovannymi forces that come to power as a result of these revolutions. But the increasingly authoritarian and has yet to restoring its economic potential of Russia can not offer the former Soviet republics is nothing other than the supply of raw materials and weapons. This is important, but this is not enough to keep them in its orbit of influence. Such withholding must be cultural, technological superiority of Russia, not only over the alleged Countries satellite, but also on the countries of old Europe, the United States, Japan, the ability to export more sophisticated than those of competitors, technology, carry out extensive investment. While this role is quite difficult. First of all, remember-known: Russian culture in its application, technology, does not exceed the technological capability of countries belonging to Western civilization. In the long historical retrospect, we are not going to equal, but catching up his current real and virtual counterparts.

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Nevertheless, the political leadership of the country is trying to qualify for the restoration of the Soviet superpower status. Experience in the United States, the sole superpower of the world today, shows that to be super good. This status in the military and the political incarnation, it is possible to convert in the economy, including to support the dollar as world reserve currency, getting through this role sverhdeshevy credit, external financing of the American economy. But it is communicating vessels, the American military and political power is primarily derived from the American economic power. The current Russian leadership for some reason believes that one can claim to be the superpower, competing with the United States for influence and control over territories and resources, not having comparable with the economy, comparable state budget as the basis for the financing of the army and the military-industrial complex, comparable resources in many pure military fields. In these circumstances, fantasy (claim?) On the role of a superpower look quite strange, although in this case is easy to find and other, more powerful epithets. But, apparently, this policy is based on emotional grounds, when that which a priori do not, but at the same time, it is like to do, it becomes possible. You can, of course, not in real life, not in a rational manner, but only in the virtual field, the field of utopias and delusion. It is pleasant, perhaps, wishful thinking, dreaming imperial status as dreamed by him after the death of the Western Roman Empire in the west, and then to the east of Europe but not in line with the reality of fantasies. But most important is the cost of such experiments as for society as a whole and for each citizen individually, and the value of these costs - zashkalivayusche high. Speaking of maximum destructiveness of these costs, we note that much better to be a living resident is not very large and ambitious European nation than the cannon fodder of the virtual kvaziimperii. To paraphrase the well-known expression of Bismarck, for example, that no guns - instead of oil, but with the accuracy of the other way around: - hedonism instead of militarism. We completely agree with the old slogan of European and North American hippie: We need love, not war, believing that the Russians need quiet joys of consumerism - instead of 158

imperial rhetoric and cultivated a spirit of service and sacrifice in the name of empire, a private, not nationalized neoimperskim flaccid leadership life. The second trend in contemporary Russian politics, at first glance, the opposite of the first, although in reality they are quite complementary and simbiotichny - fear of external and internal enemies, konspirologichesky view of the world. When the political elite of the country is beginning to seriously rely on the re-establishment of a superpower and empire, which, as we have noticed a fairly stiff competition / fighting for a place under the sun, and candidates is not for yourself, live a conscious and unconscious fears, complexes, phobias. Full flower blooms konspirologiya everywhere mereschatsya alien, hostile and powerful forces that destroy donor emerging in the inflammation of the imagination superstate, what else - a liberal, not liberal, but the empire. Here and foreign charitable foundations, load-bearing, as the Soros Foundation, an alien and hostile socio-cultural traditions of the imperial spirit of individualism and consumerism. We hear cries of officials / power, ultrapatriotov contents, just ironiziruya and simplified, can be summarized as follows: Behold, supported by G. Soros in the 90-years thick literary journals, book publishing and libraries - thereby introduced to our very healthy and loving officials in general, and representatives of law enforcement agencies and the clergy of the Orthodox Church in particular, the community, the spirit of western individualistic life, human rights alien to the spirit of Russian values. Intrigues of foreign enemy, blurred sense of imperial patriotism, not helped, but hindered the preparation of the new Soros Susanin, Matrosova, Gastello, Maresevyh. The new Russian authorities had over the past few years to evolve in the direction of authoritarianism neoimperskosti and, realizing their new / old interests and values. We know that in this coordinate system the value of human life is quite conventional, but the value of authoritarianism and neoimperskogo state - without conditions. Such power and such a state for centuries stood at the service and sacrifice simple Russian / Soviet man, his sufferings, deeds and strastoterpii, he paid for the visions of their bosses

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and enthusiasts in the form and in plain clothes, on military glory and imperial power. In addition, many supported the fund and Russia's liberal intelligentsia, and from it, as we know any true patriot / statesmen - all evil, and is it - the fifth column of defilement, cozy abode in a situation of permanent crisis, the system of Western world. Yes, and no one, he, the non-Russian fund, there are funds and fondiki - and in all, if not enemies, the enemies henchman, the people, effuse water for their mill. Therefore, to keep and not Pushcha, check with the assistance of tax authorities, pressure on landlords to provide them with space to get in the times, dozens of times to raise the rent, but does not help, you can disconnect gas - has its own hand lord. Under the policy all the more tangible podmorazhivaniya Russia, under the direct or indirect state control are the television channels and other media, of which squeezed the most talented and not conceding the power manipulation professionals. National television channels curb, but the taming of the power is already low, thus creating new channels to provide a cover for her advocacy and education of the old / new man, a devoted power not only out of fear, but also for conscience. This is the eternal purposes of imperial construction, maintenance and retention of the physical body of the Empire should, in задумке neoimperskih ideologues, a military-patriotic and Orthodox-patriotic TV channels. But no matter how izoschryayutsya apologists of imperialism and Derzhavnaya, for more than a regular Remakes on uvarovskoy triad of Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality, their combined creativity is clearly not enough. In defense of consciousness, which, judging by the abundance of direct and indirect evidence, increasingly takes the higher bureaucracy, it seems logical to look and networking power verticals wherever possible, including in key areas such as politics and economics. In this regard, we note that the refusal of elected governors and presidents of national republics, despite their very archaic, imperial background, can still serve as a more or less serious discussion, but the refusal of the elected leaders of urban self-government (municipalities) throws the country 160

into Dark Age European Middle Ages. In other words, power is increasingly concentrated in the hands of an increasingly large bureaucracy, the power of bureaucracy, concerned not so much the public, how many self-interests. The second vertical line of power is organized (arrayed) in major private, public and parastatal enterprises. For power, it is important to control all substantial cash flows, to deny financing of any possible opposition, preventive cut off funding for any alternative social, political, economic projects. But if society is not dealt with this kind of projects, if the control over information has become a comprehensive, if power is ever more reliant on administrative resources - the risk of incorrect management decisions increases by orders. In the economic sphere, in such catastrophic in its consequences for the country's leading solutions YUKOS case. Here, we depend on volyuntaristichesky approach the authorities and society to any form of property, both the public and private. In the realities of Russian life of the property - this is not a legally protected institution, but only a situational expression neblizosti or proximity to power, through its individual groups and representatives. Once the political situation changes as soon begins massive rotation of political elites, almost immediately, it appears that the owner owns it is conditional nominal property, he has virtually no functioning legal (lawful), mechanisms to maintain the property. In today's realities of Russian owners can, perhaps, to try once to agree with the ordinary / extraordinary new power to bring gifts, to take on permanent financing a socio-political or sports project ... In the end, emerges a great, and of course that maximize all kinds of Russian prosperity, doubling GDP and so on. picture - every four to eight years of regular (planned!) redistribution of property. Already today, we can assume that the government formed in the future of liberal (united?) The opposition can go to the restitution process, the return Yuganskneftegaz and other excluded assets of YUKOS, and / or its current shareholders, although the company will be liquidated to the date of that. Some, albeit a rough analogy, there may be a situation at an auction for Ukrainian Krivozhstali. Furthermore, any Russian or foreign businesses wishing to 161

participate in the common property, the oil company, has a significant chance of not only losing the property, but because of its funds to cover the costs of property and moral damage caused by the current shareholders of Yukos. Today it is very easy and natural to assume that at the next watershed history feature that separates the past from the future, can be loud hearing on the revision of the Yukos affair, as it is today in such a watershed was the arrest of M. Khodorkovsky and the actual defeat of the best oil company in Russia. That is the ironic logic of history. The question of whether or not to destroy the new post of Russian statehood in the name of illusory in the short / medium term, historical goal - the capture and retention in the hands of an effective oil company - is at least open. Note that the Yukos affair genetically traced back to the Russian historical tradition, which for centuries the country was as focused and planned (epoch IV Grozny, Vladimir Lenin, of Stalin) and spontaneous (the burning of property and killing of farmers-otrubnikov in years stolypinskih reforms) negative personal selection. In the process, the selection of strong, independent, cost-effective social strata or rejection / destroyed physically or enhance their work abilities and intelligence of foreign states. Indeed, strong difficult to manage, they are more independent, and that led to their periodic removal not only of economics but also of life, which occasionally practiced authoritarian / totalitarian Russian government. As a result, although with some breaks, for centuries, such a policy of strong and effective, irrespective of the social support of the state, has relatively little, while the weak, count on this support - is relatively high. But people without strong economically, politically, socially Russia will not survive, because they create wealth, generate and implement successful business projects. Liberal reform 90-ies of the XX century, were the exception to this rule, the destruction of strong, they were able to develop freely, creating a business, to achieve not only economic but also social success. Today, clearly it must be noted that the problem bourgeois-democratic revolution in August 1991 were not fully resolved. First, power is not passed into 162

the hands of the bourgeoisie for the banal reason that at the beginning of reforms in Russia itself nearly небыло. Today the bourgeoisie in the country is, it finally matures to the awareness of the simple fact that the maintenance, preservation and development of business must be engaged in politics, finance those political forces that are able to express and defend the economic and political interests of the most educated, young and dynamic parts society, because they largely coincide with its own interests. At the bitter experiences of the past four years not only Russia's capitalists, but also a significant part of society, make sure that power is not be thrown on the road, it can pick up people who do not share democratic values, believing that society in general and business in particular, should play a subordinate role in relation to bureaucracy. In this system of values of a place of business solely to serve, the power forward to his crooked posture and sacramental phrase What deign?. Deign to take over the business free of charge, send a new Russian capitalist for a beer, put in jail? The relationship of contemporary Russian government and its contractors, including business, largely within the genre scenes from the film Kin-Dza-Dza - all patsakam (in today's realities businessmen. - SG) muzzle wear, and smile , smiling . As we remember, these innovations have ended for the power chatlan on a distant planet from the Earth is quite bad. It should be noted here, and another important factor - conditional property in Russia, the consideration of owner just as the state manager (beholder) means the absence of material, the property basis of human freedom in general. In such a situation, human rights are as conventional as the right to property, it is absolutely related things. Russian history apparently shows the inversion of the characteristic of the country's socio-political processes, where the poles of good and evil in people's minds and the minds of the elites as well, and their own elite, many have changed the fact that yesterday was welcome, worship and the protection of then considered almost as a manifestation of absolute evil. Today, the authorities only think that it is almost always that the situation was controlled and society to the planned and 163

non-routine manipulation on its part. Tomorrow is not determined by a simple extrapolation of current features of the day in the future. Today's Russian authorities managed to solve quite a challenge - a row with both left and right part of the Russian political spectrum. Red Youth Vanguard, NBP (limonovtsy), youth structures Apple and ATP, if not go in the same order and are not integrated under the overall leadership, the combined оппонированием tough enough power, and the overbearing opponent determined not only institutionally, but also on personal level. Sacramental to the question of Russian politics - against whom we will be friends? - Has ceased to be an issue, but became obvious and somewhat banal answer already. This is around this common understanding of problem situations, awareness of the need to return to the area of common sense and there is as yet completely virtual, but in its possible consequences is an effective association. Today's Russian authorities to support the numerous rock center, politically neutral inhabitants. But the fundamental problem of building on that part of society is as follows. Such support is good in stable and predictable socio-political situation, but her worsening of an ordinary person is unlikely to protect the power of defending its people with certain political principles in August 1991 at the White House and in October 1993 at Mossovet. In those years helped to live and cautiously optimistic about the future a feeling that the power of its own, with regard to many experienced and some internal commitment - this power can and should protect and defend. A surprising sense of social / mental proximity to power was the first time in life and finally disappeared when a new ideological and political-economic trends at the beginning of the new century. We believe that in the short / medium-term historical perspective, mainly due to the possible steep decline in the value of Russian exports of commodity products, it is likely that power will be the face of perturbed masses, one on one with people. Note that the support group, no matter how numerous they would be funded and may be today, it is unlikely that either will be as actively involved in a possible confrontation. In addition, the role of the security forces in times of national crisis rather ambivalent, as it shows the historical experience gained in 164

Tehran in 1978, Bucharest and other capitals of Eastern European States in the late 80-ies of the last century. This is not seen any reason to exclude Russia from this textbook series. It is trite, but the army and special operations force structures staffed from people, but in post-Soviet Russia is not a hereditary military aristocracy with its clear political interests, such as in modern Turkey. In easy to find stories and illustrations that characterize the specific features of the various political forces in times of political crises. Centrists, successful man in the street, remain at home until the last possible, then becoming as passive victims of the check and the Gestapo, as well as active accomplices in repression. But in the crisis, turning points of history creates an absolute minority of people, the protest of energy which is enough for a radical change. Such was the case in Russia in February and October 1917 the first, in August 1991 on. When authorization for a particular political situation unite people left and right views, that is, almost all available in the public political enthusiasts / passionarii, with varying degrees of support from the mass protest electorate - the range of variability of the development potential crisis dramatically shrinking. As part of our socio-cultural and historical tradition to break - not to build, the process of dismantling, deconstruction of the old politico-economic order, thinning, rapid rotation of the elite in Russia has always been much more successful and was accompanied by a much more enthusiastic about the masses than the process of creation. Today you do not need to be a prophet to predict the next opportunity in our history of deconstruction, overburdened load of accumulated absurdity of the system and odious, but a new socio-political configuration will replace the old - it is not clear in the short / medium Term Historical Perspective possible implementation of both positive and negative versions of social development. However, in the case samotransformatsii democratic system, the restoration of civil liberties, the transition from playing with zero-sum, where the winner gets everything, and defeated all the loses, to find a compromise - the need and likelihood of such a restructuring dramatically reduced. We believe that 165

samotransformatsiya systems, evolutionary development, the solution, rather than accumulation of the current problems much better and preferable to revolutionary upheaval. Meanwhile, the growing authoritarianism in the governance of the country prevents the fullness of life samoosuschestvleniya individual, living generations. Human life is not infinite, we do not have time to perezhidanie another stalemate on the expectation of when and where вывезет Russian maybe. Ability to carry out complete self-realization requires each of us in the beautiful far - it is needed today, now. The future starts today, it is time to select, nearing fork between imperial / ideokraticheskim past, still fueling officialism and clerical and patriotic this untimely and bourgeois, sytym, negeroicheskim but dynamic European future. Literature 1. Geller M. And machine screws. The history of the formation of Soviet man. Moscow: MIK, 1994. 2. Bonner W., Uigtin E. Judgment Day of American Finance: mild depression of the XXI century. / William Bonner, Addison Uigtin; lane. England. BS Pinsker, Ed. Yuri Kuznetsov. Chelyabinsk: Socium, 2005. 402 pp. 3. Chernyaev NI, Mysticism, poetry, and ideals of Russian autocracy / Introduction. Art. MB Smolina. Moscow: Moscow, 1998. 4. Born hurry // Kommersant. № 01-02 (1269), 14-20 January 2005. S. 12. 5. Braudel F, The time of peace. Material civilization, economics and capitalism, XV-XVIII centuries. / Per. with fr. L. Kubbelya; Introduction. Art. YN Afanasieva. T. 3. Moscow: Progress, 1992. 6. Fromm E., Escape from freedom / / dogma about Christ / Per. with it. G. SEWERS status. and auth. foreword. P. Gurevich. Moscow: Olimp, AST-LTD, 1998. 7. Starikov, Community-Barracks of the pharaohs to the present day. Novosibirsk: Siberian chronograph, 1996. 166

8. Khodorkovsky, Property and Freedom / / Vedomosti. Number 239 (1279). December 8. 2004. SA 4. 9. Koch A., The State sells / / Privatization in Russia. M.: Vagrius, 1999. 10. Bukovsky V., Moscow process. Moscow: MIK; Paris: Russian thought, 1996. II. Clerical policy of blocking the modernization of Is someone Orthodox, said: Now I - the main. I'm in love Firebird and longing for the state. Forthcoming Igor enjoy Yaroslavna undone. Give me a cross, rather than - in the face at impact. Worse damage and leaving - the thoughts of Western zymosis. Sing, accordion, saxophone silence - ischade jazz . Joseph Brodsky Modernization processes as an essential component of the process include secularization, gaining personal freedom, especially in everyday life, the realization of life projects without hindering social activities need to correlate their actions with the world of the supernatural, on the basis of its potential approval or condemnation. The Age of Modernism to postulate that the definition of truth and falsity of events to verify the facts, to be confirmed or disprove empirically. In the framework of modern Western civilization is seen as an individualistic ideal of human existence, which is seeking to compete with God the Creator, which is cautious attitude in less secularize regions. In the non-human world is a modernization concise and hypertrophied form of the Western civilization. The processes of secularization of society and culture, albeit with some lag with respect to Europe, took place in Russia, their inhibition is largely due to the peculiarities of Russian social and cultural traditions. In dopetrovskoy Russian Orthodoxy is the state ideology, culture and organized society. The dramatic 167

changes in the Peter I did not resulted in profound Reformation of the Church, although as a result of the modernization policy monarch defenders' last Rus, ie the old fictions of national superiority and bogoizbrannosti Moscow, regarded as harmful opposition elements and lived in fear of reprisals. This is all the cultural reform . As part of the orthodoxy is perceived indifference to the idea of social progress, development is seen as more likely interpretation of religious tradition, are more to the spiritual, theological. Orthodoxy is, apparently, the most authentic form of Christianity in its original sense, is far from the goals of secular improvements. This is difficult, and still hampers socio-cultural adaptation of the Russian Orthodox Church. Renewal of the public, vnutritserkovnogo dialogue in Russia at the beginning of XX century for known reasons, not resulted in the movement of religious reformation, greater adaptation of the Orthodox Church to the processes of rapid social and cultural dynamics. Rather, it was sort of a parody on the Reformation, which can be regarded as the movement obnovlentsev. Neither XIX, either at the beginning of XX century, nor, even more so today, the Orthodox Church in Russia could not generate integrative national ideology. Today, this is defined as the inability of European secular world, and a long period of cultivation of atheism as part of state ideology. The main obstacle to the instrumental use of the derivative of the Orthodox ideology on the low adaptive capacity of the Russian Orthodox Church, unable to react quickly to changing conditions in which society lives. Position, which is alive in church circles today, is best expressed over a hundred years ago, Dostoevsky in the novel Demons. Ivan Shatov said, referring to Stavroginu: The objective of any popular movement, in every nation and every period of its existence, has only just Searching God, the God of his own imperative, and faith in him as the only true ... The more people, so especially his God. Never was a people without religion, ie without the notion of good and evil. Do all the people of his own concept of good and evil and their own good and evil

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. It clearly sounds motif denying the universality of Christianity, its emphasis on its operational, etnointegriruyuschih opportunities. In Russia, the processes of secularization is most evident during the Soviet period of our history, when dehristianizatsiya, demusulmanizatsiya, deiudaizatsiya etc. were held in barbaric forms, refer to the times of persecutions of the first Christians. The Russian empire was based was the Orthodox civilization, but as a result of decades of atheistic Soviet government and the secular post-Soviet period, Russian society has become increasingly indifferent towards religion, including the Orthodox. The Russians, indeed, citizens of other predominantly Christian regions, no longer in need of religious sanction for business as well, and for activities in other spheres of human life. Nevertheless, in spite of tectonic and fundamental shift secularization efforts continue to revive the legend and turn history back, back in the Middle Ages. In the church tradition of actively growing criticism of civilization as the triumph of financial modernization beginning of the spiritual, not only in the area of Orthodoxy. Pope John Paul II at the time of communication with young people in Ukraine noted that you can not move from the communist regime to captivity captive consumerism, which is a form of materialism, which, although in words does not deny God, but denies him the facts, excluding it from life . It was, quite rightly, that the exclusion of the divine from human life and the daily localization in ideas continues with varying degrees of success over at least three or four centuries, this exception is one of the leading trends in Europe of that period. Throughout this period, continuing the acceleration of the historical and socio-cultural dynamics, unrecognizable world is changing, forcing both the individual and any organization to evolve, to adapt to the spirit of the time. This adaptation is clearly happening in the area, occupied the Orthodox Church, is in itself. The problem is that these changes do not match the rapid socio-cultural transformations and attempts to adapt to the fast accelerating dynamic processes are met in church circles, the most consistently reproducing archaic elements of the 169

social and cultural traditions, as misunderstandings and extreme forms of resistance, at least remember the fate of. A. I am. According to Yuri Afanasyev, the Russian Orthodox Church it is not prepared for the transformation, facing the modern world. Hence the neurotic reaction to the challenges expressed in isolationism, xenophobia, extreme intolerance, an effort to restore the symphony with the authorities . All the passes, with time and this will pass, but will take place tomorrow or the day after, and now use the Orthodox, as well, and other traditional and non-traditional religion as the basis of national ideology can not be. The question that we want to build: a hightech and, consequently, on Russia's new century, rationalist, or call from the past image of medieval Russia. Combine the two ways to fail, it mezheumochny, ambivalent way in the next appendix stories, and the desire for the simultaneous existence of different modalities raises Association of Psychiatry. In the emerging-ethnic, multicultural Russian society is extremely dangerous to play on the ethno-national sentiments, attempted to pursue a policy of ethnic and religious segregation to anything other than the dissolution of a State may not lead. Operational use of Orthodoxy as the state religion of at least meant to slow down as the best - lock modernization processes. Russia heterogeneous civilization, society polikonfessionalno, there is a high percentage of natural and conscious atheists, much of multiculturalism. In this regard, the author attempts to raise serious concerns included in school curricula on the fundamentals of Orthodox culture, which is a kind of remake prerevolutionary course for the Study of the foundations of orthodox Christianity: Act of God. The inclusion of this training course in the Uniform State Standard of education can cause a sharp division of young Russians at the we not we, a surge of religious and ethnic identity. This may call into question not only the success of modernization processes, but also the very existence of the Russian state. At the same time, the author believes should be included in the curriculum for secondary school course on the basics of religion, which would allow teenagers 170

to take their bearings in a variety of world and local religions, different religious backgrounds. And in any event, this course should teach the laity, not clergy. Tolerance and the preservation of the freedom of personal choice, including the ability to not choose anything, be natural atheist, preserving the right to obtain knowledge as a result of progressive analytical procedures, and not the synthetic, a priori no doubt the gift of faith. In fact, we are talking about preserving a traditional division: God - gods, Caesar - Caesar's. In the new time in Europe, science and education relate to the sphere Caesar and known exceptions only confirm the rule. At the beginning of the XXI century to try to push the society back to medieval times - what could be more than adequate and far from the tasks of Russian modernization? It seems to us extremely doubtful that the clerical consciously pursued a policy could help address the challenges of modernization, it can only accelerate the process of disintegration of the country. Modernization processes as an essential component of the process include secularization, gaining personal freedom, especially in everyday life, the realization of life projects without hindering social activities need to correlate their actions with the world of the supernatural, on the basis of its potential approval or condemnation. The Age of Modernism to postulate that the definition of truth and falsity of events to verify the facts, to be confirmed or disprove empirically. In the framework of modern Western civilization is seen as an individualistic ideal of human existence, which is seeking to compete with God the Creator, which is cautious attitude in less secularize regions. In the non-human world is a modernization concise and hypertrophied form of the Western civilization. The processes of secularization of society and culture, albeit with some lag with respect to Europe, took place in Russia, their inhibition is largely due to the peculiarities of Russian social and cultural traditions. In dopetrovskoy Russian Orthodoxy is the state ideology, culture and organized society. The dramatic changes in the Peter I did not resulted in profound Reformation of the Church, although as a result of the modernization policy monarch defenders' last Rus, ie the 171

old fictions of national superiority and bogoizbrannosti Moscow, regarded as harmful opposition elements and lived in fear of reprisals. This is all the cultural reform . As part of the orthodoxy is perceived indifference to the idea of social progress, development is seen as more likely interpretation of religious tradition, are more to the spiritual, theological. Orthodoxy is, apparently, the most authentic form of Christianity in its original sense, is far from the goals of secular improvements. This is difficult, and still hampers socio-cultural adaptation of the Russian Orthodox Church. Renewal of the public, vnutritserkovnogo dialogue in Russia at the beginning of XX century for known reasons, not resulted in the movement of religious reformation, greater adaptation of the Orthodox Church to the processes of rapid social and cultural dynamics. Rather, it was sort of a parody on the Reformation, which can be regarded as the movement obnovlentsev. Neither XIX, either at the beginning of XX century, nor, even more so today, the Orthodox Church in Russia could not generate integrative national ideology. Today, this is defined as the inability of European secular world, and a long period of cultivation of atheism as part of state ideology. The main obstacle to the instrumental use of the derivative of the Orthodox ideology on the low adaptive capacity of the Russian Orthodox Church, unable to react quickly to changing conditions in which society lives. In recent years the force, not yet released from the traditional historical time, push Europe into a new Middle Ages, and Russia is not out of the process. Our political class with ease tercentenary throws attempts to become part of European civilization. Some time ago, erupted cartoon war in the Muslim world had spread to Russia innocent шаржами in several regional newspapers - and the newspapers were subjected to repression, up to closing. Freedom is not for power on the ground of no value, it is something quite ephemeral, something that can not be touched by hands, immediately utilitarian use. Liberty fell on them from the sky in 1991, they were not to stir a finger to her 172

approach, and is as easily and safely choose freedom, not even knowing what they do. In response, perhaps, you can hear only the sacramental what? The newspaper, in their opinion, should write about the evolution of utility payments, the next statement, the mayor, bump on the road, negligent or Radivoje plumber ... You do not need umstvovat of punditry all ills of serious things is allowed to think only at the edge of society are marginalized, while others must think about daily bread, and to think at all - not Kholopov this case. We have seen gives shoots fifteen flirting authorities and society with the religious ideologies and institutions, the massive construction of religious buildings, to take a seat the party idols in our land. Dragon's teeth sown, and we see the first shoots. And these shoots - tolerance, the desire to redraw the world in their own image and likeness. Several years ago the majority of Russian society accept pogrom at Art Exhibition Caution, Religion, when the criminal case was instituted on its organizers, but on pogromschikov it quickly closed. Director of the Museum and Public Center. Andrei Sakharov Yuri Samodurov then noticed article in the newspaper Moscow News: In the indictment and in the case I have not found any references to any law regulating or prohibiting the display of the walls of secular cultural institutions of art works, which religious symbols are presented in a different context . Then it was another step to the State in which the believers are in a privileged position in relation to secular people, but religion is a priority in relation to secular culture. Today, the situation in the sphere of liberty of conscience continue to deteriorate. When a society silent and swallowed the closure of defending freedom of speech of Russian newspapers, it became clear that we are waiting for tomorrow. Since cartoon scandal desekulyarizatsii emerging trends in society, not only preserved but also increased. Today promised tomorrow was - in Russia have to defend Darwin's theory of the origin and evolution of species and the possibility of teaching in the education system, because it rejects the theory of the divine origin of man, which is unacceptable to the representatives of various religions. In

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a society increasingly govern fear, and the later rules political may require the wearing of the veil or headscarf for our women, cutting and / or beards for men. Today, more and more distinctly heard voices of modern pochvennikov denying the universal essence of Christianity, which has no Hellenes, nor Jew, where all semantic emphasis shifted to underline bogoizbrannosti, no matter what identity unlike Russia and Russian human self. In doing so, Christianity itself is considered merely as a convenient tool for the consolidation and mobilization of the ethnic Russian people, a marker that can clearly divide humanity in us and them, and we are not our righteous and sinful. The idea of such a privatization of Christianity and use it for these specific needs is not new, this has been in Russian history, with a hundred, much less two hundred, three hundred, five hundred years ago, such plans to a greater or lesser degree of overlap with the reality in which the country lived. But today we live in a fundamentally different social and cultural reality, after the long Soviet period of our history, when the processes dehristianizatsii held in barbaric forms, refer to the times of persecutions of the first Christians. The Russian empire was based was the Orthodox civilization, but as a result of decades of atheistic Soviet rule and the dominant secular post-Soviet period, Russian society has been mostly indifference in relation to orthodox Christianity. A sociological study conducted in 1998 and dedicated to the study of processes of social identity in the transition societies in Russia and Poland, was held under the leadership of E. Danilov, and KA Roebuck. According to the results of this study proved that the overwhelming majority of its Poles, as a priority we identity, feel the Poles and Catholics. Russians in the first place determine their collective identity as a community of everyday interpersonal communication. In terms of the communication includes family, friends, colleagues at work. Toward the end of the list of Russian respondents perceive themselves Russians, Russians, even more rarely see themselves Orthodox. On the sociological survey conducted in postSoviet Russia, the number votserkovlennyh Orthodox people of a few percent relative to the total number of those who in one way or another, identifies with the 174

Orthodox faith. In other words, all attempts to build on Orthodoxy as state ideology have very little instrumental capacity, as 3-4% per votserkovlennyh of Orthodox Citizens of Russia is an absolute minority of the population. Figuratively speaking, the train has already left, the Russians, as well, and citizens of other predominantly Christian regions, no longer in need of religious sanction for business as well, and for activities in other spheres of human life. Nevertheless, in spite of tectonic and fundamental shift secularization efforts continue to revive the legend and turn history back, back in the Middle Ages. In the guise of religious fundamentalism, we are faced with a devastating challenge to traditionalism, the desire to avoid the masses of people of liberty and its attendant changes, the need for personal choice. For them, it is important to determine who a, and who strange, to live in ecstasy fight strangers. The traditionalists and flirtations with policy rejects freedom, seeking to shift from a personal responsibility to the larger ethno-religious groups, thereby paving the way for a new totalitarianism. Soon pious old and organized in patriotic of pupils and students who do not know what was happening, will suffer its armful of brushwood in the fire to the new Yanam Gusam - liberals, atheists, agnostic philosophies, people wishing to retain their freedom, did not share in the spread social intolerance. Unfortunately, in today's Russia offensive religious fundamentalism can not be stopped and the Left, because some of them very susceptible to religious temptation. For historical and, indeed, a human framework, we just recently dropped from a cargo of communist utopia freed man, and society. We were tempted to have superhuman values of Marxism-Leninism, and attempts to use religion as an ideology of the State - now the evil is not less but more, as antidote to post-Soviet Russia, this embodiment of utopia has not yet been developed. The potential danger and destructiveness of religious fundamentalism, the force of his call and primeval intolerance today comparable to the challenge of the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia and the spread of totalitarian regimes in Europe, the twentieth century. 175

Therefore it is important to determine the order in which the ideological principles of the modern Russian state is based. When Russia - a secular state as enshrined in the Constitution, then the policy of flirting, playing in poddavki with religious institutions is totally unacceptable. It is necessary to protect the freedom of the media in relation to coverage of all that relates to the religious component of the various socio-cultural traditions. It is necessary to firmly defend the secular nature of Russian education. In particular, it would be useful to use the experience of France to ban the use of symbols of different religions in public life in general and in the system of secular education in particular. It should be clearly understood and strictly uphold the secular nature of the Russian state, in which religion was a private affair of citizens, as well as the length of their hair, the choice of home appliances and clothing. When senior officials, heads of subjects of the Federation attend worship - it is their right as individuals. How is privacy such actions may have illuminated the pages of specialized publications in the topic of secular chronicles, but not with sociopolitical significance of the direct broadcast of federal TV channels. Such public actions of officials set out to undermine Russia's constitution secular state. Today it is obvious that if we fail to uphold basic secular principles as the basis of Europe in general and the Russian state in particular, we are awaiting a return to the dark days of European history. Today not only Russia but the entire posthristianskomu (postreligioznomu) of the European Community needs new Voltaire, Bertrand Russell, Theo Van Gogh - people who could be ideologically and institutionalize a new mass liberation movement, defending human liberty and minimizing the impact of religious ideology in public life . Traditionalism and modern art The title of the exhibition Forbidden Art - 2006 in Sakharovskaya heart speaks for itself. Here is what was proposed at the Moscow Art Exhibition, first of

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all, it seems, Sotsart, and was not allowed to participate in the exposition of the decision of boards and directors of art museums. And in something they can understand, the motivation of these decisions is quite clear. The exhibition includes paintings, which are known to share the simplification can be thought of as belonging to the game of religious symbols, adult language and naked body, mainly in the political context. But nezadacha. Pictures and Photo, which in some artistic and aesthetic context, look quite different, растворяясь in an array of fixed, more emotionally and ideologically neutral, since this segregation, separation clean from unclean become defiant hypertext. In other words, at this concentration, these works take on slightly different meaning, especially the work vyhvachennye of the series, such as Glory to Russia. They fell out of the cycle, from the context, have become too fiziologichny - ideological subtext almost dissolved in fiziologizme. Out of her, predzadannogo context of the work formed the frightening and sometimes shocking hypertext, the exhibition has become an artistic, aesthetic, but, more importantly, an ideological challenge to the resurgent authoritarian spirit of the secular and spiritual power. It was the product of internal censorship, internal chutya in man, what more could be, but that is no longer available. This is not the result of the efforts of institutionalized censorship. This feature is only within one year, picture of public and, consequently, overbearing fears and phobias. But fears have remarkable feature materializovyvatsya, these prohibitions - the exact diagnosis of the growing social disease. And this disease is all the more narrow the boundaries of public liberty, increasingly receive religious or pseudo-religious justification. Today, church officials have expressed their views on various issues of political, economic, social and artistic life. Such activity is quite commendable, the public, it is interesting that on an official opinion about Catholicism and Orthodoxy, Buddhists and Muslims, Protestants and Hare Krishna ... Finally, the philosophical atheists and agnostics, because atheism in Russia until the law is not 177

prohibited. Moreover, our current constitution declares the secular nature of the Russian state. The author, of course, respect the feelings of believers, but a secular society, and no attempts to schedule and design of church life. But inside the church fence the one outside - another. In the first case, something related to God, the second to Caesar. You can, of course, to the traditional for the Russian monarchy Symphony church and secular authorities, but then it is necessary to understand and accept the consequences of such unity. Geopolitical, economic and social effects of tea Symphony simple, but its simplicity, no less sad. We know that our country is not mono-ethnic, such as mono-Catholic Poland. In Russia there are at least three of civilization, which shares with the famous can be divided into Orthodox, Islamic and Buddhist, but the civilization of these exist today in many of the hidden, latent form. In other words, they are not clearly religious, a large and, in some regions of the country and the majority of people indifferent to religion. And this is the indifference of a country united, smooths the ethnic and religious contradictions. Once the religious revival will be a truly massive, these contradictions seriously worse, calling into question the continued existence of the country in its present borders. If you speak more easily, by the Symphony State authorities and the Orthodox Church can be pursued within the boundaries of the Moscow principality, but this is by today's standards unusual border, the Russian state can not be small. Of course, history does not anticipate, could, and all it will give demographers at mid-century, the most dismal predictions for the possible number of people in Russia. Often referred to as a figure around 122, 110 or even 99 million people. This is a little by the standards of today, and it is negligible relative to projections of our near and distant neighbors. We will be very difficult to keep the Siberia and Far East, to preserve the territorial integrity of States. But that is a big issue. I just wanted to point out that there is not so good and clear that their deliberate actions to accelerate the collapse of the offensive. There is no need to wake famously, there is no need to revive the people exalted religious 178

consciousness, to undermine the secular state and society. Once again - as soon as this can be done on a massive scale, in different regions and denominations Russia begins to crumble. The disintegration of the country's domestic, due to civilizational and religious boundaries, as indeed any other form of disintegration, I am not totally satisfied. In addition to protest against the feelings of patriotism, the collapse of the tortuous for contemporaries and participants of events. History is unlikely to provide another opportunity to nearly bloodless collapse of the huge state, what was the USSR. This decay will be different, after the collapse of the blood and soil. Do not. And we have, and what relevance all this has to show in Sakharovskaya center? We need to educate ourselves and others to a different tolerance to people of other cultures, faiths and even disbelief. And exhibition is the question of tolerance directly. This is not the CPSU, but church groups are the only true creators of national ideology, and their individual representatives are beginning to deal with dissent, inakochuvstvovaniem, inakoveriem, inakodeystviem. Well there is for the state? On this issue we have tried to answer. Well there is for the church? Who knows. About the church and its benefits certainly do not judge me. It is possible only on a distant and very rough analogy, recall that for Marxism in the USSR it was bad, that Marxism has fallen victim governmentalization, zakostenevshego canon, has lost his appeal to the masses. Today extraction of the art in the marginal area on the division of correct and unhealthy restricts the freedom, creativity, artistic provocation, if you want. Of course, faithful people can be unpleasant, when a well-known Moscow artists such ease outplay their revered image, giving them to others, far from the traditional sense. But this blasphemy well, you can not look at this phenomenon is purely subkulturnoe. Who wants - looks who does not want to - no. Somebody exhibited works seem curious, someone not to like. Everyone chooses for themselves. Actually that's freedom.

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This freedom of choice of good and bad, true and false dalas dearly to us all, after decades, no doubt, and always knows how to correctly and incorrectly Soviet authorities. We remember that it seemed right to close churches and monasteries, mass killing of priests ... These crimes have appalled its senseless brutality, they have no forgiveness, and limitations. Is today the Church to assume such a role malopriglyadnuyu executed before the Bolsheviks? But instead of destroying temples destroyed prior art galleries and museums to prosecute directors and curators of art exhibitions? Is it worth it again to restrict freedom of choice of people, encroach on the freedom of human will? Is it worth it to take on the role of Grand inquisitor? Questions on the face of rhetoric. But the answer to them depends on the goals, the willingness of pay for personal and historical accounts of their decisions. In addition, any taboos, and public condemnation only fuel spectator interest, it is known that the forbidden fruit sweet. The fact that only yesterday were exhibited in the half-rooms, after conviction, and the more so the ban could cause a keen public interest and desire to multiply the artists receive a high the public assessment of the samples. Does all of this that I most enjoyed the exhibition and I have no comments to the sponsor? No, I do not mean. I do not like such a frank expression fiziologizma in the art, they create an internal protest and some squeamishness. I do not like me and epatazh for epatazha, where no sense of intellectual subtexts, where what is not specifically contemplate. Generally speaking, the first half of the exposition more intelligent - epatazh expresses ideas in the second half of the intellectual glow disappears, and the epatazh form of the work becomes its content. But not only that. Today, it is not working, expressive, aesthetic techniques and tools based on the use of focus fiziologizma - in the court of 2007, not 1977. This epatazh no one could have epatirovat, he became accustomed, gradually becoming part of the cultural rules. So why all this at the exhibition - it is not entirely clear. Moscow banned the artists in 2006, different, mechanically forbidden, that's exhibition was a different, formally united.

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However, if someone seems to be the fetus is not зрел and does not suit the concept of the exhibition, according to which the work selected by the criterion of failure of internal censorship qualification arts councils and directors of museums, Does this mean that the opening of the exhibition was a mistake? Far from it. Once again, it is a local, tusovochnoe, subkulturnoe phenomenon. Generally speaking, the exhibition is not for the general public as well, and avant-garde art as such. So it was, and it will come true. So why this private art phenomenon widely given the importance of public events? In its local arts and social niche exhibition, it is appropriate, inappropriate to only increase the magnitude of the phenomenon, to apply it to the entire country, for all the local artistic culture and dismayed that. The Sacred and the laity: the problem of church-state partnership More recently, increased public debate about the introduction into school curricula Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture. In this case, the preferred Academician movement Georgievtsy, the Council of muftis of Russia. In fact, it is a choice of forms and decoration of our present and future lives, secular or clerical nature of the Russian state, the desirability or undesirability of church-state partnership. Witnessing today is the implementation of theatrical, production plan, decoration of the present and the future of Russian life lubochnymi Orthodoxy, autocracy and ethnic groups. It seems that as long as the interim guidance to the desired proportion of the known conventions chosen in 1913. Aesthetic appeal of our pre-Soviet, pre-revolutionary past, silver Age of Russian culture is evident. Great was the temptation to return to the last relatively quiet year in Russian history, as if it was not in our history, the horrors of the twentieth century. But these horrors were just prepared and persistent desire for power is not possible to change, save otzhivshuyu form of monarchical government, persistent resistance to the coming world of modernism, the search for moral ideal in the Middle Ages, Russia dopetrovskoy.

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Going forward, looking back, it is difficult, no path under my feet, so just stumbled, losing the direction of fall history. And for 1913 years and decades to come is quite apocalyptic. Today we seem to be moving towards a new high style posleputinskoy era, by analogy with the latest high-style, 30 of the last century. It is still vaguely mereschatsya front in black and yellow banners of imperial, pre-revolutionary military uniforms, tasty crunchy snow under yunkerskim boots, life with the sound of the king's anthem God save the king, decorated parades fizkulturnikov, sirech Olympians on Red Square. Message to the imperial pre retro, including the close churchgosudrstvennoe partnership may not be the last opportunity to express the power used, to show the city and the world new and old at the same time, pre-Soviet, державность and power in Russia. To what extent the aesthetics of the new / old will be able to combine great style with democracy, an open question. Style severely affects the political process, pushing the country if not to the autocracy, then framed the constitutional forms of the Orthodox monarchy. Monarchy in modern Russia? It sounds almost like a delirium delirious patient. That is the delusional vision, because pozavcherashnih flowering ideologies have the right sign of the beginning of the agony yesterday's ideas. This explains their delusional, delirious nature ... Revive obsolescent ideology can not be nothing in life is not invading a fateful moment in the development of ideas, but as a creature of the same subject revive a dead ideology. Because attempts Galvanization ideologies always only convicts of their final mertvost . Yes and no return in history, neither in life do not, traditionalism, including its religious performance, away material. But artificial renaissance traditionalism is not only absurd and inevitably comical, but also directly destructive. Regarding absurdistskih, comic consequences of such policies, it will not give me the pleasure to note the following. If the church hierarchy and the public seek to merge to the State, to make the church the first among equals, hlopochut 182

the introduction of Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture in school and dream of a revival of the monarchy, it is necessary to understand the investigation and possible implementation of such aspirations and dreams, in the also for the ROC. If the church will play an equally important role in public life, as in the Soviet period of our history has played the CPSU, the State will be taken for the management structures of the church seriously. And it is not important, as government will be called - the Holy Synod, or the Office of Religious Affairs The Church has all chances to be caught in the external governance. If pofantazirovat about the possible overbearing personalities in these structures, the first possible candidate could be, for example, the best manager of Russia, distinguished me AB Chubais, the more that the reform of UES draw to a successful conclusion and a new large front works in business is not yet visible. And as his next possible receivers, why not consider the candidacy of a charming and no less esteemed by me, KA Sobchak? Maybe these personalities did not cause little enthusiasm in church circles, but it remains the world's harmony, it is a kind of divine irony. If you leave it in brackets, the clerical church-state policy would have not comic but tragic. The investigation is the main thing - the destruction of the Russian state. Russia is still not a mature nation state, but remnants of the Russian / Soviet empire, a country where the historical territory of the three world civilizations, the three world religions. Russia is not mono-Poland, where the clerical policy is supported by an ethnically homogenous mass traditionalists. In Russia there are traditionalists, too, but they historically belong to different ethnic groups and religions. The most terrible things that can be done in a historical cultural and religious heterogeneity, this heterogeneity, INAC to make visible to the child draw the line between human beings on the basis of religion. This mental divide society on the border of a stranger-but more so mental, invisible division has all chances to become visible, otverdet in the new state borders. As a patriot I think Russia needed to impede such developments. 183

Poland, as well, and other Eastern European countries, including Russia save more than in Western Europe, the degree of commitment to religious and cultural traditionalism through clear, but often hidden, anticommunist resistance. Such struggled with this, the idea of struggling with ideas. We are together missed most of the twentieth century, missed the creation of a consumer society, the transition of human aspirations of the delirious world of secular and religious ideologies in the world of material dostizhitelnoy the consumer's life. But the consumer society and mass culture have a powerful dream traditionalists, and in today's France, as in Russia, the number votserkovlennyh people, especially among young people, is a few percent. This indifference to religion of the bulk of the population absorbed by earth people, material deprivation, playing in the society of consumption, pervasive influence of popular culture, the products of Hollywood and MTV, stores, Conserve Russia in its present borders. All that is destroying the religious indifference - is destroying the Russian state. If you speak very simply, creativity Petrosian and TV House two and so on. - Strengthens the state within its present borders. Introduction Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture, the increasing influence of religious ideologies and practices on the lives of individual regions and the state as a whole - is destroying the state, knowingly makes bleak prospects for our future. Church-state partnership, dreams about the monarchy and attempted to put into schooling Fundamentals of Orthodox culture is not tactical but strategic mistakes. This is the only realistic way to destroy the country for its performance dramatically superior to all other risks, including those emanating from the separatist movements in the North Caucasus. Perhaps the proponents of this Project is to stop and think again? These errors are superimposed on a basic misunderstanding of their place in a changing world, the reluctance of institutional integration in European structures, the search for self, third ways, the unwillingness of the political elite of Russia to give up with the mentality of the imperial heritage. 184

Literature 1. Sasaki K, Aesthetic antiurbanisticheskoy culture of life in Japan / / Directions. M.: IFRAN., 2001. S. 166-187. 2. Platonov SF, Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII century / / Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII centuries. Boris Godunov. M.: Bogorodsky printer, 1999. S. 21-142. 3. Dostoevsky FM, Demons / / Full. Assembly. Op.: 30 tons Т.10. L.: Nauka, 1974. S.198-199. 4. Poisons VA, And yet, you can understand the mind of Russia Russia: transforming society / / Ed VA poisons. M: Canon Press C, 2001. S. 9-20. 5. Guzhva I., absolution / / Expert, № 25. 2001. S. 14. 6. Afanassiev JN, Dangerous Russia: Traditions samovlastya today. Moscow: Russian State Humanitarian University, 2001. 432 pp. 7. Samodurov Yu, Last word canary / / Moscow News 04-10 March 2005, № 9 (1276). P.18. 8. Sasaki K, Aesthetic antiurbanisticheskoy culture of life in Japan / / Directions. M.: IFRAN., 2001. S. 166-187. 9. Platonov SF Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII century / / Moscow and the West in the XVI-XVII centuries. Boris Godunov. M.: Bogorodsky printer, 1999. S. 21-142. 10. Stepun FA, Thoughts on the Russia // Stepun FA Compositions. M.: ROSSPEN 2000. S. 201-424. III. The Russian State: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Discussion on the prospects personalistskogo treatment in Russia was pressing, sometimes you get the feeling that all we are in the area of historical bifurcations. A few hide position, the expected genre of scientific publication, feeling of human passions, emotions and future participants in these events. 185

Naturally, depending on their own picture of peace, the panellists answer, with varying degrees of conditionality was gravitating towards the two main poles of sense: yes, inevitable, and no - avoid, or even we are already historically obsolete, all the end of the traditional Russian system . Effect of outdated ideology. I'll start with the article B. Mezhueva The Russian state can only be a combination of ideokratii and democracy. The position of the author is not tied to the dominant pole patriotism or liberalism, it is located somewhere between them. As my own position rather tends to a pole of liberalism, something in the text of B. Mezhueva my thoughts completely tune, something that comes from Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality, no. I am quite nice reflections on the author technical nature of the Russian state in its traditional autocratic-bureaucratic model, when technical calculation replaces political choice. When the technical nature of becoming almost all bureaucratic positions of power, there is the delegation of full political responsibility at the top, at the level of president. I agree that this is a fragile political system is totally dependent on energy and other personal properties of the first person in the public administration system, the traditional autocratic-bureaucratic model of a dysfunctional, it does not have the resources necessary to samoremonta and can break down almost overnight, as the experience of the revolutions of 1917 and 1991. I completely agree with the point B. Mezhueva that today we are in some mezheumochnom, inertial condition between authoritarianism and free political competition. We now have situational, only reacts to external stimuli governance. We see the desire of the authorities to avoid uncertainty, short-term response to internal and external stimuli, the reluctance to make a binding choice. This however is not entirely a conscious choice makes the action in the field of domestic and foreign policy into a set of mutually exclusive provisions, declared in an effort for sure, instead of the full range of possible future decisions. However, in recent years, quite clearly has a choice in favor of kvaziimperskogo development, which naturally requires a certain ideology. The traditional path of development is 186

closer to home, instinctively, as it reproduces itself, acquire semantics of new / old ideological oposredovany. The diagnosis of current state of Russian statehood and the proposed B. Mezhuevym, to a certain extent, resonates with my position, but more significant differences begin. First of all, I do not agree with the author that Russia is an independent civilization. I, as well as a number of other participants in the debate, I'm convinced that Russia is part of European civilization. Of course, that every European country has its own individuality, in a sense different from one another. Our uniqueness rather than in Orthodoxy, and in the amount of occupied territory, geographical deepening in Asia. We are Europe than, for example, included in this year's European Orthodox Bulgaria and Romania, where the influence of eastern culture where more visible than in Russia. Civilization we represent Europe in Asia, Europe, expanding geographically and culturally to North America and Japan. Thanks to Russia, it potentially becomes a small tip of Asia, in Heartland - land, have a strong impact on world events. Our European identity was natural since the inception of the Russian statehood. Major features of our historical past is not a special, than, for example, in Spain. But based on the relatively long-standing Arab conquest and the relatively close frankistskogo government of Spain, one of European civilization does not exclude. Talking about our civilization alone, based on only a unique geographical location and size of occupied territory, it is not possible. They are unique, but claims to civilizational particular can not be justified. On a separate Orthodox civilization do not have to talk too. If such allegations were based on reality, to an alliance with Russia, not the EU, sought to have the Orthodox states of Europe. But they want the European Union and NATO, leaving Russia in the civilized alone. A strong movement in this direction is observed in Ukraine, as a vector of the political attraction of Belarus fragile today. Russia - part of Europe, even irrespective of whether with the Europeans themselves. They are today's willingness or unwillingness to include our country into European structures does not change the situation dramatically - included in 187

the historic tomorrow. There is no need to demand from the European Union and the history of the immediate integration steps, all the time. For half a century of history and even a century is not that for people. Home - to choose the way of approaching, and not delay this development. I believe that Russia is institutionally integrated into the European structures is inevitable, the question just in time and that the country will be the time to represent a geographically. Here, see two main options. The first is the consolidation of democratic institutions, development of innovation economy and civil society. Then we have all chances to take the path of convergence, and then the integration with European structures in the present composition and boundaries. And the second option. It is slightly longer and much painful for contemporary historical events, destructive to the preservation of territorial states. In the case of traffic on this historical journey Russia fairly quickly going through the third stage of deconstruction of the empire, and in such a small, truncated form can easily become part of the united Europe, as part of our future political and military will be in The Hague. Barbarians at the Gate Something about what needs to be done to implement the second option, described a conservative journalist D. Volodihin article Russia needs an autocratic monarchy, somewhat mitigated several representative institutions. He explicitly said that the Orthodox and imperial Russia, a country where any level of political power, no serious business should not be tackled without sovetovaniya with spiritual power, without the blessing of the patriarch, bishop, priest. I believe that nothing in the said D. Volodihinym serious matter or not last long, because of the lack of state and the territory, which could extend such concerted action. Using Orthodoxy as state ideology, and the Orthodox Church as the body ideokraticheskogo will accelerate the deconstruction of the third stage of empire, when the country no longer exist the last inotsivilizatsionnye, inoreligioznye regions. Not the fact that in this, fortunately still hypothetical, the situations they are not followed by the Far East, Khabarovsk, Siberia possible. 188

I believe that within the boundaries of the Moscow principality, that when you use these recipes for public administration left of the modern Russian state, to consult and obtain the blessing, it is possible. Just do not think that this kind of geopolitical reset inokulturnyh, inokonfessionalnyh territories can be painless for the contemporaries and the participants of the events, he probably will remind the classical decay of continental empire. The disintegration of blood-borne and soil. In other words, the choice is simple. Either a large, multi-country in its present borders, but without the primacy and guidance Orthodoxy, a population with a considerable proportion of indifference refers to his faith, a country is small, a slight, small by the standards of history, time, and the supremacy of all possible priorities among the Orthodox. D. Volodihin designs utopia degenerate into antiutopiyu. He sees the national association on the basis of a samostiynogo supposedly everything in history is not like the fourth path Russian conservatism. But the stories had already been a special way to the national-socialist and fascist regimes in Europe last century. All have been developed theoretically, and even translated into the historical practice of European totalitarian regimes, you only have to adapt other people's ideas to the Russian reality, the other pack them. From old Europe conservative revolutionaries can recall the work of Moeller van den Broek, Carl Schmitt, Ernst Young ... Matches old, European, and the new Russian conservative thinking well-defined and unambiguous. Thus, according to conservative A. Moeller van den Broek, Third Reich (state German socialism) is antithesis of western liberalism, and the Eastern Bolshevism. And Carl Schmitt believed that only the social vseedinstvo unlimited state can provide the most valuable thing a man - his physical existence (survival in the terminology of D. Volodihina). Finally, the Ernst Jung in 1927 published a very popular in the Third Reich work The rule of sub. Jung considered and rejected the political order of the Weimar Republic and made its main provisions of the state. In his view, the Weimar state led to power disabled, is not individualistichnyh liberals, while 189

suppressing the spiritual and moral elite of Germany. Only conservative revolution in a position to destroy the rule of sub-and liberalism . Under the conservative revolution Jung understood the restoration of all basic laws and values, without which a person loses the connection with nature and God and can not establish the true order. Equality must be replaced by internal values and social beliefs - faith in the justice of a hierarchical society, mechanical elections - the organic principle fyurerstva (vozhdizma), bureaucratic coercion - the responsibility of the true inner self, the massive luck - the right of people's identity . So D. Volodihin and others Patriotic orientation in their theoretical findings are likely to rely on a solid base istochnikovedcheskuyu conservative revolutionaries, prepared the ideological ground for the coming to power in the German National Socialists. With all possible reservations, D. Volodihina timely article in the genre antiutopii-warning. The author dreams of the impossible zigzag stories - neotraditsionalistov last victory, which may take the form of ethnic fascism associated with the authoritarian, imperial history and the social and cultural tradition. This Russian fascism or national socialism, there can only be a mock copy of his Italian and German counterparts. It can be decorated in garments Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality, perhaps new paganism. Despite the difference of opinions and assessments made during the discussion, the general feeling of disturbing. He was well-known Russian historian Alexander Yanov: barbarians at the gate. Barbarians strong their faith, a desire at all is to realize prigrezivshuyusya utopia willingly sacrifice her strangers and their lives. They are strong insensitivity to the experience of others, Barbarians ready to repeat and repeat the experiments on an authoritarian and over the country until more of the country something to be. With a purely mythological thinking, they do not perceive the historical patterns, each time discovering the history again, seeing it as a random coincidences pile. The experience of the Third Reich, they, of course, the decree, but twelve years of its existence are perceived as a historical accident, rather than as inevitable. Then why not try to carry out close to the spirit of the project in 190

Russia, of course, strictly orthodox and autocratic setting. That they were only twelve years, and our Empire led by the emperor would be exactly millennium, it would be like outside of physical time in the space-time mythical. But in today's situation far all is not lost, there are different versions of events: from the mass anti-fascist movement to intensify the struggle for power itself, the revitalization of its liberal, intelligentskih forces, people in power who can not clearly answer the question of colleagues - in which Regiment served? . Completely agree with the idea D. Trenin about a possible intensification of those forces, which now serve only liberal regime decor ... Fashizatsiya country, certainly not in the interests of the majority of them. Until these people are little aware of the real threat of fascism, but very soon it will understand . Uncomfortable questions The discussion of the prospects personalistskogo regime in Russia can not but note the article Igor Yakovenko. In particular, it sets itself and the participants of the discussion questions from the answer to that depends not only the future of Russian statehood, but also our own future. First of all, what kind of crisis we are experiencing? This could be one of the crises of development, and then breaking it, and may be the last crisis of the historical impasse of which see only the prospect and the destruction of the withdrawal of a subject. If you interpret the crisis that is happening now to us, as a crisis of historic impasse, you should adhere to settle Russia prescriptions emanating from the Orthodox-Conservative camp. By following them, it is possible that has been making the same historical mistakes in the end skukozhit the territory of the Russian state to the borders of the Moscow principality, according to its size and population for transformation, a convenient candidate for the institutional incorporation of the European Union. The road has historically possible, but my enthusiasm is not disturbing. This is the path through the destruction, through decay, I quite agree with the thesis I. Yakovenko that Russian Orthodoxy, in principle, is not linked with the imperative of dynamization, is unable to effectively meet the challenges of time. 191

If, however, to interpret what is happening today as the crisis of development, it is incomplete crisis changes associated with present and future attempts at democratic harmonization of regional and ethnic interests, constructing an asymmetric federation, the development of democratic institutions, civil society. The relationship of society and government Another text, which I can not respond, was the paper I. Diskin Today is the first time in Russian history, there are prerequisites for a competitive market and political democracy. Agreeing with such a question in general, suggesting it is a real democratic development of Russia, I can not agree with some particular. In the new Russia , as welfare has become a major issue of social justice, equitable sharing of the national cake (I. Diskin). How is it, because even in very recent 90 years, millions of our fellow citizens rely solely on our own forces, and this strategy has become vital for them individual rational choice behavior (I. Diskin). They did not expect anything from the state, moreover, that it did not prevent to be against them as if it was not. Naturally, these feelings were and are primarily for small business. 90 years have been for millions of people the unique experience of living without a state, where it was not necessarily run in the Belovode abroad, when it took itself. In recent years, the state returned. This return of the state, coupled with high commodity prices of Russian exports to traditionalists rekindled hopes for the return of state paternalism. Here earned a law split. I can not understand why the successful people New Russia, that is, those 25-30% as opposed to traditional societies that have made a purely individualistic choices based on self-care to all of a sudden the category of justice in section of the national pie, and the problem of social justice in general? I think that the issue of social justice primarily concerned with the losers in the reforms traditionalists, and it responds to their aspirations political force, which put forward the idea of social justice as a major new item on the political agenda. (E. Diskin) Appeal to the authorities today, the most inefficient of traditionalism, it has a very long time may not be instrumental, technological, capable of achieving the 192

planned goals. The apparent shift from modernism to premodernu based on flirting with a traditional society, preserve itself not only on the mental level, but also in the economic practices of traditionalists. And ethical support for such action is possible mainly by the Russia premoderna, but not the 25-30% of our fellow citizens (E. Diskin), were able to effectively adapt to change last one and a half decades. Now, to preserve national control over the resource. Yes, this control was maintained, was retained control over the economy as a whole, unlike the former European socialist countries, this control is almost completely lost. This from I. Diskin can not accept. It is worth noting just the price of Russian society has paid for maintaining national control over the economy. We know that in 90 years of business entities by right or wrong try to minimize the tax deductions to budgets of all levels, resulting in social support for pensioners, the disabled, mothers and children, medicine and education to a minimum. The price of preservation of property in the hands of local capitalists and the state the people the children who died before the old people, millions of homeless and others in the same spirit. We have kept in the national hands of the economy, but once again undermined the population. We retain control over the economy and territory, but it will work on the conservation of living people, different language, religion and culture. This is a price issue, and the price already paid. And there, in the Eastern European countries, new foreign owners pay taxes, and such a failure in the financing of social programs was not, was not so obvious, and the processes of depopulation, a sharp deterioration in the quality of society. But what is done is done. As for the future, then who is hampered and continue to follow today's practice - to Ipoh to sell minority stakes to foreigners. It is traditional practice for Russia - Russia's mineral wealth, Western technology. Do not harass each other's world conspiracy and the CIA reports. Knowing the real situation it is necessary, but do not have to boggle himself and frighten others. There is no need to assist the Russian authorities to drive a in corner, in an 193

increasingly shrinking corridor of opportunity - while high prices for the products of our commodity exports is fateful for it not happening. Y. Diskin believes that the process of transfer of religious property from the Institute for Orthodox intellectuals Russian government lost public support of all ethical, meeting of the intelligentsia kvazireligioznuyu intolerance, lack of cooperation, the refusal of dialogue with the authorities, not otherwise see as a betrayal ideals . Not having the propensity to intolerance kvazireligioznoy agree with the author that all of this in our history was, it was power and exclusion, the refusal of dialogue, were populist, esery, while in Soviet times, enemies of the people, and tried to live on lies dissidents ... There were people opposing power in word and deed, but that it was for power and who is a party to the latest possible closure of the dialogue? We know that this neadaptivnaya the power of inertia, shape, lack of decisions and the will to respond adequately to the challenges of the time, until the end was way samoischerpaniya. In Empire, the Romanovs, it has exhausted itself not moving towards a desirable society, the republican form of government, ending its existence revolution of 1905-1907 years and the participation in the First World War on the side of a republican France. Surprising ease revolution in February 1917 the first revolution was the result of the desire, which is shared by several generations of Russian educated society. It can not be so prolong the inevitable, a revolution can not let door policy of internal, it break in the window of foreign policy, it will still come if it was a historic time and historical time neadaptivnoy power - gone. On the stump rotted and the USSR, rotted before being bloodless, free, I wish the participants of the events samoraspada. It is a separate big topic, I note only that the past and its historical time. And the dialogue and the power of society in the era of Gorbachev had already saved could not - too many have been in the history of the USSR and blood was too inefficient Soviet economy. Today, dialogue between the authorities and society is needed, and this can not but agree with J. Diskin, but it can only be mutual. 194

Instead afterword. Civil society and power: from confrontation to dialogue Recently, in a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, there is significant economic growth, Russian companies are becoming major players of the international market, increasing the capitalization of Russia, rising incomes of Russians. On the other - trimmed public information space, especially the federal TV channels, the system is organized managed democracy. Power and society is less talk and stop to hear each other. Their communication more confined to the mix Marches dissenting and the OMON. That's bad for everyone, and for the democratic prospects of Russia in the first place. It is necessary to stop the confrontation. Today, power in Russia is guided rather than ideals, but interests. When it comes to managing hundreds of billions and trillions of dollars in the long run, none of the persons concerned in this pragmatic process would not infringe. The key to the political elite, including people from the uniformed services, not so much planting in the country of ideals, Orthodoxy, autocracy and the people, but rather build their own economic capacity and the largest Russian goskompany. This in a sense, pragmatic government. It must deliver to the West and East oil and gas, it needs to earn real money. This is what limits it to the self, it can allow yourself a lot, but not all. It may, for example, sterilize public information space and point trimmed of his political opponents, but can not go on a serious, binding of solidarity, alliance with Iran or China. The reason for these restrictions in the ratio of profits and losses in the largest possible cost. And now restrict democracy, build it managed, simulation option in many ways to maximize profits, maximize the capitalization of Russian goskompany. Today, on the low startup society and economy, with all reservations and costs, including the moral order, it turns out.

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Tomorrow, when the structure of property ownership changes, and in her capacity as strategic investors include large western companies, and GDP per capita pereshagnet magical figure of five thousand dollars, the situation will change. Then in the same order to maximize profits can not be claimed operetochnaya, and real democracy as an instrument at a certain stage of development of economy and society contribute to further economic growth, the capitalization of Russia, and the population will not be pressing economic incentives to change the power on the left or right extremists. Is this policy the authorities with democracy? From an Islamic democracy and Soviet might and compatible, but not with classical Western-style democracy. Nevertheless, today we live in a historic transition between the authoritarian Soviet regime and the modern Western-type society. Authorities can speed up or slow down the process, but it did not stop him in power. Taking into account the peculiarities of our history, the ongoing transition option today is not very optimistic, but not the most terrible. Limitations of democracy affects not only liberals, but left, the heirs of the Soviet Union. Efforts of the current government there has been a consistent process of de-communization Russia. And of course, and shall be shut off artificially electoral base of the Communist Party (Fair Russia), removed the communist symbols in the army. Left all stripes extruded into marginal plane. The danger of Communist revenge eliminated completely, even though in 1996, Zyuganov was very close to victory in the presidential elections in Russia. I think that comes from the Left is a serious danger for the present and the future of the country, and allow them to power is not desirable, at least at the federal level. This unwillingness to share political and economic power to those who are on the left and right flank, and is due to the use of administrative resources and manipulative political strategists. Naturally, the most significant part of this reluctance to share power is the desire to preserve the integrity of administrative rent control over cash flows in the Russian economy. That is the interest of power conservation has a private component. 196

There apparently paradoxical and ambivalent situation internally. Of the particular interests of political stability grows, exhibited severe defensive units in relation to potential rivals, including the left and right radicals. The latter fact makes this meaningful policies, designed to prevent the accession to power in the transition from Soviet authoritarianism to democracy, left and right radicals, to prevent a new Russian revolution. Only when the Russian company will become part of golden billion, when the country will build a society of consumption, when the average Russian will be rich, then vnesistemnye, leftist and ultranationalist forces cease to be dangerous for the country. And while they are deadly. But ironically, today, left again in favor of the part of the Russian intelligentsia. Limonov is involved in marches disagree, as well, and fellow Udaltsov, leader Avangard Red Youth. I wonder how you can fight for democracy together with the heirs of Lenin, Stalin, why not fight against the terrible power and the democracy to the heirs of Hitler, Maluta Skuratov, John Kronstadt, and other well-known in the history of the defenders of democracy. Maybe someone from the Russian politicians liberal camp likes to associate with the avant-garde red youth and limonovtsami, even combined, it is their choice. Destroy - not to build in street riots, and even more so in the revolution has a fair share of romance and adrenaline. But the romance of the revolution have to pay too much, not only the direct participants, but contemporaries of events. Revolution devastating in its results, and Russia is fully exhausted its revolutionary limit. This does not mean that people on the extreme wing of Russian politics is not necessary to speak. But the death uchuvstvovat with them in a broad political coalition, with the ultimate goal is to obtain state power. God forbid all of us and the history of the success of such a revolution of the company. There are too many marginal, yet earn too few able-bodied citizens of Russia - workers, peasants and intellectuals. So what political forces select power in such developments - who knows. One can only assume that these people will be neither democracy nor the 197

more liberal. At best for the country if they are liberal Democrats. All other options are worse. At present, with a predominance of free elections in the country economically insolvent people have a risk of coming to power, destructive populists and radicals. You can hold free elections with equal access various, including radical political forces, the federal TV channels today, but then you might think and the introduction of a legislative anti insurance, remembering, for example, elections in the third and the fourth State Duma. As we know from history, in the early twentieth century Russia antiekstrimistskoy such insurance was a serious property qualification. I am not concerned about free choice, let us say, the people Rublevka, which, as a rule, a major asset and a good education. They could hear the extent of any television treatment and rebuke Udaltsova Limonov and without risk to their political choices, mainly determined by their economic interests. They are, by definition, can make a lot of wisdom and sorrow, ie knowledge of the political and economic life. This knowledge of the vast array of negative information about living in a country not particularly affect their choices as voters make up more to diversify their investments and life plans. But I am concerned about the manner in which the right of force, namely, with all possible reservations, right-wing forces are now in power, could win the election, to get a parliamentary majority, if their policies are not consistent with the current economic interests of the majority of the population of Russia. United Russia is not only a party of power, but also the right party, slightly more diluted populism ATP. Making people vote against their visceral, left on the political and economic interests is very difficult, and the victory of right-wing, sirech party in power, under such conditions may be largely a victory of administrative resources in the coupe with modern political strategists. What then is the situation in Russia is similar to the situation in the Islamic world, where attempts to hold relatively free elections led to the threat of Islamist victory. And with the threat of the secular elites of Muslim countries such as 198

Turkey, dealt in different ways, both who can. How to solve the problem of its Islamist Turkish army, we are well aware not only of history. Turkish military had to use more traditional, more stringent methods of social control, because too much power of religious traditions, too, by the standards of Western countries, poor Turkish peasants. The Russian authorities have the situation somewhat similar to something different. The situation in Russia is easier, but still too poor by the standards of developed economies and democracies Russian peasants, workers, and Public Employment, they still may not be full players consumer society. They still need information and anesthetic protection from the horrors surrounding his real life, look at the world through the pink glasses first and second federal channels. The real world in which these people lived, not very friendly to them, economic growth in the country yet geographically located in major cities, especially in mega-cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. A lot of Russians must be given not only the physical possibility to reach a better future, but also help break down psychologically, to wait for the spread of economic growth in breadth and depth of. From the history of Russia and other countries, we know that the inability to realize their potential in the field of the Earth, pushes the material life of man to the care of the validity of the scope of deviant practices, and the scope sverhmaterialnogo, acculturation to the world of ideas, less secular, more religious. And he and a solution destructive for the individual and society. Destructive practices as deviant behavior, such as such as alcoholism and drug addiction, and treatment of spiritual Opium secular and religious ideologies. In this context, it becomes clear federal policy of broadcasting channels, which, according to expert estimates, soothes, entertains and besot mass audience. We see a conscious attempt to replace undesirable forms of socially deviant behavior failed the citizens of Russia virtual world of mass culture. This is a form of drug anesthesia unsuccessful social strata of society, minimizing their protest potential, obstacles to the realization of the real social conditions of its own 199

existence. Every evening, the federal TV channels make them vaccinated against regular participation in the Russian revolution, minimizing the possibility of such a revolution. The mission was to prevent a potential revolution in strategic perspective, does not very good authority, if not more pleasant, then at least more understandable. In the revolutionary context can be understood and enhanced television anesthesia part of Russian society. Let the best man in the street will be near the customer than the fiery revolutionary. If the man in the street wake up, slezet with needles television virtual reality, a few do not seem to anybody. Strasheny Russian revolt, senseless and merciless. Man in the street, which is at once revolutionary, remember everything. He remember the authorities and the social good fellow, the disintegration of the great powers - the USSR, the value of the property separation in society, their own unenviable economic situation, the absence of the great national idea, the destruction of traditional relations in society. Because we all need to be more careful in speeches and actions, no longer throw stones glass house called Russia. In their political actions and the public and the authorities should take into account the fundamental volatility of the current design of the Russian statehood. The fundamental cause of the instability of a minimal political participation of citizens in political life, even those who supported and defended the new power for most of the post-Soviet period. As at first sight paradoxically, the internal fragility of modern Russian statehood due to the almost exclusive reliance on the power chinovnye, including the power structures are not saving in a critical situation. In this regard, at least remember the experience of the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is so hard for Russia to repeat traditional errors. Power is the most weakened structure of Russian statehood, localized and demoralize virtually all segments of civil society that could support her in a difficult minute. Now she hopes only for the officials and people in uniform. The Russian state has become too fragile, and this guilt and sin of power. 200

This situation requires the company not to make sudden movements, attempting to break what might be broken. From history we know that the destruction of statehood adversely affect the individual and society. Therefore, it is necessary not to break, but to build. Not included in the clinch tight and destructive confrontation, but to support the possible forms of cooperation, even such an ambivalent and simulation as the Public Chamber. In this way you can influence not only in words but also in the affairs of government. We need to try to stop the confrontation of liberal society and the authorities, learn to listen not only to themselves but also other, to move from monologue to dialogue with each other. Back from the confrontation and dialogue - deliriously difficult task, impossible in the absence of a party, but the dialogue between them is the only way to lift the emerging civil conflict, an effective mechanism to strengthen both civil society and the Russian state. Literature 1. Herster-Filipps U., Conservative policy in the last period of the Weimar Republic / / The types of power in the comparative-historical perspective: The problem-thematic collection. Vol. 3. INION Russian Academy of Sciences, 1997. 2. Shtaff I., By the notion of political theology in Carl Schmitt / / Type of power in the comparative-historical perspective: The problem-thematic collection. Vol. 3. INION Russian Academy of Sciences, 1997. 3. Yanov AL, Russia and Europe in 3 books. Volume Two. Riddle Mykolaivska Russia. 1825-1855. M.: The new chronograph, 2007. 504 pp. Applications Dialogues with the actors of Russian science and policy

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Dialogue with Alexander Itshokinym The author, unlike besfamilnogo and somehow sounding pejoratively Alika, who does not want to recognize a fifth column moral aggression against Russia and the West's defender of the charges in the adulation of its indistinct mumbling about the need clean john, its participation and complicity in this virtual Colon fully acknowledged. Yes, dear Alexander Abramovich, not all, regrettably, quiet and well in our homeland. Yes, three or even four hundred years, as the start of cursed nizkopoklontsy, and as the righteous and has a very sacred sovereignty rationale is not propalyvala ridges Russian society and culture, when prorezhivaya, and when granted under the root of this foreign (European) wind entered weed, but he - here as here. This resistance to authority, the ability to capture more and more segments of the social and cultural spheres, including at times the very scope of the authorities, says a lot. First of all, that Russia, as in other developed countries in modernizing their vesternizirovannye elite, and this is usually the most a young, dynamic, educated and successful part of society. During the several centuries of Russian history, power has repeatedly attempted to restrict or even physically destroy these newly Europeans and to the expression of OE Mandelshtam evropeyanok tender. As an example of the latter begs the example of Lenin, and later even more classical Stalinist inquisition in society and culture, when Western media started in all spheres of life, and culture in general, tried to physically break in order to solve the problem of Westernization Russia once and for all . No zapadnicheskoy intelligentsia - there is no problem. However, even fans of the Russian socio-cultural tradition, power can not complain. Action built on the same lines - there is no clergy, peasantry, nobility, almost Philistinism cities - no problem. But to the surprise and dismay of the authorities and parts of society, the effort to seat the other part, zymosis zapadnizma not eradicated. Imprisoned under Stalin little, not to the end, not until the seventh tribe, and not every second, that's ..., Stalin to have no, When Stalin 202

had the procedure, the prices twice a year reduced ... Such a simple speech from the mouth of the Soviet Rights can be heard until the participants were alive generation of this great historical drama, but you can hear today, with a known percentage of nostalgia about bylom imperial power and greatness of the Soviet Union. Strongly outplay and obtain new representation and the rehashing of bismarkovsy slogan - guns instead of butter. The old slogans about the interpretation of the main leaders / ideologues kvazivostochnoy this despotism, which is rapidly become in the bolshevik Russia / USSR - The greatness and power of the native state - above all, sooner think of home, and then about himself and similar have been inherent for many Soviet citizens who have the primary socialization and inkulturatsiyu 30-40-ies of XX century. Yes, we have to admit that for Westerners Western Civilization is not so much for something specific, institutionalized, but rather embodied proper, that is the place for the Westerners to a state of things, almost the embodiment of earthly paradise. But the most brutal / tough state become that of A. Itshokinu, one can make rashristanny and anarhichny Russian people closer to the Western way of life not only in consumption, but also at work, take much less to maintain, as it does not want . I do not want to support any new Lenin (Ampilova, Tyulkina, etc.) nor the new Stalin, and even a more lightweight version, in the spirit of numerous discussion and encourage the Russian Pinochet. With respect to A. Itshokina important theme motivating people to work in the East and West, the following points. We believe that forced labor should only be economic. Shoot anyone unnecessarily, there is an old, rugged bony hand of hunger, while the power is needed only to the extent that it can perform police functions. A. Itshokin on the basis of the last ten-fifteen years, a controversial reform, accompanied, however, a radical reduction in the role of the state, concludes that the Russian people can not be made to work well, while respecting all the requirements of technology, without the severe coercion, almost under the threat of immediate execution. 203

Making the work for nothing or very little pay or not pay the state a large or small businessman of Russian people really impossible. Times of non-economic coercion to work in Russia irretrievably gone. Do not make work, but interested in working, turn rashristannogo Russian man in a successful consumer credit encumbered and dream of buying a new home and replace cash machines on a more prestigious and expensive foreign cars. Then kogotok stuck and the whole bird abyss. Successful consumer, accustomed to the high cost of living, debt-laden credit, seeks to supply live better tomorrow than yesterday, would cherish a wellpaid work, and rather quietly working to Western standards. This approval confirms the empirical experience in vysheoboznachennye years of liberal reforms in Russia, the experience of hundreds and thousands of successful companies, where labor productivity is close to the accepted, for example, in the West of Europe. Rashristan, drunk and less trembling in relation to their own health Russian (Russian) people from our history, the traditional socio-cultural practices in relation to him is quite sacred power of historical frustration. Let the country in large western companies, as was done in 90 of the last century, the countries of Eastern Europe, the company that will pay a relatively decent salary by Russian standards - will be (already there) and our people motivated to work. Give him a few thousand dollars per capita income per month - and you will get the ideal consumer and rapid economic growth. It should, however, recognize that not all people will, for various reasons, claimed the Russian part of the global (transnational) economic, not every individual will be able to intrinsically inherent characteristics of its integration. This conclusion of the process of natural selection, most of the still during the Soviet era, the final person to fit the Russian economy, passing from industrialism to postindustrializmu. Draconian measures non-economic coercion to work, which were widely circulated in the first thirty-forty years of the Soviet state, and in less pronounced form in the form of articles for the parasitism in the Soviet penal code, sending tuneyadtsev in jail and one hundred and first kilometer - all this is now 204

unnecessary . In other words, during the Soviet period, the major work on the modernization perekovke dogusudarstvennogo Russian natural person is completed, and the path of adapting it to the needs of the industrial economy passed. It is in the twenties, thirties and forties of the last century, zahlebyvayas own sweat and blood of our fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfather went to the mountain of industrial transformation, now that we pass over. Now, down from the mountain, is now easier, we already know how to play on their old (industrial) rules are now easier to learn a new (post). Meanwhile, more than anyone that no one today is not shot for the reluctance to work, but the process of segregation occurs spontaneously Russians more or less adaptive. Studied foreign languages, especially English, the leading computer software, know how to use the Internet, has received a good, preferably a basic science education is a vital energy - your life's chances of horizontal and vertical mobility, both domestically and outside the fast-growing. If all this does not, then the court does not, there is no in today's Russia, de facto, and most likely will not be for the foreseeable future, the welfare state. There is a permanent process of segregation of Russians in the relatively wealthy, educated, healthy and young with one hand and the relatively poor, the sick and less educated and young - on the other. In the modern Russian society, we have seen yesterday and today witnessed the rule of social Darwinism, but the time since the late 80's to end 90-ies of the XX century, most had not samoedskoy observation and reflection, but to work. A. Itshokin dihotomichnogo model works in the world, East and West. But Russia - this is not east, and what works in the east - is in our homeland is not as effective, if working at all. In addition, the mobilization mechanisms of noneconomic coercion to work, an ideological justification for its need is already dead, slave labor much less effective labor-free, focusing on personal improvement and achievement of higher living standards, the employee. Yes, Russia is not the West, individualistic life strategy still does not have a distribution, although the process is, and from our point of view, it neostanovim.

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Long live the way you, Alexander Abramovich deign to speak, fatty revolution, and would like to submit a fatty on the throne, and weedy people in the revolutionary extras. But here, alas, the fashion for pudge was the end of the Middle Ages, when the whole of Europe, at least at its western end, food was worth, but today, in the era of Ramstore, Metro, and food networks, many of whom is not limited to Moscow and St. Petersburg, but entered the province - food for humans working in a private company - not worth that, then talk about its owner. So, fatso, people fat Yet the metaphor, but the level and quality of consumer goods and services on top and bottom of the social scale, of course different, social inequality is ordinal values. Today around the world suffer from obesity rather representatives of low-income groups, eating cheap, quick food preparation, visitors McDonald's, rather than restaurants high kitchen. But social polarization so popular you have the eastern despotism was less? Less than it is in developed countries in Europe, but not in third world countries. And is this gap is due to the absence or presence of certain ethical constraints, the case quickly in another. This low level of Westernization, while increasing the level of income in the richest and the poorest level off somewhat. To do this, simply have to pass, that is to sell and resell the most important property of the Russian Western transnational corporations, as indeed did the political elites in Eastern Europe and, to some extent, Kazakhstan. As the experience of countries in Eastern Europe, poshedshih towards mass transfer ownership of transnational corporations, it has brought them much-needed volume and quality of investment, higher than the indigenous culture of production, taxes, and usually a higher level of wages. Moreover, since the transfer of ownership in the hands of foreign companies practically excludes the existence of Russian oligarchs, the social status, wealth polarization in the nation is not as great as in modern Russia, and, hopefully, yesterday, but today's Ukraine. In modern Russia is changing the very paradigm of socialization and inkulturatsii human masses, deposition of high culture comes through the high-

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cuisine restaurants, and by mass culture - through the glossy magazines, advertising, shopping, television and theater musicals. So, more westernization, western and more joint ventures, higher wages, as a natural way for the formation of an absolute majority of ploskogolovyh and zombirovannyh by definition A. Itshokina consumers. From our point of view - in the consumer power that they embody in their life practices modernize the expansion of Western civilization, zapadnizma general. This mass sytyh but dynamic over time, consumers will refuse to follow the national socio-cultural traditions, vybet from under the feet of all the soil from remaining out of work in different spheres of social theory and practice, not only marginalized in the marginal area of the field of ideology, but not able to consume comparable to the natural and the value of national, civilizational, religious custodians and patriots. Naturally, the latter most insulting, and that it serves as a material, in the spirit of Marxism, the reason that in many ways and gives rise to the observed heat of nationalism, religious intolerance in various parts of the non-world, including in Russia. Dialogue with Moses Kaganov The fate of Moses Samoilovich Kagan organically, but also surprisingly intertwined with the life of St. Petersburg. In 1924, when he moved from three parents from Kiev in the former capital of Russian Empire, the city was renamed at the beginning of the First World in Petrograd became Leningrad, and the new, post-Soviet Russia was again renamed to St. Petersburg. Three change during the life of one man, one generation, breaks the chain of social and cultural continuity, but also the preservation of architectural monuments, Neve, moist westerly winds Baltic ... The life of Moses Samoilovich held in this wonderful scenery, with a special atmosphere of the European city of Russia. So, from the author's reflection with regard to changing times and fertile spiritual aura city born of his book Grad

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Petrov in the history of Russian culture and The history of St. Petersburg from the foundation to our days. When reading his confessional book in memory of the poem comes trout breaks the ice, written in 1920 by another famous and talented Russian writer Petersburgers - Alexeyevich Mikhail Kuzmin. Then a new, Soviet Russia is just beginning, it has been blood umytaya but has not yet been petrified in concrete and bronze Stalinist version of Marxism-Leninism, with all the new science with the greatest difficulty punch, and his appearance was not only poses a risk to career but also to save the life of the creator. Moses Samoilovich Kagan - the inner freedom of man: he had not simply be a contemporary of the Soviet era, but his life, his scientific works to expand boundaries of the possible time of freedom, defending it against the Stalinist and post-cultural inquisition. He is one of those who were able to podtopit first, and then break the ice pseudo-dogmatic, ideological dogmatism, the release of the stifling effects of science and the country as a whole. This does not mean that MS Kagan in the Soviet period, his life was fiery revolutionary: he and his peers belong to a generation that has received a ticket in the wake of the Revolution, a generation, assuming that the humanistic values that directly and indirectly present in the Soviet ideology. We are mindful of the fact that MS Kagan belongs to a generation, a male half of which almost entirely destroyed on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. He fights under the Leningrad party, when their students Philology of the University to go into battle with the attacking German troops almost without arms. So the battle turned into a massacre, he was seriously injured Samoilovich, months spent in hospitals. Since then, more than sixty years, but he was party to the events and then remembers his dead friend, the reader is schemit heart of their heroism and overall ridiculous situation where the lack of organization and supply the front and rear swim massive sacrificial heroism almost unarmed people. I was writing a literary study of Eugene Onegin, years of study in graduate school, working at the Leningrad University. After Stalin's death in 1953 the 208

country gradually comes alive after the horror of repression, Khrushchev Thaw accompanied by the expansion of the external space of freedom, including in the sphere of science. Results of scientific debate has gradually lost the inevitability of a conviction for the less dogmatic members. But the relative freedom does not come by itself, all had to defend a new hard, suffering a serious pressure and obstruction by self-dogmatist. It should be said about that MS Kagan was a contemporary deployed IV Stalin ideological company against cosmopolitanism and adulation before inostranschinoy, launched a harassment and restrictions on the rights of the Jewish population of the USSR on the basis of nationality - a criminal practice, which is somewhat weakened form existed in the country until the late 1980's. The campaign included not only tighten and bring to the absurdity of ideological control of the NKVD, VKPB (b) of the Soviet society, but also the physical part of the repression against the party-machine business, doctors, scientists, teachers, as being, did not take place in the ranks Communist Party, which was beaten not only by their, ie party, but finished off the remains of Russia and received her spirit of the Soviet intelligentsia. MS Kagan has experienced the complexity and tragedy, evil eye of time. Saved work, teach, speak at conferences, write books and articles. Our preliminary results of the book stock, confessional stories of time and about himself, on the bright, brave and talented people with whom fate brought the author over many decades of his life, starting with the pre-war time. Of course, that in the not-too-voluminous material, we can not give here a complete list of persons who in some way represented in this book, but still try to list the names of scientists, writers, teachers, friends and colleagues to the author, who devoted selected essays books. This Vera Nikolaevna Poluboyarinova (Morozov), Jeremiah Isaevich Ioffe, Eliazar Krever, Ludo Gudiashvili, Joseph A. Silver, Vladimir Dnipro (Vladimir Davidovich Resnik), Ilya Nikolaevich Kuskov (Shmekker), George V. Stepanov, P. David Pritzker, Yakov M. Smolensky (Lieberman ), Fedor Aleksandrovich Abramov, Alexander N. Iliad, Lev Naumovich Kogan, Nicholas

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Zurabovich Chavchavadze, John Erhard, Heinz Plavius, Uli Kuhirt, Kurt Magrits, Efim Etkind Grigoryevich, Zinoviy Y. Korogodsky. But when you read the book before our eyes is not so much a memorialist, which all in the past, but also the image of our contemporary, active here and now human-creator. Today he Samoilovich Kagan and a lot of good works, only in the last ten years, came in light of his new research on the development of philosophical, cultural, aesthetic, art perspective. This, above all, Philosophy of Culture, Philosophical theory of value, Aesthetics as a philosophical science, Se man ..., the two Introduction to the history of world culture, we have already mentioned edition monograph Grad Petrov in the history of Russian culture . In Hamburg, was published monograph Mensch - Kultur - Kunst: Systcmanalytische Untersuchung, just came out in the light of Metamorphoses of existence and nonexistence, History of St. Petersburg from the foundation to our days. This impressive list continues by the published collections of articles - The systems approach and the Humanities and Art and Art Criticism. Reviewers attracts citizenship Moses Samoilovich, its participation in the restructuring, the response to the critical issues of our present life. This applies to counter continuing to this day our society attempts to impose a medieval ideology on the basis of orthodoxy, and education, in particular school, course Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture, which is a pre-Revolutionary remake Act of God. Playing with ghosts irrevocably past time distances us from the construction of efficient and effective in Russia. Can this game cause of a medieval past, dopetrovskoy Moskovia as a symbol of our bright future - we sincerely hope not. Nevertheless, these games are dangerous enough, in fact survived the temptation of international socialism, we, unlike the Germans, did not develop immunity against the temptations of national socialism, there is also no a priori exclusion of religious utopias - and now part of our society uncontrollably drawn into another appendix stories . And here we are in solidarity with MS Kaganov: The only consolation may be just what the historical process, as well as the lives of individuals, a course

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is not, and no spells of current priests, even with the support of politicians who are not able to return to humanity in the Middle Ages. We believe that for Russia the most important is to create a climate of tolerance for freedom of personal choice, the completeness of which suggests the possibility of rejection of the proposed use of the secular or religious megaprojects. We reserve the right to be a natural or scientific subjects, and to form their own picture of the world on the basis of scientific knowledge gained from the successive analytical procedures rather than on the basis of a priori no doubt the gift of faith. In fact, we are talking about preserving a traditional division: God gods, Caesar - Caesar's. In the new time in Europe, science and education relate to the sphere Caesar, and the well-known exceptions only confirm the rule. Retsenziruya book About time, about people, about myself, it is impossible not to say that it contains a lot of philosophical and cultural theoretical reflection, synthesis and conclusions. And chief among them is the following: The task of philosophy, which no other form of spiritual activity is not able to solve, is to reflect on the prospects for human development in the new century and millennium, and his arm that knowledge - scientific knowledge, rather than the irrational belief while the hypothetical knowledge available to us about the future . For this philosophy should be the achievement of scientific thought the last century - a systemic approach and synergetics. Human freedom - this is a great value. Because no saving pathetically monologues, dialogue should come to replace the monologue, the dialogue man with man, man and nature. New book of Moses Samoilovich Kagan About time. About people. About dialogizma full of spirit and humanity, the desire for the unity of nature, society, culture and people. On its pages are intertwined scientific quest, a symbolic meeting with people age, joy and family friendly communication, the change of seasons and decades, intertwine, creating a desire in the future neostanovimy flow of life.

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Dialogue with Alexander Akhiezer By reading new works AS Akhiezer, it should be noted, one sad fact between the writing and publication took place about ten years. This is critical for many short-term, pressing the text, which the roads on time, as soon as the egg to the day of Christ. Burning text quickly bad, losing the reader, at best, remains a memorial past. But there is another case. Published in a collection of A. Akhiezer work Specifics of Russian history, Holocaust in society and nature as a moral issue (on the historical experience of Russia), On the peculiarities of modern philosophizing. The View from Russia is not lost, and it is not unfortunate for a long time not lose its relevance and demand. What is unfortunate is that such a profound comprehension of the Russian socio-cultural realities, the new paradigm of social sciences in responding to the need of society to understand itself, its history, its possible future, at last, be relevant and in demand for many years and decades? Book by Alexander Samoilovich Akhiezer, which includes three large works, is devoted to the establishment, development and current state of Russian statehood in the situation of self, smoldering in the middle of people's lives and manifested in virtually all spheres of social and cultural life of the country of deep divisions. And this division is not actually started to split the church or the early historical times. He immanenten very nature of Russian life, immanenten Russian statehood. Summing up and somewhat giperboliziruya, we can say that the split - it is teleological idea of God and history in relation to Russia, a manifestation of its underlying intrinsic properties. And in terms of socio - split - the result of a lack of historical ability to rebuild the relevant historical subject of culture, respectively, changing conditions, the result of the lack of interpenetration of meanings split groups, weak dialogue, a basic consensus that the primary becomes an important issue in a large society. And yet the author provides detailed specifications of this division, its causes and consequences. The split sistemoobrazuyusch with respect to our historical past and present, we are afraid to say the future of our socio212

cultural traditions, so let me explain a great quote from the work of AS Akhiezer. The split took various forms: between the government and people, the spiritual and the ruling elites, the intelligentsia and the power, the intelligentsia and the people, between cultures and forms of communication between existing institutions, communities and their own attempts to improve the effectiveness of their functions, etc. it can occur between any parts of the elements of society. As a result of division, it appeared to adapt to different forms of socio-cultural pathology: high disruption, threatening to escalate into an irreversible slide towards disaster, the disruption of each (of) society, widespread diarchy, turns into mnogovlastie; lokalizm (tendency to collapse of the high society circuit in local worlds of different the extent of the regions to individual settlements, and emotionally integrated numerically small groups); atomization of society, lame solutions (a chain of decisions, where each subsequent decision to partly or completely cancels the previous) lack of survival for the ability to shape attitudes in accordance with the actual and potential changes in the functions, the desire solve the problem of the liberal-modernist, with the program and archaic forms of relations . Considering the problems of the history of Russia, the author explores the social and cultural underpinnings of Russian society and Russian power, and reveals the reasons for repeating the history of the country in the alternation of rises victorious sovereign and political disasters. Power saw his main task in the collection of tribute to the loss of their historical forms of the people. Society has become fine-grained nature, which does not allow him to unite, not born of a desire to unite in a large scale. AS Akhiezer said here about the middle of our life, about the features of the relationship of government and society during the period of our history as well as modern sounds as if not centuries of history between us, Petrovsky and Soviet reforms ... The same fineness, now more say atomization society, all the same collecting tribute yourself for the benefit, including the personal. The past is seen in the book and its historical specificity, and as long prehistory of modern Russia, the problems which, in turn, asked the author of the 213

angle of view to the whole of Russian history. First, opening the works of work, The specifics of Russian history, devoted to the balls of Russian historical and socio-cultural problems those that did not give all of us fall into the paradise calm sytoy, consistent and far more rational European life. All these problems are qualitative in nature, that is, the process seems to be there, there and urbanization, and development of territories, but the quality of these processes, their informative content radically different from the norm, was pronounced simulation-farcical nature. The main problem - the transition to organic intensive self-Russia - can not be solved within the framework of our historical and socio-cultural tradition, because it is inherently extensive model development. But today this type of development is not only ineffective, but its implementation is less social and geographical space. More precisely, the actual geographical space for expansion outside the borders of the Russian state does not remain entirely. Today we are talking about retaining the territory, which is being drawn into the Russian state border at the imperial expansionist phase of expansion and colonization. Retention of these vast territories is only possible through the improvement of life on them, their development, as it is today can only be intensified. But the problem is precisely to the transition to intensive development, is often understood in our history as another acceleration extensive development. This is a difficult transition, the implementation of its vital, but so far no more than probabilistic. There are other, far less rational choices. There is an extreme version of neperehoda, living on the natural rents, the extensive exploitation of the vast space, get us a legacy of the imperial phase of Russian history. This path neperehoda for some time is possible, and decorated it may be quite properly, as our participation in the international division of labor. But this dead-end road leading only to bring the third phase of deconstruction of the empire. Only in this case, under the threat of territorial disintegration is no longer the Soviet Union and Russia. To try to avoid territorial disintegration, it is

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necessary to develop, obzhivat, lovingly, on the master obihazhivat care of territory inheritance, create the infrastructure of life in it. And prevents and discourages in the good in all respects effective, proven many times in the west and east of the transition to intensive path of development of society and economy, the inherent throughout the entire socio-cultural divisions in Russia, where virtually every historical and socio-cultural process in Russia internally divided. As a consequence, all of our history, and modernity, too, comes as something wrong, there is often no place. AS Akhiezer puts a heavy, hard to diagnose diseases of Russia - a comprehensive, pervasive socio-cultural divisions. If you resort to medical diagnostic associations, the split - worse schizophrenia - because there is just on the divided consciousness, and the bifurcated part communicates, there is filled with mediatsionnoe space. And his proposed remedy, a way to cure is not so bitter, how painfully difficult, almost nepodemny in terms of eternal relevance, samovosproizvodimosti, self deep social and cultural divisions that have produced the Russian historical and socio-cultural tradition. This self is happening today before our very eyes, when the power is, in pravoliberalnye reforms before starting to fall in sociocultural Archaic. This process is fascinating and frightening, almost verbatim coincidences with the ideal way, so talented recreated and analyzed, including its predictive part A. Akhiezer. What can be done in a situation deja-vu, walking circles, standing reversionnyh movements inherent system itself? It remains to recall the simplest and most difficult, of dialogue, mediation, filling the voids between the poles of the social and cultural divisions that build median Life senses. A possible way out of the bewitched kingdom split - mediation, dialogue between the two poles of division, culture and filling dialogic efflux median space of culture, filling the society middle individual narrowed, according to Dostoyevsky, Russian man. What is all this work out? The projections in this regard are different from the completely safe and decent, matured in the spirit of Europeanism and progressizma, to

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negative and frightening. Today's Russia is not similar to the pre-Soviet Russia, and less like the Soviet Union. We believe that the pervasive ideology potrebitelsta and expressing its mass culture, much razmoyut, levels, the solution in itself. And in this context bitter medicine consumerism, we appreciate very positively. Despite its financial and ecological waste, it just presents a unique opportunity to Russia to fill the middle, filling it redundant array of goods and services, which will be so cozy feel rehabilitated square - a full-fledged citizen of the society of consumption. The image of modern Russian consumers do not geroichen, he was not interested in history, but about economics. He did not oblagodetelstvuet mankind new messianic ideology, would not build a new Republic of Soviets, or the Sun City Campanella. This is a peaceful man in the street and managed by means of social engineering, and its behavior determined by the values of a consumer society, assimilated from childhood, eternally valid through pervasive advertising and marketing. And it could become the ultimate product of Russian history, eliminate a Russian Messianism and socio-cultural division - it would be too easy, if you like primitive for reproduction and maintenance. Perhaps the pervasive schism, for centuries simulated Russian socio-cultural and historical reality will begin to recede, slowly and painfully, with the change of generations, changes in ethnic and religious landscape of the country. Time will tell. But now undertaken AS Akhiezer fruitful attempts to develop a new paradigm of social science allows to update and expand the means at our disposal the scientific instruments, will greatly enhance our heuristic possibilities of the most complex and intricate processes of Russian history and culture, their causes and effects. Well have what we have today, here and now, there are scientific instruments, and technology with the splits, which is still within us and around us for the fruitful efforts should thank A. Akhiezer, appreciating his contribution to the theory and methodology of social sciences.

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Dialogues with Irina Khakamada Dialogue I. On Literature and Life Our fourth book SEX in big politics. Self-self-made woman I. Khakamada. The surprise name provokes interest of potential readers, forcing to take a book in hand, browse, read the paragraphs trapped, and even pages. Still, the disappearance of the reader, kogotok stuck - the whole bird divide remains to go to the cashier, pay, and read a new book by Irina Mutsuovny until the end. The last assertion is checked for himself, himself became directly read at the Institute of Philosophy, the book captures and not released. Its readership is clearly more marked in the subtitle (self self-made woman), happy to read a book, people of different sex and age, finding in it something curious for myself. And sex (English - sex) is not the main reason, though, of course, curious how a woman survives in the still male-dominated Russian politics. The reader interested in what it is - a former deputy minister, a presidential candidate, and without any irony - student komsomolka and simple beauty I. Khakamada? I recall BOGDANIVSKE: He loved three things in the world: / Last night Peña, white peacocks / deleted Card American ..., and it, the woman, loved chocolate sealing, blue vases, tablecloths Plush with brushes to the floor, the first volume Capital of Karl Marx, elephants, waterfalls and classical music ... she, the woman who hated the alarm clock, Museums, Skiing, strict suits, artificial ponds ... was able to kindle a fire with one match, even in winter sleep with an open balcony ... most loved in the world lie on the couch with a remote control and an apple ... wanted to transform Russia, learning how to have an excellent English language and sit on the cross-cords ... . The reader interested in the view of the world introvert careful observer, and since 1993 also an active participant in political events. The book has no illustrations, but many readers of visible images, which are different colors, sounds 217

and smells of the parallel worlds of Malaysian jungle and the Russian authorities. Together with Irina Mutsuovnoy we see changing from west to east, living in different historical time, Russian regions, as Russia in time, like ocean waves, moving sinusoid. Prior to the Urals, it directly in front of sliding down: in the nineties, the eighties, unaware of what. After recovery from the Urals, and in Vladivostok has again 2005 th . The book is transmitted and the amazing feeling of freedom of the air turn 90, the first time co-operatives, the emerging Russian capitalism, is quite happy with the care, academic, but a recognizable Soviet Service. During these years, and scary, and funny, and deliriously want to work for themselves, to assert their independence: As a man laid crazy potential. It bears everything, when fighting for their independence. Recently on television to scroll fragment of a program of the cooperative movement in those years: sitting in the basement, even dotsentskim beam on the head, but the reading, romantic, and declared: I am - a free man! I - a free man. We - not the slaves. Slaves - we do not. Today the trend is different, much more difficult today to open the case, feed himself, to young people again in the way officials, and not in the business, again, addiction, only more sytaya cell and just as elegant and spacious, with sovke. This is our tradition, and, as pointed out in the middle of XIX century, NG Chernyshevskiy, children of their (the owners, merchants and capitalists. - SG) is usually slow to promenyat trading activity in the service. But the wealth created capitalists rather than bureaucrats, for the love of status have to pay expensive rents, and society, and power. When you read SEX in big politics. Self-self-made woman , soon, the question arises: why do you want a decent man to go into the government? Power the world self-hierarchy, where you need to pay attention to someone who sits with whom, remember a lot of unnecessary name-patronymic, relax spirits without relaxing - yes we need it? When I was a minister, all my attempts to lure decent people ended in failure. Why not lure, how to persuade either, no one disagreed. Go out for tiny wages reluctance, to steal not interested, the entire life of popolame and why. The result is no. The machine is stupid, does not work ... . That's not a 218

question of Russia's intellectual power and progress barbate or bezusy Father of the Nation builds by themselves vertical apparatus able to receive and execute the necessary solutions, the brakes and blocking harmful. As the Russian intellectual Khakamada the power went, and there are almost Nekrasova - and a horse, and a hut ... Why and why? Enough to listen to A. Galić to understand that the few surviving people to understand that generation: Here's what I want to ask. You hurry. You build its democracy soon. Please. I ask you a very. Try quickly. Though the eye to see it. Thank you . Here and agitators in the 1993 elections: Purga, blizzard metet in all ends, all of the buses do not go, there are no subways, and all of a sudden at the threshold - two saints dandelion, a headscarf crosswise, as blokadnikov, quilted jacket, felt boots, sanochki . Where is literature? What is literature? Well listovochki about you. Come on listovochki sanochki. Dive and away . All of these people very well remember the classic Soviet power of Lenin - Stalin, they do not have to have anything to explain and prove, since there are, behind their backs, which roamed the area for kaery / and under the snow looked rotten roots, / to the land, no Premieres , podtyanuvshi pants not knelt ... / Sing the same tube, as Sing, Sing about my Potmu, / Sing about my brother, there, in the icy padi . These people on a deep, visceral level, feel that Khakamada - their own and external, that the shares, they are not so important. Alas, in our common historical heritage have to try to influence the power at the slightest opportunity, and even without the possibility is - really hurt terribly and die a legacy from which we refuse. And to do the work which you personally can not do - to build and defend Russian democracy. I. Khakamada few years, meets in the government for the development of small business, she started with the first cooperatives, realizing that in this business for free millions of people. Its development has meant for these irreversible changes, the possible formation of a independent, successful, and the strengths of the small economy of our civil society. Today in Russia felt political Maski-show, when meeting with their potential voters, politicians in the disguise of costumes Bolshevichki and decorated a clock 219

flight - I like you, vote for me, poor Russian paternalisty wait gentleman, who will come and judge. But not every Russian man paternalist, rather, it is paternalist to time, until you can not live straining in reliance on harsh, but fair officials, until comes the time to work itself and for itself, without regard to the state. Tens of millions of people in Russia ochnuvshihsya 90-ies were, they opened a small business, chelnochili, 3 / 4 of the attacks from the statistical reports. For the state as if they were not, they often do not pay taxes, but they were the most active and widespread group of support for President Yeltsin and the reform policies. In this economic behavior reflected the traditional understanding of freedom as a will, the freedom from government, and when the power that will give - the millions of people say: this is our power. Let us recall the phenomenon of the presidential election of 1996. If it were not for those millions of small businesses millions of which the first time in life feel that the economic freedom - no use of administrative resources, financial and promotional opportunities for big business are not allowed to re-BN Yeltsin for a second term. Ironically, the power did not understand that small businesses are the backbone of it, which further on decreasing were liberal intellectuals, and big business. Today, power is understood, but that is another power, it does not need the support of economically independent persons, such people are suspicious, if not hostility. Social support for the current government make up power - a man with a gun - and the officer - a person receiving the rent status of rubles. This is a qualitatively different level of social support, prilnuvshie to the government and large goskompaniyam successful centrists-man in the street is good in this role until then, until all is quiet and calm, the price of oil and other commodities, Russia's exports are growing, and received billions of dollars can be bedaub almost any problem. Such social support is good in stable and predictable socio-political situation, but her worsening of an ordinary person is unlikely to protect the power of defending its people with certain political beliefs in August 1991 at the White House and in October 1993 at Mossovet, believing that this power of its own. Centrists, successful man in the street, remain at home until the 220

last possible, then becoming as passive victims of the check and the Gestapo, as well as active accomplices in repression. But in the crisis, turning points of history creates an absolute minority of people, passionarii, energy which is sufficient for the initiation of social change. Generally adrenaline - this is the soul of Russian oil. Who is extracted, that they (and the oil and soul) and reach the . The release of adrenaline important to the Russian soul, and therefore engage in politics today is interesting. What is the interest in training policy, when in meystrime, and not scared. That I have never Khakamada, and himself. What else hooked to this book and what not to say impossible? For me, it's the Malaysian jungle, a cave with a myriad of swallows and bats - another parallel world. View from this world for us and it helps us to understand the smallness of our men, including political issues. World largest Russian politics, where someone in the face by an opponent pleschet juice, someone allows himself to steal and lie, where the tabloid press and political opponents make of thee terrible and treacherous Mrs. Mamba, when looking through the eyes of birds, frogs from the Malaysian jungle skukozhivaetsya, assuming its real shape. Main view it in context. In flow nahlestyvayuschih each other of events public and private life, in unconsciousness days, in which no notice krugoverti During the years, hard not to lose themselves, those past, present - with control panel and apple. Looking at the world through the eyes of emerald frog helps here - the thing is how to look, what are your system. Also see, and just remember that this is not the whole life, this is only part of it, and the world around the great and free. Openness and self-author striking. We must confess that I almost did not read glamorous books, although I know that there are books M. Arbatova, the show business - perhaps because I was not very curious to privacy of people who write them. When the author is interesting to you, read it, taking as it is taking and the human, too human, that is, in the book. The book SEX in big politics. Self-selfmade woman diverse, and that part where the actual self to woman, to the reviewer 221

theory. Present possible, and feel almost as difficult as to see the world through the eyes of the amazing emerald frogs from the jungle of Malaysia. So what about this part of the author's text does not judge me. Following I. Khakamada E. Tregubova mention only because of its subject SEX in big politics. Self-self-made woman overlapped with Baika Kremlin diggera . Both books presented a critical view of the female Russian politics, and even powerful personalities in question, often the same. But Khakamada not burn a bridge and does not want to huddle in a corner of who you stronger, because when the ruler of Russia to bring to the pen, he becomes a tyrant. This is a rational and pragmatic view, it Khakamada politician. Tregubova is not a politician, it was romantic, she has passion and hunter look at how to defend democracy. At the sight of male biased reviewer, good to see bright, intelligent, critical, and more women were in politics and in life, then increases the likelihood that the country live an independent life and is self-built civil and democratic society. Now let me say a few words about the presentation of the book, more precisely, one emblematic details. Russian man in the street used that power once, then on her neck must be a chain of yellow metal, which has historically caused brutality pendant highlighted with the imperial crown, almost Monomakh cap, which, as everyone knows, hard. Heavy metal is almost as chains, which took guests on hundred Balu Kings Bulgakov's Margarita. On the front cover photo book physical severity of the yellow metal is not visible, the blood from under him sochitsya, this allegory, noticeable only by its aesthetic severity and impropriety, in conjunction with the childishly helpless collarbone. Well, what authority, and such symbols. In another very recent 90-s in the power mechanism are quite decent people, the same B.E. Nemtsov, who was standing in the office of his doll of the same program of NTV. Now Nemtsova nor the power nor the program Dolls, or the old NTV. It seems that today's drab, bleak and beznadega almost forever. But no, not forever, drab over time, quietly and calmly and quickly and rapidly, but will leave.

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And then there shall not confident but hope that will not be an official to apply for a royal heavy chains and prilipchivoy Russian authorities, and pulled to hard and not quit. The official, who employs a civil society through the mediation of control by and accountable to the state itself could become another: I have always argued that Russia will save the lazy officer. The one who wants to make love to women and novels. For novels requires leisure. But leisure would provide a system that can operate without it. Meanwhile, another trend, more and more spheres of life are built in the power vertical, power seeks to control the politics, business, media, civil society organizations ... This trend may soon result in bringing the power of verticals to each individual, as in our the recent Soviet past, with his party, trade union and Komsomol meetings. All and all, under the supervision of officials, this approach seems to power better than the trouble with the independent and laugh your opinion have the civil society. The space of public freedom today is shrinking disastrously, we were again, as in prisnopamyatnye time, drive to the kitchen. The space of freedom must be protected, internally free man is free everywhere in the inner freedom of the era of change does not affect. Khakamada, a free man, and it helps to become free to other people, especially young people, those who watch to make life with someone. Irina, thanks for the book and for all that you did and do in the late 80-ies. Today, only a twilight of history, they will still be. A potential reader to say - read. You'll like it. Dialogue II. About the new social currency - 2008. On 18 April 2007 in the House of Journalists presented the New Social Course - 2008. The project was prepared under the guidance of Vice-Chairman of the Presidium of the Russian People's Democratic Union Irina Khakamada and proposed as the basis of pre-candidate for the President of the Russian Federation, who will become the single candidate of the opposition forces. The panellists were: 223

Lyudmila Alekseeva, Sergei Havre, Sergei Glazyev, Eugene Gontmaher, Lev Gudkov, Tamara Zamyatin, Kirill Kabanov, Mikhail Kasyanov, Elena Lukyanova, Lyudmila Telen, and others. Ideology of a new social course made Khakamada I.: We need a national social policy as a new form of patriotism. A single social space, common social rights, the unity of the main objectives - that's what would unite the nation. Our program can use any candidate who would agree with it . This unity of rights and unity of purpose, something that can unite the country, contribute to the formation of ethnic, civic nation. In fact, the program is to build a social state, to build the social fabric, which today still remains largely on the Soviet legacy. From istlevayuschey and disintegrating social fabric could not be more country. Today it is depleted, the Soviet legacy in education, science, health care is almost exhausted. Its restoration is necessary, it is gradually beginning to realize the need to not only society but also in business. A third party has not yet been held on the social contract - the authorities do not fully aware of or do not want to understand the criticality of today's social situation, their actions to remedy it sees as a purely secondary in relation to PRcompanies that create the appearance of solving social problems in the virtual information space. Eugene Gontmaher, head of the Center for Social Policy, Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences and one of the main developers of the program, commented: We can expect that by the ruling party, followed by some lotion to rectify the situation before the elections, but they did not save. Speaking about the importance of the social part of the future presidential candidate of the opposition, I. Khakamada noted that it is because the Democrats were full of a loss that ottorgli people. In order to implement social policies that do not necessarily use, as proposed by the Communists, the endless spending of the budget. You can create a very efficient market mechanisms are working effectively,

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and give not only the quality of social life, but also investments in the economy. But for this you need to do this a priority and work on it honestly . I believe that the power to improve the social quality of life within the framework of market mechanisms, it seems, can not work effectively. This can be seen and miscalculations in the monetization of social benefits, the limitations of the pension reform. Authorities can not solve social problems on the merits, and when to do something does need to tend to the PR-solutions. And if the power in their real actions often have quite right-centrist, in the information area of its face uncontrollably leveet, getting so accustomed to Russia paternalistic connotations. The company sees this left ideological shift of power, feels Information disease of leftism. Today, increasing expectations of citizens are not on our own forces, and on the redistributive capacity of the State. Community leveet, increasingly find themselves in demand social democratic ideas. The question arises - why? Indeed, in the not too distant 90 years everything was in a different way, people will be happy to go into business, start their own business, changed their places of residence up to the immigration from the country. In other words, had hoped for themselves, not the State. The reasons for this sudden change of public sentiment, at least somewhat. First, it became difficult to work in small and medium-sized businesses, soared entrance fee, his case can be opened, with much greater resources than the 90-ies. During these years there was competition, which is pushing small businesses out of business. For example, in trade small, and medium-sized businesses can not compete with large retail chains. This process pushes small and medium-sized business market with retail sales has not only to Russia. In the United States such example is the proliferation of commercial network Uol-March, causing loss of business retailers, smaller carriers, vendors, lawyers, they serve. The third is the insecurity of property rights. Since the feudal imperial system of ownership of power determines ownership of property and the property

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itself, despite a number of pravoustanovleny, almost vulnerable, the officials and the situation in the hierarchy which is higher than that of the formal owners. In the fourth, increased bureaucracy and the criminal charges and restrictions, increased appetite officials, their active participation in the redistribution of property, dramatically increased fee bureaucratic permits, approvals, inspection. Do not make any products or services itself, and to participate in the development and assignment of administrative rent - a favorite activity in Russia since ancient times. The fifth of the business, and then at his own expense and the state, there will be real money, a fact that you can share, redeploy. A government surpluses, the growing Stabilization Fund, gradually increasing funding for social programs. Again, you can ask the state for which there were some means to partially or fully meet the requests. The problem here is, and how, supporting the weak, does not undermine incentives for capitalist activity of strong, those who own the major part of creating national wealth and jobs. An example of the Scandinavian versions of socialism demonstrates the extent of this threat. So, there is public demand for social-democratic, on the left, turn. Today it is the way to win votes, to strengthen its position in the coming electoral cycle. Since all possible reservations of some leftism is in the new social currency - 2008. But this theoretical leftism is not evil, it is akin to leftism Democratic Party in the United States. People are less socially successful is always more, especially when put in terms of comparison is high, the list of states and the owners of the magazine Forbes. People are not very economically successful are almost always in favor of income redistribution, the redistribution of rich to the poor. They are almost always higher, even more so that the Russian authorities is strongly pushing people into the marginal zone of weak. And this public policy should be changed. On the theoretical part of the new social course of the anticipated change in society, social policy worked many authors Developers New Social Course - 2008. It is now up for its practical realization. Mikhail Kasyanov, summing up his 226

attitude to the program, noted that it is a social unit of civil society, which will be posted as punishment future candidates or candidates. This is a very high score, the recognition of the universal relevance of the stated social objectives. Dialogue on Marsh dissenters In Moscow on Saturday, 16 December 2006 was march dissenting. Marsh dissenters - is not a rehearsal Russian maidan. It is more like a demonstration of other Romantic Revolution - Trotskyite in 1927. This is not new chords, portents of great turmoil, a rearguard battle, followed by withdrawal from the actual historical scene. That is the logic of Thermidor. Today the country has come a classic in all the history books magistral Thermidor period, after the inevitable revolution. Our revolution was in 1991, fortunately, it turned out to be polubarhatnoy polubarhatnym was our Thermidor. Still Thermidor unpleasant thing, and the desire to continue at the same time revolution and the counter united people of incompatible political views and positions. The fight against, rather than unites yesterday irreconcilable adversaries. In the single line come and sit at the table Comrade Anpilov and some Russian liberals. The combination of striking, extreme, almost prohibitive. Against whom will be friends is defined so that the work, gentlemen and friends. Motivation Ampilova comrades and Limonov else can understand, they are almost professional revolutionaries. With the understanding of motivation of Lords-revolutionaries tricky. Good to deal with authority, knowing that with one hand did not plant, and on the other to become a power did not succeed. And if pofantazirovat on - suddenly succeed? Then the next day begins tough opposition on situational попутчиков Other Russia, in advance and understand the perspectives of such a confrontation. Liberals do not outflank the heirs of Stalin, reaching under the slogan Stalin, Beria, Gulag, in the three- the future of the place of liberal intellectuals in the Gulag.

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If you speak seriously, there are no democratic (orange) revolution in modern Russia is impossible. Civil society is weak, there is almost no internal constraints in order to strengthen the power vertical, and managed to build democracy. If a society is a revolutionary potential, it should look to other political flank - at xenophobic and ultra. And intoxication romantic revolution of the liberal intelligentsia can ease their way into power. Do not give us the God of revolutionary upheavals - they can bring to stage stories ultra, the National Socialists and the like, destroying sustainable over the life course, reject the country to the worst times in history. Does every word that the author is willing to abandon democracy, accept its limitations? Far from it. Democracy - it is the highest value. But it requires a certain adherence to democratic procedures, an evolutionary rather than revolutionary in nature. In the framework of democratic procedures, power is not trying to pick up on the street, the tactics of street confrontation, regular fisticuffs with OMON - it is already too much. Too democracy, of course. For the revolutionaries of all stripes and street campaigns, opposition to the confrontation the purpose and way of life, and the theory of permanent revolution ideology. Of course, everyone is looking for its meaning in life, and participation in the fight for the process itself also has a right to exist. Moreover, civilians, doctors, teachers, entrepreneurs are strong in their professional field, stronger than the power of their own, including the street confrontation. Who is on that study. So the outcome of this confrontation is largely predetermined in advance. And the outcome of this, besides the defeat of democratic movement, will be accompanied by an increasing authoritarianism. But even improbable victory in the street confrontation would be a victory for pyrrhic. Yes, today's power have done much to build a system managed democracy, it has many flaws and imperfections, but this does not mean that it should be to break on knee - is more likely, almost inevitable that over time the democratic process and institutions are strong. Under the pretext of the imperfections of democracy is not worth destroying yourself democratic 228

procedures and institutions that do not need to compare the sample Bolsheviks October seventeenth, killed a young Russian democracy - it's not a good role in the history of Russia. Dialogue with Vladislav Surkov on a political project Our Today, some portion of the Russian political elite, willing to hedge in case it is already foreseen changes in our lives, began to build a youth support group. Assuming a priori the values of this part of the elite, consisting in the retention of power for its own sake, the idea is quite understandable, and at first glance seem to be even reasonable. It is from the eternal series about straw, which is a good idea to bed zagodya, without waiting for the painful contact between the modern Russian state space uncomfortable with popular discontent, the growing alienation from the political establishment who share left and right political views. The author, the initiative power is different historical associations, most of which are harmless beginnings of the Interim Government of Russia to form a women's shock battalions, which were to save the situation on the front, and, if necessary, to support the authority in the rear. The need for such support has emerged very soon, but hope that the women's battalions will be able to defend the Provisional Government of the external and internal enemies, as is known, proved fruitless. Naturally, the story almost never be repeated verbatim, but now more visible and the lines and intersection with the 1916/1917 year, and, above all, with time before the February revolution. Today, as then, almost all available in the Russian society passionarii have concentrated on the left and right political flank. In the center is the traditional swamp, people moderate and accurate, which may be formal and slow to play in anything, including the custom-political games. And it is these young people center and draws power politproekte Our. The second historical allusion, after daily author of women's memories of the battalions as the last hope of the authorities then, time, links the current 229

nashistskoe power of today's enterprise with a history committee functioning as a reserve detachment of the Communist Party in the late period of Soviet history. Rhetorical question, but who saved and protected the Soviet Komsomol era of decline? - In any case, not their employers, and financiers of the CPSU. With good direction from above, young people today can pay a membership fee and go for the performance-elected assembly, to hold rallies, flares and other mass marches, picket performances and impromptu dip in the toilet bowls, send in the dustbin of history books and portraits of unwanted politicians, writers, directors ... The next historical analogy, which arises in connection with the nashistskim Project least harmless. Although the movement and positioning itself as the antifascist in its symbolism, there have been some semantic overlap with the symbols in the time of the German National Socialists. This symbolism was represented by the general public on 14 May 2005, when tens of thousands of young people, students of senior classes of secondary schools, vocational schools, colleges and universities in Moscow and other regions of Russia have been an area of Gagarin and Lenin Avenue struckthrough under white flags with red crosses. In 30 of the last century, Hitler read treated the color symbolism of National Socialist Party of Germany: The red color symbolizes the idea of social ... The white color of the idea of nationalism. Swastika - a mission for the victory of Aryans ... . Of course, the swastika on flags nashistov No, its appearance would be too provocative in the country, winning Nazi invasion. But the red ensign, embody social ideals of the Communists / Socialists - is, as there are white national purity (white cross). Yes, and goes beyond the horizon a column of young people under the red-white flags most resemble frames from the film Leni Riffenshtal Triumph of the will. We understand that the verbatim repetition of history will not, but that happens has its own logic, its vector of development. These extras tragicomic tragic fact that the logic of theatrical and political action within the framework of a specific historical tradition. Collect all the books would be, and to burn, this recipe is as safe and flexible to deal with sedition offered at the beginning of XIX century, still Skalozub, and followed it and similar 230

boards of the National Socialists in Germany, 30-ies of the XX century. But today, a time, and yet informal and formal leaders nashistskogo project is not identified with his ideology and the desired reputation. It remains an open question about how we need to be intolerable and severe (severe) and extent permissible actions to cause such a candid historical reminiscences. In the direct predecessors of motion Our - Movement Walking Creativity and rigidity enough to Zadornov scansion enemies of the people - to answer, recycling Book V. Sorokina, picketing the Bolshoi Theater with clearly readable passionate subtext: we censor, censorship . In this logic, all our troubles are attributable mainly to the positions konspirologii, implying the separation of the nation, citizens of Russia to the first people (going along) and second (breduschih alone) sorts. In the context of our present social and cultural context this might mean about the following. Those Russian citizens - who is with us / our - it is the people, which is known to be always right. But those citizens who Nenashev - it still has to be closely look and decide who, how and under what circumstances, is in Russia, not mishandled whether CIA agents and Mosada or, at worst, not lived there in the occupied territories and have no questionable whether the relatives in foreign countries, such as in the Orange Ukraine. Therefore, in the futuristic, but equally likely to run, all not our brothers and sisters can give to individual drop - to the yellow star on the quilted jacket, and who simply quilted jacket with unique markings. If you get down to business twist nuts pomyagche little that could be possible against the not-too-dangerous opponents of the regime - that the validity of their citizenship could be mitigated limitations (restrictions) on the profession and the failure of the votes cast at the election at any level. The key question to be answered by the authors, designers of any project, including the nashistkogo - this is its efficiency and effectiveness, the ability to be realized in accordance with the plans. And here in relation to this project raises a number of questions and bewilderment.

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First of all, this power venture, like many other ventures before, and dare to assume, then, did not even bring the account to any specific consequences, apart from large-scale development of the money the state and / or mortally frightened them large / medium-sized businesses. The mountain gave birth to a mouse - this is about us, this is the most common and familiar version of the completion of any undertaking in the Russian / Soviet history. Therefore the realization politproekta with the unit in our society and Nenashev could be such a trite, ignominious conclusion. But there is another paradox, but equally and perhaps more realistic version of how to evolve nashizm and what role it may play in the not too distant future. A common place is the claim that in Russia / Soviet Union, any initiative to break down painfully, which fully applies to the emergence and institutionalization of civic movements and public organizations. Today, when Russian civil society is in poluzachatochnom state, grass-roots initiative rarely appears, and even less frequently executed as sustainable forms, quite often, all the initial energy is dissipated cash, do not lead to the achievement of stated goals. Also it is well known that when the formation of different structures happens at the initiative of the authorities, using the entire strength of its administrative resources, such undertakings are usually institualiziruyutsya receive some funding, increases state-paid functionaries, etc. This organization not only has access to the media, and formal / informal support from the state apparatus. Despite the substantial content differences of the day today with the communist era of romance and enthusiasm is almost VV Mayakovski And if the party in the small crowd sdaysya enemy - Zamri and lyag. Party - millionopalaya hand, compressed into a single fist fulminatory . And because - trepidation enemy external and internal. Note that experience with the use of youth movements, youth in general for political purposes has long been well known around the world. There are also the pioneers of the Soviet Komsomol, the youth organizations and the Spanish Falanga, the Italian fascists, Hitler adults with the National Socialists in Germany. It also can be attributed, and a massive use of children and teenagers as a cheap 232

and effective military force governments and / or the opposition in a number of third world countries, particularly in Cambodia, Sri Lanka and some African countries. Children and adolescents, young people in general can be a terrible destructive force, clean sociocultural space under the new political, economic, social configuration. 5 April 2005, the leader of the movement Our Vasily Yakemenko said literally the following: We need wholesale change political, economic and media power in the country, acting as a network of mutual support. Most of the call recalls the words of Mao Zedong, directed to youth at the beginning of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: opened fire on the headquarters (ie the elites - SG). This calls for a change of elites is another apparent consequence: if we can together change the political, economic and masmediiynuyu elite in the country this will open the way for rapid vertical mobility, as the great cleansing thirties in the Soviet Union opened the way to a dizzying career come from grassroots society. Another issue that the nominee on blood were often incompetent and does not meet the new, just drop them a high social roles. As we know, history is often presented to us as tragedy and repeats itself in the game, reduced, farcical form. And today, we most likely it appears that - farcical part of the historical process. But today power is not off to pay their voluntary / forced aides to the vertical acceleration of the mobility and prochischeniem its channels in the spirit of Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin. Note that the monuments of Mao Zedong, as well, and Paul sweat put in today's Russia as it is not in your hands, but I. monuments to Stalin, to direct their teacher and leader of all nations, beginning to grow in cities and vesyam of our fatherland in the set, benefit the socio-political climate here has become (become) well - to become a leader. However, the situation in our, and can be quite ambivalent. In situations of possible social and political crisis, accompanied by a sharp decline in administrative capacity, power, nashistov position little and the possible because role the of institutsianalizirovannyh predictable, young 233

revolutionary simply because of age, lack of degree of adult cynicism and excess availability of vital energy. Therefore, hypothetically, we can not exclude the likelihood of such developments, in which nashisty can get out of control of their creators / puppeteers, to change the ideological orientation and personal political preferences. By an irony of history, they can suddenly become just a social and political force, which in Russia would be a kind of remake of Georgian Kmara, Kyrgyz Go-go, Ukraine pores. Such developments may contribute to two different but complementary to each other circumstances. First circumstance: Young people are a revolutionary, not conservative, they probably want to scrap and change, but not to protect old arising before them, and often not their values - they want to be revolutionaries and winners. And the second fact: in some situations it is possible mass buying elites and institutions, a kind of auction, which can compete both internal and external to the forces of Russia. None of this is not done, the world in which we live is increasingly globalized, and this is something given, something that is outside the scope of our control, our acceptance or rejection. Historical events and the situation does not mirror repeats, each new situation, despite the possible adherence to the general historical trend and even the external similarity is drawn up taking into account the context, given the national socio-cultural tradition. Accordingly, Russia will be a different situation than in Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan. A person familiar with our history can easily assume a similar situation, especially in Russia, where the initiative of popular discontent could pick the top and the organization created for his own account-equipped and financed, as the other youth organizations with specific resource and mass of the country simply do not. For historical essays and memoirs of contemporaries, we know the events of a textbook account of the events that took place during the Russian revolution of 1905-1907 years. We remember the history of trade union workers in St. Petersburg, union no policy, established under the patronage of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. These unions had been entrusted with the well-tested and loyal 234

priest Gapon system, which, however, subsequently organized a peaceful march to the Winter Palace on Jan. 9, 1905. What it ended up, we know from history textbooks - 9 Jan., 1905 was the beginning of the first Russian revolution. Remembering the XX Congress XX Congress of the Communist Party became a Soviet version of the Nuremberg process, which, despite its softness and half, broke the cornerstone of the foundation of totalitarianism. Today, all the louder voices of critics of the revelations of the cult of personality, the crimes of Stalinism, the sharpness with which it was done NS Khrushchev at the XX Congress. Many states that have had to act more softly, to speak the truth are not at once, but piecemeal, in order to preserve the long-term purchased on the basis of the Second World War, the geopolitical advantages and not to scare the left intellectuals around the world. But with all possible sympathy to the abundance of the monitored areas and leftist political ideas must be remembered that in the incremental steps to dismantle Stalinism simply was not time. When Allied troops entered the German destruction of the camp - it was also a shock to Europeans and Americans, the shock, exposing extraordinary horrors that carries with it the practice of National Socialism. Commander of U.S. Allied forces, General George Patton organized study visits to the death camps of journalists and politicians, who see firsthand that this was not just the war. To better understand the realities, ideological recovery European intellectuals left orientation need not only awareness of the horrors of the everyday practice of National Socialism, but also to the Stalinist version of socialism. It was necessary to bring them out of the Communist Youth intoxication utopia, they all have to grow up and abandon the illusion. More truth about the crimes of Stalinism was needed Soviet society need not only now but also in post-Soviet Russia.

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Allied troops for obvious reasons, not part of Stalin's death camps - camps opened doors NS Khrushchev, for the release of the surviving prisoners had a change of party-state policy, ideologically enshrined in the XXth Congress of the CPSU. The Congress revealed a giant abscess of Stalinism, he began the process of liberation from totalitarianism, the process that led then by August 1991. Often compared sharpness, and one speech NS Khrushchev and the gradual, step-by-step policy of democratization during the adjustment. But after the death of Stalin's totalitarian system has been able to change from within, evolving into an authoritarian system. By the mid 80-ies of XX century, the USSR was not already a absolute evil empire, which he had been under Stalin. There is no morili famine, millions of peasants, not shot by millions of potential and real political opponents, shut down the enormous camps of GULAG, the scale of political repression has become incomparably smaller. In other words, it already was not the totalitarian system of Stalin's type, changing it could afford not to hurry. In 1956, it was impossible not to hurry - in the camps people are dying. They have become a little issue, but the public should have to explain what happened in the Stalinist country in decades. It should be remembered that the international communist movement, the communist parties around the world, behind the red terror and the crimes of Stalinism, the Khmer Rouge and cultural revolution in China, the original equipped own versions Treblinka, Dachau and Auschwitz. Building a house brave new world at a foundation, you can not count on the persistence of long-term political and geopolitical benefits, preservation of the world communist movement, the sustainability of the Warsaw Pact, to count on winning the global expansion of communism. For all of history has to be paid. At the end of 80 - 90 of the last century of the crimes of Stalin's regime was told everything, or almost all. This truth inexhaustible, it is no statute of limitations, it can not be written off and forgotten. But today a large part of Russian society, it does not know or does not wish to know, considering that the state guaranteed chowder important freedom, but Stalin was much better than 236

Gorbachev and Yeltsin. English football club Chelsea property from Roman Abramovich divideth the many of our fellow citizens far more than Stalin's genocide. So, healing did not happen, vaccinated against this evil is not now, and because the theme of our Nuremberg - XXth Congress - does not belong only to the past, but present. Literature 1. Itshokin AA, Restore meaning. What is doskazal Zarathustra. M.: Lights, 2003. 539 pp. 2. Kantor, VK, There is a European power. Russia: a difficult path to civilization. Istoriosofskie essays. M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. 479 pp. 3. Semenov V., Differentiation and consolidation of generations / / Russia: transforming society / Ed. VA poison. Moscow: Canon - press - T, 2001. S. 256271. 4. Ortega and Gasset, Uprising masses / Aesthetics. Philosophy of Culture. / Per. with sp. AM Geleskula. AM: Art, 1991. S. 309-349. 5. Zinoviev, AA West. M.: Tsentrpoligraf, 2000. 509 pp. 6. Kagan MS About time, about people, about myself. St. Petersburg: Publishing House Petrópolis, 2005. 7. Akhiezer, AS Specifics of Russian history / / Works. M: The new chronograph, 2006. P.23-156. 8. Akhiezer, AS On the peculiarities of modern philosophizing. The View from Russia / / Proceedings. M: The new chronograph, 2006. S.157-332. 9. Akhiezer, AS Catastrophes in the society and nature as a moral issue (on the historical experience of Russia) / / Works. M: The new chronograph, 2006. P.333-479. 10. SEX in big politics. Self-self-made woman . Moscow: ANO RID Novaya Gazeta, 2006. 11. Chernyshevskiy NG Provincial Essays Shchedrin / / Critical section. Pushkin. Gogol. Turgenev. Ostrovskii. Leo Tolstoy. Shchedrin, etc. (Sovremennik 237

1854-1861) / Edition NM Chernyshevsky. SPb.: Printing and lithograph VA Tihanova, 1895. 12. Tregubova E., Stories Kremlin diggera. M.: Hell Marginem, 2003. 13. Ilyin, IA. Prerequisites creative democracy / / About the upcoming Russia: Selected Articles. Ed. NP Poltoratsky. M. Voenizdat, 1993. 14. Karpukhin O.I., Makarevich EF Formation of the masses: The nature of public relations and technology, public relations: Experience of History and Sociology. study. Kaliningrad: FGUIPP amber. tale, 2001. 15. Solov'ev V., The second invasion: Walking have reached the level of ministers, governors, and TV // Kommersant, April 16, 2005, № 68. C. 1.

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