FOSSIL FUELS The fossil fuels are formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of dead organisms buried

. The age of the organisms and their fossil fuel derivatives often millions of years, sometimes more than 650 million years. Fossil fuels, which contain high percentages of carbon, including coal, oil and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources, not replaced by biological processes such as wood. At some point, will end, and it may be necessary to have millions of years of evolution and decay similar to reappear. KIND OF FOSSIL FUELS Fossil fuels are three: oil, coal and natural gas, and were formed millions of years from organic remains of dead plants and animals. For thousands of years of evolution of the planet, the remains of beings that inhabited at various stages were deposited at the bottom of seas, lakes and other water bodies. They were covered by layer after layer of sediment. It took millions of years for the chemical reactions of decomposition and the pressure exerted by the weight of these layers transform these organic waste into gas, oil or coal. PETROLEUM is a homogeneous mixture of organic compounds, primarily hydrocarbons insoluble in water. It is also known as crude oil or just oil. It is of fossil origin, the result of the transformation of organic matter on zooplankton and algae deposited funds in large amounts in anoxic seas or lake areas in the geologic past, were later buried under heavy layers of sediment. The chemical transformation (natural cracking) due to heat and pressure during diagenesis occurs in successive stages from bitumen increasingly lighter hydrocarbons (liquid and gaseous). These products ascend to the surface, its lower density, due to the porosity of sedimentary rocks. When circumstances occur that prevent the rise geological are then formed oil fields. COAL Coal or coal is a sedimentary rock, black, rich in carbon, used as fossil fuel. Usually located under a layer of slate and a layer of sand and clay. It is believed that most coal was formed during the Carboniferous period (280 to 345,000,000 years ago). Coal is caused by the decomposition of terrestrial plants, leaves, wood, bark, and spores that accumulate in wetlands, lagoons or marine, shallow. The dead plants accumulate in the bottom of a basin. Are covered with water and, therefore, protected from the air would destroy them. Begins a slow transformation by the action of anaerobic bacteria, a type of microorganisms that can not live in oxygen. Over time, a progressive enrichment in carbon. They can then be covered with clay deposits, which help maintain the anaerobic environment suitable to continue the process of coalification.

The non-associated gas from the well West Sole in the North Sea) and often contain other gases such as nitrogen. acid rain. The combustion of these fuels leads to emissions of gases such as carbon dioxide. goods and services due to increasing world population and consumption patterns. according to estimates. cleaning solvents and other applications ENVIROMENT While this allowed for a productive development never before known in human history. The situation worsens when one considers the increasing demand for energy. Examples of contaminants include non-associated gas from Kapuni (NZ) containing up to 49% CO2. dissolved or associated with oil or coal deposits. continuity. mercaptans helium. lamps. availability. H2S. CO2. soil and water. The polluting effects are not only linked to its combustion but also to transport (oil spills) and products that originate (hydrocarbons and toxic byproducts). is investigating the methane hydrate deposits. as well as stoves. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FOSSIL FUEL advantage *They *Its *His *They are easy high great compared to remove. *There is a depletion in the short or medium term *When used pollute more than other products that could be used in its place. GASOLINE Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum that is used as fuel in internal combustion engines with conventional ignition or compression (DiesOtto). are inexpensive to other energy Disadvantages *Its use results in the emission of gases that pollute the atmosphere and are toxic to life. As additional sources of this natural resource.NATURAL GAS Natural gas is one of several important non-renewable energy sources consisting of a mixture of light gases found in oil. also produced a very negative impact on the environment. carbon monoxide and other gases that have contributed and still contribute to generate and enhance the greenhouse effect. sources. air pollution. . is composed principally of methane in quantities that can commonly exceed 90 or 95% (eg. Although its composition varies depending on which site is removed. can be a much higher energy reserves at current natural gas.

solar . tidal. RENWEABLE ENERGY It is called renewable energy to the energy obtained virtually inexhaustible natural sources.The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21. so there is a net increase of 10. or because they are able to regenerate by means naturales. biomass and biofuels.3 billion tonnes (21. either by the vast amount of energy they contain. wind.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year. geothermal. but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount.1 Among renewables include hydroelectric. .65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year .