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: African Arts, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Feb., 1983), pp. 60-67+99-100 Published by: UCLA James S. Coleman African Studies Center Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3335852 . Accessed: 09/05/2012 15:31
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where he held the title of Olurin. one born with matted eyes. Eyinle. In addition to these inherited shrines. one of the two quarters of Imodi township. including a large opon used for storing the Ifa palm nuts that belonged to his ancestors. was a priestess of Orisanla and an Erelu-the female titleholder in Osugbo-who brought a number of shrines with her from her father's house. In this paper. another used for divination.Whereas Osijo is remembered / I A 4.1 This paper is based upon Ositola's explanations and interpretations of his own shrine and some of the art objects that adorn it. practiced Ifa divination only part time and was more well known for his work in the Osugbo Agan. 1). Efunbamowo. including some works by local practitioners (Beyioku 1971). birth to Osibuluren. four kilometers west of Ijebu-Ode (Fig. FROM ILE-IFE. the deity of disease. At Idomoro. was given the title of Apena. These items included an Esu Yangi. Osijo held the office of Olotu Agbaoke. OPA OSUN WITHA HAWKREPRESENTEDON THE TOP. As we shall see. He also had an iron staff of the same design as an opa osun but. in this case. 7). They have meaning in terms of the rituals he performs. 1981). opa osun (Figs. PROBABLY DATING TO THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY. which has been incorporated into the present shrine for the divine mediator. Ositola views these objects symbolically and historically. 1976. shrines for Osun and Olokun. people who had been scattered throughout the area in small hamlets now gathered together for protection in Imodi.He established a group of diviners and became their head. migrated to Ijebuland from Ile-Ife.PROBABLYIN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY. 1980b. such as smallpox. and the history of his family.4 gave who became a noted babalawo. 9. around the early 19th cenand his wife. Rowland Abiodun examines the meaning and symbolism of Ifa and other art objects (1975. Obaluaiye.2 In Osugbo. a carved container on a pedestal with a lid (Fig. Thus. BABALAWO KOLAWOLE OSITOLA. Using this literature as a point of departure. Densulu. 4. In addition to Bascom's major works. Osinaalo. 1977). from Imodi. 8). They include.3 After Osijo's death. a fortified town (odi = wall). Osibuluren and his wife. and was instrumental in establishgoverning ing an Osugbo council-a body of elders-and building an Osugbo lodge (iledi) at Agan. and a O?AB Some seven generations ago. Williams 1964:144). 1969. an Iwarefa chieftaincy title. Osibuluren's eldest son. 13). who publishes in both English and Yoruba (1968. we cannot think of a more fitting topic than Ifa divination. circa the second half of the 18th century. BROUGHT BY THE FOUNDING FATHER.6 Nevertheless. These scholars concern themselves primarily with the enormous body of oral literature that constitutes Ifa. His name is Kolawole Ositola. Thus. and an agere. Osinaike. Orukonuku. the thundergod. Osinaike's wife. Osinaalo tury. During the first half of the 19th century. Osinaike inherited all his father's Ifa ritual paraphernalia. probably around 1835. 6). Osibuluren became close friends with the carver Onabanjo. Sango (Fig. probably around the turn of the century. 1). LEFT: 5. alias Akomolabidi Ifa ("One-Who-TeachesIfa-from-A-B-D" [that is. MARGARET THOMPSON DREWAL* HENRY JOHN DREWAL illiam Bascom devoted a significant portion of his work to the study of Yoruba divination systems.5 Because of this. is remembered Osinaalo for his "Apenaship" in Osugbo. whose family over the years carved most of the ritual objects in the shrine. to pay homage to him and his work. prepared and used for Esu Asobode (Fig. 9-32). We are concerned here with a particular family shrine and its meaning to the diviner (babalawo. Osijo. in turn gave birth to Osinaike. the ABCs of Ifa]). in addition to Orisanla (Figs. and captives were taken as slaves. 1980a. 1980). FAMILYHISTORY W primarily for his dedication to Ifa. who was a diviner. most notable are those of Bernard Maupoil (1943) and 'Wande Abimbola. At Aledo quarter. 3). and Sango and Obaluaiye's companion. bringing with him his diviner's iron staff. Osinaike had shrines for the water deity. A covered pot designates the shrine of Atakan (Fig. shifted their settlement to Aledo. we explore yet another facet of the complex world of Ifa: a diviner's shrine for Ifa and the gods (agbo Ifa ati orisa). "father-ofancient-wisdom") who takes care of it. or Araba. 1975. his son. much of it having been damaged over the years by the collapsed mud walls of their house. Esu (Fig. Bayani (Fig.An Ifa Diviner's Shrine in Ij ebuland shrine for one of Osibuluren's children-Osinaike's younger sister-a special child known as Atakan. 1976. both in the homeland and in the diaspora (1969. a small hamlet near Imodi. Ijebu was engaged in war. and his own Ifa instruments. OSIJO. The literature on Ifa is impressive. where Osibuluren practiced divination until his death and where his descendants remain until today. Osibuluren and his son. the caretaker of the brass figures known as edan (cf. HOLDING IN HIS LEFT HAND THE BRASS IPAWO ASE FROM HIS FOREFATHEROSINAIKE. the corpus of Ifa literature. Osinaike. He settled at a place called Idomoro. Ositola's forefather. 61 . 5).
Mum AtI 2." IPAWO ASE. OFESUTHAT TYPES VARIOUS BELONGED TOTHE HOUSING FAMILY OVER THE 1. OFIMODI. BACK OF THE ITIS "FED. THE IFASHRINEOF THEANCESTORS.It.. n. ESUSHRINE GENERAWERE REPORTEDLY CARVED BYONABANJO THE TWO LARGEST FIGURES TIONS. WHERE 3. RIGHT SACRED NUT THESE OBJECTS WERE SAID TO HAVEBEEN CARVED BY ONABANJO. 60 . PROBABLY THE THE 19TH SMALLER WERE PART OF CENTURY TWO BY INTHELATTER HISFATHER. ot.AND ATTHE THE LOWER PALM CONTAINER.
and it is now defunct. she was abiku. Ifa instructed that Osineye be a diviner throughout his life. ipawo onile)-and "some of the power within the iledi" and used them to assist the Awujale. not to release the Onile or the ipawo to anyone until the dispute was settled and the Osugbo Agan was reestablished. A lidded pot indicates the shrine of Ilori. however. "Knowing-the-Head. the brass rattle (ipawo apena. who died prematurely (Fig."14 Odujoke was the leader of the Obatala priestesses at Odo Yanta during her lifetime. gave birth to Osineye circa 1876. The latter prepared their ritual objects-the brass Onile figures.1805) = diviner/Araba dOGUNADERIN diviner/Ilori 90SINEWU Atakan OSINAIKE (b. only a kilometer away." Osineye was diverted from his destiny. he continued to divine occasionally. Odujoke. Talabi brought to the house an Osoosi shrine consisting of a lidded pot (Fig. Because Osineye was well known and prosperous in the community. and from a number of other babalawo practicing at Imosan. which should always be in his view (Fig. there was another war. 11). his cocoa and kola nut plantations burned. around the 1860s.c. this has not occurred. Ago Iwoye. Concerned about his welfare." ceremony on behalf of his son. To make matters worse.c.1956) diviner/OkeAgbona/ Muslim/Araba I 9 BUKONLA (b. he and Odujoke gave birth to twins." ceremony. an Idowu. that is. During Osinaike's time. 5.c.people came from Ijebu Ode. as soon as Osineye resumed as a babalawo. Osinaike and his wife.8 Osinaike then instructed his senior son. "Establishing-Ifa. 7). Osineye.c. Ogunaderin reportedly had a large shrine in his own house. Esu. and at an old age he took another wife. Ogunaderin. Circa 1914. a child born after twins. for she. By that time Imodi had grown into a sizeable town with four experienced babalawo-Adagiri. Densulu. he attracted the attention of the Muslims. who was the Olurin. Ifa revealed that Osineye's spirit (emi) had come from the mountain (oke)and that he should have a shrine prepared for the mountain deity. in Odo Yanta (a hamlet some four kilometers west of Imodi) (Figs. Osinaike. who is associated with the divine mediator. 9-8). during his Itefa.1921) d OSIBOWALE TWINS memorial figures on shrineOI -= OSIFUWA (b.1914) memorial figures on shrine 9 DENSULU priestess of Orisanla/ Ereluin Osugbo/Osun/ OrisaEgbe/Olokun 9 TALABI Osoosi = d OSINEYE (b. 12Osineye fathered his first daughter circa1900. an Olueri pot. Esu. 9.7 The Awujale requested the aid of Osugbo Agan members." seized the Onile and the ipawo. but quarreled over the gifts that the Awujale gave them for their help. a child born with the umbilical cord around its neck. one born before his mother's menses had returned after she had given birth to another child.1835) in Osugbo/diviner/ Olurin Esu Yangi/Eyinle/Sango/ Obaluaiye/Bayani/ EsuAsobote 9 BANSOLU her orisa inherited by her daughter -ODUJOKE Orisanla/Obatala/abiku Elueri/Esu/Olokun/ igba aje/Aina/OrisaEgbe I TWINS (d. Fortunately he had stored all his shrines in a new house. but his children did not take care of it after his death. Densulu. and had one more child. and Orisa Egbe came originally from the house of Odujoke's mother. . 13).c. too. younger Ogunaderin. The shrine for Aina. It was also during this time that Islam took a strong hold in Imodi. added her own shrines to the family collection. Ogunaderin. an Orisanla priestess. OSITOLA'SPATRILINEAGE. Ososa. Oke Agbona. who was the Araba of Imodi. He was also a special child known as Ilori.1915-d.1876-d. he prospered only for a short time and then suddenly and tragically plummeted to a position much worse than where he began.c. she died. Even though he had converted to Islam.13But he was unlucky. The second Orisanla/Obatala shrine. igba aje.1800) I I - 90RUKONUKU abiku 9 EFUNBAMOWO dOSIBULUREN (b. They were successful. was a special child.Osinaike's brother. Circa 1915they gave birth to Ositola's father. 2. Osineye focused his attentions on raising cocoa and kola nuts. Bansolu. was the most notable diviner during his generation. and he went 62 divinerlopaosun/OlotuAgbaokein Osugbo dOSINAALO (b. Aina. while the Orisa Egbe shrine is for Odujoke herself in order to prevent her from dying. Since Osineye was a celebrated babalawo. for during his ten to fifteen years as a practicing Muslim. represents Odujoke's sister. Talabi. Osineye was advised to give up farming and tailoring and to devote himself to Ifa.9 When Osinaike consulted Ifa during the Imori. On the day that his daughter was scheduled to become a Muslim. He is also remembered as the earliest tailor in Imodi. who persuaded him to convert to Islam and renamed him Bello. into debt. Olokun. the Onile and the ipaworemain with the family (Figs. having inherited a substantial amount of land from his father. "born-to-die. Osineye prospered. convinced her son to consult Ifa. he neglected Ifa.1775) Apena in Osugbo dOSIJO (d. Osineye's wife. Because of his success in these endeavors. for this was the heyday of cocoa plantations in Nigeria.1969) Idowu/reincarnation of Osibuluren/ojubona for lya AlawoSociety I KOLAWOLE OSITOLA (b.1945) alias Akomolabidifa IOLAWOLE IOLAYEMI I d IFAYEMI V I ADELEKE I 6.o0 Later. Up to the present. Osineye. This disagreement interfered with the Osugbo meetings and caused the decline of the iledi. Imosan. 9-6). Osifuwa. and he was unable to have any more children for about fifteen years. Osineye's mother. Osineye was also fortunate to be able to learn more about Ifa from his uncle. For the protection of the ritual objects housed in the iledi. and Anikenuku. "The-Owner-of-the-Metal[Instruments]. thus.
one of his comrades brought him a male child and said that this boy would bring prosperity back to the house.. His grandfather taught him much about Ifa. who was a priestess of Obatala. And a few months later.. Osifuwa vowed to name the son Kolawole.17 In fact. diviners often preferred to use these sacred items in their own Itefa ceremonies. From his grandmother." ceremony for him before his birth-a ceremony traditionally performed at age five or six. "Making-Ifa. Around 1952. Ifa advised the family that this granddaughter. Osifuwa went to primary school for about three years before he began to practice Ifa at an early age and learned how to write and read Yoruba. At the Ikose W'aiye. It was at the same time. Orunmila. Ifa said that Osifuwa's soul (emi) came to the world from an ancestor who was a babalawo and that his father should not prevent him from becoming a diviner. Kolawole was thus born August 31. the diviners placed them on the mother's belly. Odujoke. Because Osineye had suffered the consequences of neglecting Ifa. he learned how to prepare and install shrines for the deities. it was discovered that Osifuwa was a reincarnation of Osibuluren and that he should dedicate himself to Ifa. which he could hear only during Ifa rituals. he groomed his child to become a babalawo. At the age of six. and the babalawotold him that his daughterin-law.ADEFOWORAADEBANJO. and he accompanied his father and grandfather whenever they performed Ifa rituals. Osineye was so renowned that he was able to organize diviners from many Ijebu towns into a cooperative. who told him to return home immediately. circa 1921. And when Ogunaderin and Anikenuku died. Osineye then consulted an experienced diviner from Ago Iwoye about his dream. he also received a Muslim name. Osifuwa performed his Itefa ceremony. Ifa instructed that she be betrothed to Osifuwa. Because of the age and power of the igba odu and his opa osun.FIGURE FOR BAYANI. when they performed the Imori ceremony for her. By then. Even though Osifuwa was less successful than his father had been. 's And when they performed his Imori ceremony. where he dreamed that he saw his grandfather. but he was very close to them. while Osineye.18 The pregnant mother knelt down.Ft 7. daughter Odulaalu. He had a quick mind and a good memory and became very knowledgeable during his lifetime. which is a closed calabash constituting the shrine of the goddess Odu. that he should instruct him in Ifa practice. and Islam was on the rise. He was able to memorize quickly special incantations. and that they should perform an Isefa. he was traveling during the months before his wife was to give birth to their first child. originated Ifa divination. TWO IBEJI CARVED BY ONABANJO. LEFT TO RIGHT TWO IBJEI CARVED BY ONABANJO'S GRANDDAUGHTER. On his return. Osifuwa therefore had few clients. as is the common practice. and by age ten he was given the leading role in performing Itefa ceremonies for clients. he adhered to Ifa's advice.ti: " ~pp-. REPRESENTING OSITOLAS JUNIOR SIBLINGS. One night Osifuwa's father. and Ofa to find capable babalawowho could teach him more divination verses. Bukonla. Instead of putting kola nuts on the child's head to pray. Osifuwa. during which it was revealed that he should be the husband of a certain child right from his youth. .Osifuwa was in Ofa Meanwhile. He had one of the few igbaodu in the area.41 ?I:. that Osineye was called upon to perform the Ikose W'aiye at the birth of the grandof the Head of Imodi. 1945. the Koran informed them that ritual sacrifice was not godly. Bukonla. 63 . who performed "mirades" and called themselves Iya Alawo ("Mothers The Who Possess-Ancient-Wisdom"). who together with her husband. not wanting to forget the traditional Osi name. he slept and ate with them. 10). 8.. however. should marry a babalawo. . People were no longer interested in Ifa. He also served as the attendant (ojubona) for a society of women.. which he does not acknowledge and will not divulge. He advised him to encourage the boy to become a babalawo. Osinaike. Osineye was made the Araba of that area and was also the diviner for the Head Chief of Imodi. Osineye. his grandparents were growing old. Osi Ekiti. and the diviners prayed for her womb. would give birth to a diviner. that his child was coming and he should name him Kolawole. traditional religion was in decline. FIGURE FOR OBALUAIYE. "SteppingOne's-Foot Into-the-World.. Osifuwa traveled as far as Ile-Ife. Muslims accused traditional practitioners of Yoruba religion of being "idol worshippers". even if they were on the verge of death.. Ositola began to dream that enemies pursued him and Ak - 40 . Osifuwa's parents and the Head of Imodi kept Ifa's instructions in mind until their children were old enough to marry." ceremony for Osineye's son.. dreamed that as he was performing an annual Ifa festival. gave him Ositola. In evidence of the impact of Islam. framed certificate on the wall of the shrine acknowledges Osifuwa's association with these spiritually powerful women (Fig.16 To expand his knowledge of Ifa.and Odogbolu to consult him. SANGO AND EYINLE. by that time. he heard of the Isefa ceremony.
people do not consult Ifa as often as they did in the past. 6. IFAOF OLAWOLE. Ositola continues his father's woik. Ositola stresses that it is the idea and the intention behind the gift that counts. we have observed an Agbo priest using an ipawoase at the annual festival for the water spirits. that he would escape them by flying above their heads. and others." It is not meant strictly for use in Osugbo. It is composed of containers holding vital ingredients to activate the spirit. Ositola has organized a small group of diviners and students (omoawo) who are committed to traditional religion. its role is essentially the same. 5) and the two Onile figures (Fig. But because of past events. that is. OBALUAIYEOF OSINAIKE. 26. No matter the context. such as Sango. sculpture focuses worship: "If you see the image there. In Ijebuland. Because it resides at that place. Deities. and [for] blessing the article with the spirit. the group of babalawo went their separate ways. The two traditional institutions represented in Ositola's shrine that have played prominent roles in the history of his patrilineage are those of Ifa and Osugbo. A shrine is where a Yoruba deity "sits. the Apena carries the ipawoase in his left hand and rattles it in response to his comrades' ritual assertions. Thus. objects necessary for the diviner's performance. IFA OF OSIFUWA. IFAOF KOLAWOLE OF OSITOLA. Deities do not come because of the images. SANGO OF OSINAIKE. choose where they want to be placed.4. ordinary images. Not only does each have a history and serve as a memento of the ancestor.32. Other images and their spirits. E 30 1. After the death of Osineye in 1956. this ipawoase is used in Ifa ritual by diviners in much the same way it would be used by Osugbo mem- . although some of these are often grouped together in the same spot because they "eat" the same food. 19 1pawoase means literally "hand-heldstaff that possesses-vital-force. which attract the spirit to the site. Ibeji. men go through Itefa ceremonies only after their lives have been shattered. in front of the diviner's house. his father interpreted them to mean that nobody would be able to conquer him. which dates to the late 18th century.5. AINA. while Esu should be just inside the entrance to the shrine room. Osugbo Ordinarily Osugbo objects would be kept in an enclosure inside the Osugbo lodge. IFA OF IFAYEMI. SHRINE FOR IFAAND ORISA (AGBO IFAATI ORISA). The spirit is within the article. when a shrine is neglected. 13. 8. INSTRUMENTS USED IN IFA RITES. the person has relegated the deities to idols. There was no longer any cooperation among them." Some of the deities occupy specific places based on their roles. IFAOF OLAYEMI. thus. IGBA OF DENSULU.1 5 3 6 1012 14 16 17 18 20 ENTRANCE ORIGINAL 21 22 23 224 ODI INNERSANCTUMWHERE THE FOLLOWING ARE KEPT: ONILE AGEMO ODU LOGBOJE OLOKUN IYAOALAJE 25 26 27 28 29 OPA AWO 9. and people with little training and no experience began to call themselves babalawo. OSUN AJE. Therefore. For this reason. may it come to pass" (ase.. the spirit must be continually fed and nourished through sacrifice.. Osugbo brass ritual objects have found their way into this household shrine. which is an active force. BAYANI OF OSINAIKE.10. 3. ESU FIGURES FOR OSIBULUREN AND OSINAIKE. IFAOF OSIBOWALE. however. 7). If a person neglects his shrine. IBEJIOF OSINEYE. 11)-reflect the traditional association of Ositola's family with Osugbo. ORISA EGBE.23. 9. 18. When shaken during ritual occasions. FOUR OR FIVEESU YANGI. often a formal "seat" or a base. 11. Today. OSOOSI. or hidden in the house of the Apena. OKEAGBONA. . 19. ORISANLA/OBATALA GBOROWO OF DENSULU. OBATALAOF BANSOLU. 2. like Odu and Onile. ATAKAN. With the strong influence of Islam and Christianity and with industrialization. And before it is fed. ESU LAMPS.30.21. Osifuwa died in 1969 at the age of fifty-four." that is." According to Ositola. That is what the article [object] is for. where they serve a new function. 15. iledi. . MINI-ASE. but each is endowed with certain powers and imagery that allow it to perform particular ritual 64 roles. if he does not offer it food-however little-the spirits will leave. which serves to raise the containers and other objects off the ground. 12. 25. EYINLE IBIRI. "all you are seeing are the images . but times are not easy. 7. may reside. where the spirit of the deity. 24. and "medicines" buried under the ground where the shrine is placed. IBEJIOF OSIFUWA. AGERE.29. ase). 31. we hope to gain insight into the meanings of art at a personal level. rather it is also used by kings and priests in other contexts. IFAOF ADELEKE. For example. FAMILY SHRINE The objects in Ositola's shrine are directly related to his ancestors. 22. it is "awakened" with incantations and actions. it is an idiophonic response to prayers and curses that means "So be it. . such as spraying gin on the shrine. [for] calling the spirit together with the article. IKEN OF FOREFATHERS AND IFA OF OSIBULUREN. you will know exactly where I face. 14. 16. 17. The opa osun should be placed outside. Three objects-the ipawoase (Figs. Today. Obaluaiye. By examining some of the sculptures on Ositola's shrine and his perceptions of their significance and history. 2. 28. images come because of the deities.27. where no one can ordinarily see them. OLUERI POTS. and each town selected its own Araba. it should be attentive. but most indicate where they want to be placed through the divination process. But to know directly how to face the spirit and where the spirit will stay is the reason for the article . When he reported these dreams. should reside in darkness in an enclosed inner sanctum (odi) of the shrine." In spite of this and in spite of his young age. and you will know to face me and how to contact me directly. ILORI. IRON STAFF FOR ESU ASOBOTE. when Osugbo members go outside the lodge into the community to pray for or to curse someone. Osifuwa and Ositola lost interest in working with them. It functions as a rattle. or "scattered like a broken calabash. 20. for example. Obaluaiye and Ibeji are often grouped together for this reason (Fig. not the size. The objects associated with these institutions are among the most visually exciting on his shrine.
one female-joined at the heads by a chain. 4). we will be remembering Olokun.Y P~19~ i a. Onile means literally "Thethat is." owner of the iledi. and everyone has his own secrets. then. 5). such as the Olurin and the Apena. and it cried. WAS JOHNSON AYANFOWORAOF IMOSAN." which could not be revealed. the opa osun acts as a weapon against death and other destructive forces. Ija. it is significant that Ositola has removed the chain from the figures. Ajesina. Thus. That's how they have been mixing every issue. then the role of the men cannot be played successfully. according to family tradition. with a quick twist of the wrist. The small edan derive power from the edan Onile. It "eats from the back". Osugbo objects that ordinarily would have never been seen openly have found their way into an Ifa shrine context. ONILE FIGURES." In light of the importance of the oneness of the two brass figures in Osugbo. and Osoosi-went to Death (Iku) and told him to kill Orunmila because they suspected that he wanted to steal their wives. it is unwise for these titleholders to gaze at them. are permitted inside the inner shrine where they are kept in darkness.. As a result of historical events. ~I~Q. Death will be sent away. according to the family history (Fig. "Any powerful enemy that stands in the way of osun is ready to die.bers (Fig. it was necessary to remove the chain "for a certain reason. LEFT 11. in this case. we put osun there. he snaps its head off because Death must take the cock instantly and depart. causing it to cry out. They represent the constitution of a local political authority. Morton-Williams oath-taking 1960:366. paired brass figures-one male. for. just to add more salt to the world. Orunmila went to consult another babalawo. which is continually nourished with blood. The Onile are the ultimate edan. IN WHICH OSIFUWA RVED BY THE FRAME PROBABLY ATTENDANT. kooo. There has never been a time when we have men and we don't have women. used in (cf. goddess of the sea. If you leave woman. the Onile figures must be distinguished from their smaller counterparts in a number of significant ways. the opa osun is considered the oldest ritual object in the family. It's for [the] oneness of the Osugbo. among other things. where they are altered to serve purposes other than those for which they were initially intended. men and women. the wings. kooo. Before seeing the figures. the Owner-of-the-House." " b --P. thus separating them. Death prepared to strike. absorbs power through its tip. Any action taken by human beings will be witnessed by earth. The flesh of the cock is cooked and eaten by the women. Then the blood of the sacrificial animals is dripped over the Onile and is also wiped around the eyes of the beholder. When used with incantations. Orunmila is "The-Akoko-Tree-by-the-Sea" (Akoko'lokun). Standing erect next to an akokotree (Newboldia Laevis [Bignoniaceae]) (Abraham house. literally "drink-from-the-earth") that binds all Osugbo members together. As Ositola said. So everybody comes to play his role successfully . and the feet serve as evidence of the sacrifice. However. POWERFUL IYALAANON..?:I P 1?1^ I cli` 14:i -:x ?? rl:. we know that Orunmila is still there. the original pact that forms a government and ritually binds its members together. Immediately. The Onile are cast when a town is founded and an Osugbo house is established. dating from at least the late 18th century. According to Ositola." When Death heard the suffering cry of the cock. And beyond that. They are such good friends that Olokun gave Orunmila her daughter. PROBABLY DATINGTO THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY. it possesses performative power (ase). when going on an "Ifa journey. must not leave the darkness of the inner shrine.21 The paired male and female figures refer directly to the pact (imule. "Kooo. while the osun receives the nourishment of its blood. The tail (iru) of the osun. on the other hand. The diviner makes the cock suffer by pulling out its tail feathers. And there has never been a time when we have women and we don't have men." Thus. Men have the secret and women have the secret. one must consult Onile to find out what sacrifices must be offered. Afraid. they all come to the world at the same time. who instructed him to give a cock to Death. Williams 1964). Ifa: Opa Osun Made of iron. This is enacted during the Itefa ceremony when the babalawofaces the osun and sacrifices a cock. earth unites all mankind. "Whenever we plant an akokotree in front of the house. in its great expanse. it sounded so wonderful that he took the cry and went away. Traditionally they are so restricted that only certain titled elders in Osugbo.~L~") r Jb~i~ugg~' id" 10. and his friendship with Olokun. Then. THE-OWNERS-OF-THE-HOUSE. which is stuck into the ground. "They have to join them together to make one couple. Even then. It is used in the shrine during Itefa ceremonies and weekly Ifa meetings. blood offerings are poured on the back of the ipawo (Fig. if one presents a cock to the osun. deity of divination. The opa osun represents the power of the babalawoto conquer death. CERTIFICATE OF MEMBERS '1P IN THE EGBE . the cock substitutes for the human beings attending the ceremony. The Onile figures. It's for oneness.20 They are considered edan. around the late 18th century. the Osugbo lodge. Like the edan. In this way.VO. Orunmila pulled the cock's tail feathers. They are prepared with such powerful substances that to see them is to risk blindness or death. finally mounting them on the sides and feet of the iron bird on the osun. they are. He touches the cock's head to the heads of all onlookers and then mounts it on the iron head of the bird surmounting the osun."22 Once three warrior deities-Ogun. Death is satisfied to take the breath or spirit of the cock." The Onile figures reflect the makeup of the Osugbo council itself and the important relationship between men and women. In succession. 2). A SOCIETY OF • 'TION AS AN WOMEN.a-ras~sswli~4~t~?~L~'. they represent all men and women in the community." that is. he pulls off the wings and feet of the cock and touches them to the shoulders and feet of the onlookers. that is.. just to trou- ble each other. The head. 65 . remaining attached to the osun until they deteriorate. the 1958:44)in front of a babalawo's opa osun marks a residence of Orunmila. a pact indeed witnessed by earth. too. when It~ P_. According to Ositola: "You see. The medicines that give the osun much of its power are buried at its base. as a wife.
3). or "built up. or ate (Figs. for. we should do it in the name of the hawk. "the-one-who-has-a-diviner's-flywhisk "leader. which contains the iken. In addition. that of a devotee and that of a priest. in its ability to be impervious to attack. readies it for action.e. Osineye. On the front surface of the base is inscribed the sign of ogbe'fun(the Odu that requested the two miniature wood carvings). the one of the most recent ancestor.. and she hid her husband inside her stomach to save him. the iken). "foot of the tray. which is represented at its top. while the bowl inside it. "Stand up. At the crossroads. Osinaike. Among the possibilities are a brass Osugbo staff (edan Onile). if a babalawowants to remove the osun when going to the bush. don't fall down." Nothing drops from the hawk's claws. A devotee's personal set ofiken Ifa may be kept in one of several different types of containers-an agere (a figurated goes. the one that brought Esu to the world. Enemies cannot destroy it. ideally should be female. or simply a small lidded wooden or porcelain bowl (Fig. it is essential that the akodaiken live in a carved wooden container. not just for his own protection in dealing with potentially destructive forces but also for the protection of his clients. the deities (irunmaleor orisa). "a general iken for the benefit of the outsider. illustrated in Figure 12. it does not turn loose." of the tray. let's go to igboodu because the hawk is alert. 13). Thus. unless. they have a personal set of iken to serve the deity Orunmila and a "general" set for clients. The iken in Figure 12 represent three generations. The large oponcontainer sits on top of a flat opontray. A set of iken is sixteen palm nuts plus one. 9. By invoking all the sections of the opon. "Osunduro. It faces and protects the diviner's house. 3. buried at the base of the opa osun to absorb some of its power. He must possess the powers of the pangolin and the hawk. or an image made of the wood of the star apple tree (igi osan. Thus. the opa osun does not simply mark the presence of the deity. At the same time. and it contains Orunmila (i. Ifa may instruct a diviner through his personal Odu to place another. in which type of container. Through divination. and then it will be re-erected. Osineye. he chants. forefathers. images carved on the agere. that the iken "have reached the age of adult Orunmila. but are for Esu.24 According to Ositola.used to cast Ifa (Bascom 1969:26. For this reason. upper left) belonged to Osibuluren. whether one. which represent the elder siblings of Ositola's father. or sections of the literary corpus named for the wife of Orunmila. Ifa:Iken Perhaps the most important of all Ifa ritual objects. Abiodun 1975). the group stops and chants incantations. ogbe'fun. of course. is called oju opon. the seventeenth Odu." The upper right section of the tray is alabalotun. "History told us that if we want something to act quickly. which holds the akoda iken) (Fig. maasubule":"Osun wooden bowl on a stand). The part nearest the diviner is the ese opon. the flat oponsits on top of an ajerepot. is the eriladeopon. belonged to Osineye." If the iken number eighty-one. osun is quick acting and efficient. "face" of the opon. After two to three months. It is also a means by which the diviner collects himself and establishes his own concentration. "the-one-whoOn the implements-with-the-left. Therefore. it is prepared with medicines). The last."At the right-hand side is ona okanran. two. the diviner alerts its spiritual essences. "five handfuls. often miniature. large cowries for the goddess of the sea (aje Olokun. then when some of them "die." There is a prayer for the osun.performing an Itefa ceremony. although sculptors have flexibility in what they choose to carve. Thus. Orunmila. Chrysophyllum africanum)(CMS 1937:243)." over a long period of time through many rituals and are." that is." lower right is ajiletepowo. the additional one stands for osetura. the upper left is alaselosi. his power and resilience." meaning that the babalawoshould live long. or largest.23 It has the power of the hawk (asa). When a babalawo dies. thus.is in its tail. "theAfter the dicenter-has-the-crown. and it also represents the babalawo himself-his life. the iken of the ancestors. it must also be in front of a procession. which is mounted on a base molded from cement (Fig. a water stone (ota kiiku. and Osineye.and (irukere)-and-is-happy.e." while the left is ona munu. while the one in the lead swings the end of the osun outward to drive away destructive forces. 13. a necessity since iken are prepared. It stands again to assert that although the father has fallen. his successor has taken over. These objects vary from Odu to Odu. in part. They have been combined to form the osi iken. These sections are invoked as the diviner "opens" the tray at the beginning of a consultation. an ajere(a perforated clay pot). They were carved for the iken of Ositola's grandfather. When an agerebegins to deteriorate. the power of the osun. [be] used as a toy. a thundercelt (edunara). and certain birds. it chooses to do so. the Esu figures date to circa 1914. who seek his help. he is prepared.These small figures are by the same hand as the oldest pair of twin figures. The large carved opon holding them (Figs. These miniatures must remain with the iken forever. the opa osun leads the way as the babalawoand others proceed to and from the bush of Odu (igboodu). "a straight path. Most babalawoown two sets because they have two relationships with Ifa." viner "greets" these nine ancient he may then pay homage to his babalawo. three. "an-earlyriser-who-sits-down-and-prospers." The femaleness of the agere is under- The center. even though they are unfigurated. which are metaphors for the diviner's ability to chant. Included are those of Osibuluren. and male children line the back and side walls of the shrine room (Fig. object on top of his iken when they have reached adulthood (eighty-one in number). During Ifa rituals. or otherwise." there are plenty in reserve to replace them. like the power of the pangolin (arika)." 66 . he acts quickly. the flat opon is used for divining. are the sacred palm nuts (iken25). Ifa: Agere Agere was once upon a time a wife of Orunmila. In the shrine. is a pair of miniature figures that look like twin figures. which is oriented opposite the diviner. although he may have up to eighty-one (owo marun. uncle. known as akoda iken. known as agere. plus one).. or four. also "a direct path. his successor will offer a number of large sacrifices to the osun." or five times sixteen. literally. brothers." and on the lower left is afurukeresayo. Containers of iken belonging to Ositola's forefathers. an iron implement associated with the god of iron and war (s'erin Ogun). and ultimately his departure from the world. A diviner uses sixteen sacred palm nuts when casting Ifa. 9). "Five-handfuls-know-tomorrow"). "the-one-who-proposes-with-the-right". it must be buried in the igbo Odu because "it is a delicate thing which should not be burned. an odu (another small clay pot without perforations). The main." According to Ositola. 12). 3). at certain times. True to its position in front of the house. the wealth of Olokun). and at the same time focuses the attention of all those present on the divining process. which is also from the ancestors. literally "stone never-dies"). the osun will be laid down on its side. in order to be proper (Fig. but in each case the Odu specifies what the object(s) should be and the number. The sixteen represent the main Odu. 3) is female wood and serves two purposes: it works very hard (i. Eighty-one sacred iken are evidence of "the growth of [the] Ifa to Orun-mila" (Owo-marun-mo-lola. She was so industrious that Orunmila would always work with her. as instructed by his Odu. his quickness and tenacity in conquering enemies. which stand up. where the verses of Ifa are marked. Once it has grabbed its prey with its feet. according to Ositola. the iken say where they want to "live. It has nine sections said to represent ancient babalawo. the agere (the figurated carved wooden container.
because it makes him act more. i ~ra~` '4A rr ~ ur:. Art objects reflect the lives of individuals. that they have been built up through successive rituals. makes a sacrifice to them. 7). oral and liturgical literature.a416P 6:l ox 7?4w. That was his own figure when he was created. on the left hand side (Fig. It's both sexes. 12). wives-especially Ifa: Esu Shrine The shrine for Esu is "at the gate. 1). and Orisa Egbe (9-7). themes reiterated in the history of Ositola's O family. and the pots for Atakan (Fig. the changes in containers reflect the maturation of the Ifa devotee himself and his changing relationships with women-first with his mother. Odujoke." The Ifa containers. born with a different shape. for example.sb~ -~~q--El~s" a~ a~~Y~l~i~ ::i . were perceived to have a special relationship with certain spirit beings. THE IKEN OF THE ANCESTORS WITH OSINEYE'S SMALL ESU FIGURES. and the feathers of the sacrificial cock are left on the shrine (Fig. Likewise. in particular. finally with his wife. LEFT 13. decided to assemble these various Esu together so they would be "in one piece. When asked about this. This is especially apparent in the various objects that represent family members who were born into the world in special ways and. Each babalawohad his own Esu. and partner in both a spiritual and a social sense. About the ogo hairstyle. Then she replaces the clay pot with a wooden or porcelain one for the Itefa ceremony. a: 3iP . He's a conThe smaller pair of figures reportedly belonged to Osibuluren. the histories of its owners. Aina (9-5). he will be a very powerful and strong man.. are called ogo. These hairstyles. to his back. because "Esu works hand to hand with them. 3. 1)-and the various containers that hold the palm nuts." He is "a miracle person. These items represent different types of Esu. which have been purchased by the mother or a wife of the Ifa devotee (Fig. between family and dead-and bemembers-living tween males and females." just inside the entrance to the room. During the Isefa ceremony. 11). documenting their identities. CONCLUSIONS The richness of meaning in Yoruba art derives from multiple sources: its form and iconology." The shrine of Orisa Egbe is placed near by. "It is for his action.? c. Notes.. The head. the bush of Odu. 1).scored by the fact that the wife of the diviner must provide the container for the iken. 9. a short iron staff. The sacrifice to Esu is made in a way similar to that to the opa osun. Equally important. the substances used in its preparation. Ositola's family shrine for Ifa and the gods highlights various spiritual and social relationshipsboth personal and general-between individuals and deities. born with ogo.. ----L-. SHRINES (LEFT) AND IFA SHRINES ORISANLA/OBATALA (RIGHT) REPRESENTING VARIOUS DIVINERS AND ORUNMILA DEVOTEES IN THE FAMILY. He has things which are not common to other people. to get this long ogo hair.page99 d?: .. 11) and the ipawo ase deepens. the mother of the diviner would provide the initial container. The earlier ones are buried inside the igboodu. while the larger pair was Osinaike's. P?r. the histories of people or groups illuminate the symbolism of art. 9-32). Thus they date to approximately the 1830s and 1860s respectively. 67 . feet." In addition to four or five Esu Yangi (the laterite mounds at the bottom) there are four figures and an iron staff made in the form of an opa osun. our understanding of the Onile figures (Fig. which would have been a calabash. Ositola says. like that. Individual Esu on the shrine can be used to "trouble" people. Traditionally. The Onile figures (and the edan) confirm the "oneness" of the female and male Osugbo members. while the paired Esu figures suggest the deity is at once male and female. and the iron staff. In exploring the meaning of these figures for specific individuals. These changes in the containers that hold the iken reflect their maturity. ascribe to mothers as well as wives roles of supporter. Ositola responded. At the same time. as a dependent infant and then as a more independent boy. when the diviner grows up and marries. we gain insight into their significance for the larger community. and then "commands" them to go. CARVED BY ONABANJO. the miniature Esu figures fusionist.~-q ~s~s 12. ::~bSnio. Most notable are the twin memorial figures (Fig. 12) as well as those on Esu's shrine (Fig. "Well. :t\ ~glAp? r i. in particular. as did Ositola's grandmother. protector. which have been owned by family members over the generations. and "confusionist. It is made up of four figures. This latter relationship is expressed in a number of different objects on Ositola's shrine: the Onile figures (Fig.Z. Ilori (9-31). mediator. like the figures themselves. -"c~ i. Thus the iken can be said to represent the babalawo himself-and by extension Orunmila-while the containers represent his mother and ultimately his Agere and Odu. As the historical account of Ositola's ancestors unfolds." that is. .. his wife must replace the third container with one specified by Ifa through divination. drives away "bad spirits. what is there is that nobody can say Esu is male or female." Ositola "gives them what they need. Oke Agbona (9-6). the mother replaces the calabash with a clay pot. Everyone will know he's a different man. 13). ~r? . and its roles in various rituals conducted by individuals over the generations. Finally. Ositola and his father. the Esu figuresthose with the palm nuts (Fig. and perceptions. and about five laterite mounds. but which is for Esu. We may also glimpse their changing roles and meanings through time. its placement on a shrine. concerns. Four of the figures represent pairs with long pigtail hairstyles and small calabashes (ado)around the heads. thus." Each pair of Esu figures represents a male and female.'"26 (Fig. Osifuwa. Together these objects communicate the importance of the unity of men and women-not only sexual but socialand their distinct roles in society.
In Ijebuland. October 10-14. that is. JUSTINE M. 25. and to Herbert Cole.sponsored by the NationalEnrecentlyreturned dowmentfor the Humanities. James Boyd. In addition. co-director of the research project. for his service in the Owu wars. to Ifa divination: "When some parents sought out a diviner. "Often the Apena could not. they deny that there is such a thing as a deity of the earth. It is likely that this event refers to the Ijaye war. H.University of Texas. the parents called on him to 'surrender the child to him. 26. "Folklore Research in Africa. awarded land in Imodi to one Balogun. VICTORIA SCOTTis an artist. ed. Ile-Ife: Department of African Languages and Literatures. Apa Keji. 19." American Anthropologist 65:1314-27. he attributes Islam's success. he usually instructs that person to make a shrine and serve Orisa Egbe." Africa 31:61-74. was born around 1876-78 because he and the mother of Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola were of the same age grade. held the title of Olurin in Osugbo. HENRY Professorof ArtHistory and Chairmdn of the ArtDepartment at Cleveland State University.' The child was then given a Muslim name and.' held parties for the child once every week." in Standard Dictionary of Folklore. MARGARET THOMPSONDREWAL is Research Associate for an interdisciplinary study in Yorubaart and religion. 20." Journal of American Folklore 77:3-11. 23. 1968. Ifa: An Exposition of Ifa Literary Corpus. The particular Odu divining Islam as being the religion for the child is Otura Meji" (Gbadamosi 1978:92-93. and he was slightly older than Osifuwa's father. he had lost his youthful appearance. New York: Nok Publishers Ltd. but apprehended as simply occupying a fixed locus in the iledi" (1964:141). however. Ironically. Likewise. O. Osineye. Orukonuku. was brought up in the true Muslim way. According to Ajayi and Smith (1962:92-93). See Longe (1981:7). p.arthistorian. that is. 1969. This was continued until the child came of age. The former took place in the first quarter of the 1800s (cf. see Abimbola (1980). in the words of one diviner." These spirits are not regarded as male or female. fromresearch in Nigeria. 1967. 421-69. we wish to express our gratitude to Kolawole Ositola and his omo awo for their support and generosity during our stay in Ijebuland. PHILIP M. Abimbola. If a diviner determines that a person has come to the world as an abiku. "Ifa Art Objects: An Interpretation Based on Oral Traditions. and William Bascom. or soul. and Drewal (1977b). Reportedly. 7. the nature of his inner head (ori inun). Abiodun (1975). The Ikose W'aiye is a ceremony performed for a child just after birth but before the Imori ceremony. Bibliography Abimbola. Abimbola. spirits of the earth. like the High God in Yoruba cosmology. informants say the Onile figures. The parents were then taught by the diviner the proper steps to take to ensure the well-being of the predestined Muslim. is Professor formerly of Anthropology at the California College of Artsand Craftsin Oaklandand Chairof the Department of Textiles. Osinaike was already middle-aged by the time he fathered a child. Apa Kiini. J. International African Institute. Further. As noted above.Formerly a teacher at YabaTechnicalCollege in Lagos. April 26-30. 18-24. DREWAL& DREWAL. see Drewal (1977a). the king of Ijebu-Ode. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. 1975. Waterman. Most especially. William." Bibliography Bascom. Patai. For other interpretations of the bird on top of the opa osun. and Legend." in YorubaOral Tradition: Poetry in Music. JAMESB. based on archeological evidence (Calvocoressi 1978). While standing in the ground. Abiodun." Paper presented at the Conference of the Relations between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa. see Wescott (1962) and Pemberton (1975). and Atanda (1973). 17. As soon as any mallam appeared. Beidelman. the deity Aderiwo is buried on its right. This paper reflects only a fraction of our work with him. who was also called Olurin (Bovell-Jones 1943:74). T. she is now studyingwith RobertPlantArmstrong. Onile is never anthropomorphized and worshipped in any particular rendering. the Awujale. 1963. 14. true to Yoruba custom. and Orere is buried on its left. W. 1982. Ibadan: Oxford University Press. CROWLEY. . 0. London: Ethnographic Survey of Africa. since earth unites all mankind. These spirits of the earth play a role in witnessing Osugbo members' oaths. indicates an abiku. The Matrilineal Peoples of Eastern Tanzania. and cut for the child a number of white dresses. 12. Olurin is the Osugbo title of the Baale (Head Chief) or the Oba (King) of a town. the paired brass figures. The family reckons that his son. however. Abimbola. his deities (orisa). Drewal. The name. R. his name was Abifarinmapose. pp. DANIEL J. The fact that osun is made of iron may be related to its quick. T. called Osugbo Ikan. They prepared in the house a small enclosure of the size of the 'girigiri. 22. The Yoruba word for Ifa's sacred palm nuts is usually spelled ikin in the literature. 1976. 18. 24. "to drink from the earth. 96). Sixteen Great Poems of Ifa. the Ijebus aligned themselves with the Egba and in 1861 raided Ibadan farms and captured Apomu. Onile is a pair. Sodeke. It is performed to "build up" the sacred palm nuts (iken) used in divining in order to give them the "strength" to go through Itefa. Ifa Divination Poetry. Philadelphia. This tradition probably refers to the Owu and the Owiwi wars. co-authored with on human creativity and cultural John Pemberton. "Utani: Joking. "Indulco and Mumia. during th( Owiwi war. 1977. 1964. R. Abiodun. who worked closely with us in the field for two months during the summer of 1982. Professor of Anthropology at the Universityof Washington. and his prohibitions (ewo). 1964. he had a representative attend meetings. 115). In 1832. CORDWELLreceived her Ph. at Northwestern University under Melville Herskovitsand has conducted extensive research among the Yoruba. "reformed abiku. Mabogunje & Omer-Cooper 1971:53-54). "Hyena and Rabbit: The Folktale As a Sociological Model. Ijinle Ohun Enu Ifa. The Imori ceremony is performed for a child usually three to nine months after birth in order to establish from where the emi. who have taken their oaths in the presence of earth." Journal of American Folklore 77:12-31." CONTRIBUTORS ROBERT PLANT ARMSTRONG is Professorof Anthropology andAestheticStudies. Dallas. Maria Leach. 9. W. Williams (1964). Raphael. 1961. Although Onile is interpreted in the literature on Osugbo as "Owner of the Earth" or Earth Mother. Ijinle Ohun Enu Ifa. 1949. the Yoruba parents. 3. According to Gbadamosi (1978:32. and his muscles had become flabby. who was born in 1902. CHRISTENSEN is Professorof Anthropology at WayneState University. Research for this paper was carried out in Ijebuland from February through July. or would not. The name of one of his babalazwofriends in Ofa is still remembered. Sometime during the early 1800s. The Iwarefa comprise the six highest-ranking chiefs in Osugbo (Lloyd 1962:41-42). "African and New World Negro Folklore. Sexual License and Social Obligations among the Luguru. The osun has two companions. it is also for its two companions. the Egba leader. This ceremony and others. Osineye. especially on Fridays. 45. An abiku is a person whose spirit. ed. 2. specify a figure of Onile in any way different from the standard edan. they were informed by some of these Ifa diviners that such a child was predestined to be a Muslim. Such persons are thought to die continually and to be reborn. Iken is used here to reflect Ijebu pronunciation. efficient action (cf. RUTH M. 10. a small Esu is placed near by. or the soul. Chief Odutola himself was born in 1902 (cf. as a protege of a Muslim. which are secluded in the inner sanctum of the iledi. Agiri (1972). since kings traditionally did not appear in public. Awujale Fusengbuwa. in part. king of Ijebu-Ode. SIMONOTTENBERG. On being so informed. Thus. in Ijebuland. Itefa is a ceremony traditionally performed when a male child reaches six or seven years old. W. and consequently all humankind. Whenever a sacrifice is made to the osun." 15. Knowing the origin of the soul that animates the child's body is the first stage in "knowing the child's head" (imo ori). one male and one female. Glasgow: Collins. 21. Curator of Textilesat the LowieMuseumof Anthropology.Davis. causing that person's death. He is currentlywritingup materialson the art forms of the Limba. It is during this ceremony that the child's family learns which Odu Ifa brought him to the world. although some Ijebu-Ode notables appeared on horseback in Muslim festivals before 1879. "The Concept of Women in Traditional Yoruba Religion and Art. It is interesting that Luguru tales sometimes end with their version of the cliche that "they lived happily every after.conducted field research among the Igboin 1952-53 and 1959-60. sponsored by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (RO-20072). pursuec marauders deep into Ijebu territory." Paper presented at the Conference on Nigerian Women and Development in Relation to Changing Family Structure. There were many examples of these 'predestined Muslims' in Ijebu area . he supposedly captured seven Ijebu generals and buried their heads in front of his compound in Iporo. Longe 1981:7). We wish to acknowledge the contributions of John Pemberton III. so that the parents may have some indication of the child's identity 16. Beidelman. 1976. . that is. "Verbal and Visual Symbolism in Ifa Divination. 8. Abiodun.andcollectorof contemporary African art. The date of his burial in Imodi is calculated to be 1835. knowing his or her character and destiny. Dance and Drama. hardly queried Ifa predictions. rather there are oro ile. represent the foundation of Osugbo. Islam did not take hold in Ijebuland until after the British conquest of Ijebu-Ode in 1892. Professorof Anthropology and Professor of Artat the University of California. Ajayi & Smith 1964:17. hence. "Charactery in Yoruba Aesthetics. 1980a. Geneva: UNESCO. University of Ife. 6. dynamics in an African society. the first Otunba Suna. and followed such divinations strictly. W. Abimbola. Williams seems to have received similar information when he states.sponsored by the NationalEndowmentfor the Humanities. Glasgow: Collins. but with proper ritual action they may avert this destiny 5. For more details on the deity Esu. Notes. According to Bovell-Jones (1943:74). "The owners of the house" (Onile). Then. male and female. W.gins to escape from his mother were eliminated to shorten the tale. that. University of Ibadan. the Iwarefa sit on the shrines of the ancestors in the iledi and their titles derive from the names of the original founders of Osugbo in that town. 6. For a discussion of spiritually powerful women. 13. is a member of the AfricanArts consultingeditorialboard. 4. W. and among the Limba of Sierra Leone in 1978-80. Ijebus pronounce ile to mean "house" and say Onile is "TheOwner-of-the-House. Their inquiries during the periods we worked together elicited some of the data presented here.D. For further details on Osugbo (also known as Ogboni). fought primarily between the Ijebu and Egba (Biobaku 1957:19-20). forthcoming). to predict the future life of the children. is tentative and can leave at any time. Muslim diviners also send clients to Ifa diviners for help whenever they deem it necessary. the major portion of that material is being prepared as a book. the original couple. 1980. R.BOYER. they are not even perceived to have human characteristics. see Bascom (1960). 11. always come in twos. according to Biobaku (1957:18-19). PEEKconducted research in Nigeria and is teaching anthropologyand folkloreat Drew University. For example. will be dealt with in detail in a forthcoming study co-authored with John Pemberton III and Kolawole Ositola. It is possible. Abimbola. a person born into the world only to die soon after. the then Apena (the caretaker of the ritual objects) seized the small edan. of the child has come. 1975. there was only one other Osubgo in the vicinity at Imosan. see Morton-Williams (1960). who joined us for a few days of field work in July. Hisresearch interests primarily have been the cultures of Sub-SaharanAfrica. from page 67 1. Mythology. At that time. Osineye's first daughter was of the same age group as Chief Odutola. what life holds for him. Abimbola. 99 . between 1825 and 1832. W. JOHNDREWAL. Some informants identify any remarkable or very striking edan as Onile. Christensen. For a discussion of emi and ori. The Isefa ceremony follows Imori and precedes Itefa. Richard A." or iledi. their pact is imule.
1:28-39. J. S. 1:50-61." Africa 11:55-62." in Fabrics of Culture: The Anthropology of Clothing and Adornment.4.August) of known office of African 4. Bascom. African Textiles and Decorative Arts. 1969. 1962. Justin M. "The Arts of the Egungun among Yoruba Peoples. Wescott. 1966. Dateof filing: 9/29/82 of issue:Quarterly 3. andothersecurity bondholders. 1964. 1943. "Gelede Masquerade: Imagery and Motif. Same as above. 1978. London: Oxford University Press. sculpture. Cordwell. Pemberton. Henry J. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. First pub. 66-70. Roy and Arnold Rubin. 1938. Egungun. M. F. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. Ila. 1978. pp.492. Totalpaidcirculasubscriptions: or carrier tion: 4. Gbadamosi.Paper presented at the 5th Triennial Symposium on African Art. Dictionary of Modern Yoruba. Wm.Oxford: The Clarendon Press." Africa 47. J. 1979. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Nigeria: Ibadan University Press. 31 (right)Photograph: Courtesy of PaceGallery I. Chief O. Rinehart & Winston. "The Iconology of the Yoruba Edan Ogboni. Nielsen. Robert Plant. T. (213) 475-1534. Nigeria: University of Ife Press. J. 1976. Yoruba Warfare in the Nineteenth Century. Jules. 1:20-27. 1921. filingdate: A. "Some Aesthetic Aspects of Yoruba and Benin Cultures. 1957.1. 1962. 4: 545-67.55 Silverman Raymon Photographs: DawnMassey 49 (right). 1960. Cordwell. ed.800. BEN-AMOS.900. LosAngeles. A.some partof collectionforsale. "An Aesthetic of the Cool. Ryder. The Igala Kingdom. Robert Farris. "The Yoruba Ogboni Cult: Did It Exist in Old Oyo?. Philip J.D. Sprague. pp. 1962. W.5. 1979. M. Egharevba. The Growth of Islam among the Yoruba. 1972. 2:139-65.John of California. W. The Affecting Presence: An Essay in Humanistic Anthropology. and J. Complete set of AfricanArts. O. andmanaging African University LosAngeles. "More Powerful than Each Other: An Egbado Classification of 100 . 19-61. S. Johnson. Fadipe.2:50-59. New York:Holt. Agiri." in Men and Culture. Dahomey. "Art and the Perception of Women in Yoruba Culture." Nigeria 72:4-12. Norma H. 2:1-75. Bascom. Ajayi. 1971. Vlach. Mabogunje. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. von Sydow." African Arts 9. Mostly Write Box by appointment. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. F 1981.(2) and counter streetvendors carriers.1841-1908. 4. 1951. Totalnumber dealersand 5. Paris (Colonial) Exposition of 1900. 1971. An Introduction to Benin Art and Technology.31 (left)Photographs: JohnBuxton Wallace Robert 29 (left)Photograph: 29 (right)Photograph: WillisGallery Courtesy of James PeterRobbins 30 (left). Labelle. Lawal. 1956. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. E. New York:Museum of Modern Art." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 23: 183-200. 405 Hilgard." Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 6. Ile-Ife. Abraham. W. 6. Santa Cole. 7. Its Worship and Prayers. "Intelligence Report on Ijebu Ode Town and Villages. M. 51. Ifa Divination: Communication between Gods and Men in West Africa. Marc." African Arts 9. Drewal. New York:J. Frequency February. and the 10cludingthe 7 out-of-print year index. Afolabi. CORDWELL. W. A. private having moved to smaller apartment. de Negri. J. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. "The Living Dead: Art and Immortality among the Yoruba of Nigeria. Confidential File C 55/1)." African Arts 15. Museum Lowie 27 (right)." American Anthropologist 53:490-505. leftover.S. 2 vols. Church Missionary Society 1937. Philadelphia. ed. holdersowningor holding1 percentor moreof total of bonds. 1-14. Sixteen Cowries: YorubaDivination from Africa to the New World. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. pt. Augustin. J. Calvocoressi. Morton-Williams. Washington: Museum of African Art.4. 1978." African Arts 9. La Geomancie Esclaves. 349-97. November 30-December 1.. 81 Photographs: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Page l I'ancienne Cote des Maupoil.CA90024.32 Photographs: DavidAllison. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press. R." American Anthropologist 46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Human Imponderables in the Study of African Art. Los Angeles. African Arts. Owu in Yoruba History.G. "Pageantry and Power in Yoruba Ritual Costuming.S. R.53 (left)Photographs: 57 (top)Photograph: Houlberg Marilyn Drewal 60-67 Photographs: Henry& Margaret 76 (left)Photograph: JustinKerr Michael 77 Photograph: Heinichen 78 Photographs: JoeAlfers Todd Richard 80. "YorubaArtistic Criticism. "Yoruba Concepts of the Soul. John III. Abiodun. Atlanta. 3. 1980. 1973. 1977. Nooter Robert 33 (left)Photograph: L. 1976. J. 1974. Forthcoming. P. Pemberton. Robert Farris 1973. CA 90024." African Arts 12.Paidcirculation: (1)Sales through sales: 151. "Social Hair: Tradition and Change in Yoruba Hair Styles in Southwest Nigeria. April 17. 1982. 1:20-27. J.Ct3685) 1. 90-92. 1978. B. N. Smith. TraditionalArt of the Nigerian Peoples. 1:48-53. Northwestern University. ed. Cordwell." Africa 30:362-74. "Art or Accident: The Relationship of Ogun and Iron to Yoruba Body Artists and Their Art.CA90024. May. G.00. "Social Status among the Yoruba. management (Required by 39 U. pp. 1974. L. Ifa. '"The Sociological Role of the Yoruba Cult Group. Pemberton. Visual and Verbal Metaphor." African Arts 10. The Egba and Their Neighbours. Sieber. Icertify thatthe statements correct and complete(Signed)John F.4: 365-72. 405 Hilgard. Abiodun. Los Angeles. 1975. Alan." Lagos Notes and Records 3." May 7 (IJE Prof. Location publication: of California. London: Edward Arnold. Commander R. "Yoruba Photography: How the Yoruba See Themselves." Paper read at the Conference on the Relations between the Verbal and Visual Arts in Africa." African Arts 9. "Affecting Architecture of the Yoruba. 1981. editor: StudiesCenter.Viewing 58." in The TraditionalArtist in African Societies. 1938. Thepurpose. Talbot. P. M. "The Sculpture and Myth of EshuElegba. World Anthropology Series. of the headquarters of generalbusinessof5. 1969. Samuel. R.800. Peek Perkins 38 Photograph: Foss 40 (top):Photograph: Jr. 1900. pp. Houlberg. Book Shop. 3:18-19. World Anthropology Series.S. "Yoruba Men's Costume. The City of Blood.158.EC.900. Ijebu-Ode. Owner: The Regentsof the University Los Angeles. Warren d'Azevedo. B. A Rare Breed: The Story of Chief Timothy Adeola Odutola. Marilyn H.Ibadan. B. 1974. of Anthropology. Amaury.Editor. 1970. A. 1926. Barnes. J. Biobaku. Houlberg. Ibadan.4:8-19. inissues. May. Cordwell. Justine M. 90-103.515. C. de Negri. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press." Ph. 1968. pp. Bovell-Jones. H. unacCopiesnot distributed: 1. 1979. Bascom. Schiltz. African Studies Center. 1960. 1897. The History of the Yoruba. YorubaLand Law. 0. Pokornowski. Rescue Excavation of the First Otunba Suna at Imodi.F 1971. 1969. "The Egungun Society in Southwestern Yoruba Kingdoms.CA90024. "Eshu-Elegba: The Yoruba Trickster God.4. J. Oxford: Oxford University Press." African Arts 9. "Egungun Costuming in Abeokuta. dissertation. Drewal. 1:20-27. World Anthropology Series. 1943. R. CA 90064. 401-10.offers masks. "Yoruba Womens' Costume. Lloyd." Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 17." in Fabrics of Culture: The Anthropology of Clothing and Adornment. 40 (bottom) Photographs: PhilipM. 1977a. "Notes on Egungun Masquerades among the Oyo Yoruba. World Anthropology Series. Lagos: Academy Press Ltd. Welmers. 1:56-61. Povey. "Ritual Allusions in Yoruba Ritualistic Art: Ori-inu. J.A." in Fabrics of Culture: The Anthropology of Clothing and Adornment. Freedistribution bymail. Green & Co. 1952. Williams. 1977. W. 8.150.A. 53 (right). 4:336-53. "Ancient and Modern Art in Benin City. Lagos: C. B. actual preceding copies each issue during nearestto of copies of singleissue published number of copies printed: 5.385. ed. Paris: Ministere des Coloniales. madeby me aboveare 11. Povey." Africa 34. 1978. 1973. M." African Arts 7. Cordwell.(2) Returns counted. 33 (right)Photograph: Jerry Museum of Art Courtesy of theMetropolitan 34-37. Cordwell. Known mortgagees. Charles-Roux.308. pp. "Some Religio-Aesthetic Aspects of Woman in Yoruba Society" Paper presented at the Seminar on Visual Art as Social Commentary. Paris: Travaux et Memoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie 42.Vols.D. Longe. Jacob. 1971. "Eshu-Elegba: The Yoruba Trickster God. COLLECTION New York collectorof WestAfrican art. Morton-Williams.215. Oxford: Oxford University Press with the Church Missionary Society. Thompson. 1964. Ojo. 62-63.O." Africa 32. Mail 4.50. 1952." Ph. Wolff. J. H.mortgages None orothersecurities: amount statusofthisorfunction andnonprofit 9. S.complimentary. J. W. 1968. Mintcondition. and R. "Some Aesthetic Aspects of Yoruba and Benin Cultures. "Beads and Personal Adornment. African Art in Motion. The Yorubaof Southwestern Nigeria. Joanne Bubolz. "Egungun Masquerades of the Remo Yoruba. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. 1969. C. Margaret and Henry J.CA90024. spoiledafterprinting: fromnews agents:0. 1980b. "The Yoruba Ogboni Cult in Oyo. Bascom. Eve. PhillipsStevens Poon Vivian 45 Photographs: Scott Victoria 46-47 Photographs: 49 (left). Lagos: Salako Printing Works. Melville J. A Short History of Benin. Herskovits. vol. 103-17. 1969." in The Fabrics of Culture. D.Bibliography. 1978.007. 1978. London: Longmans. 1979. Thompson. 2/122. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. in the National Archives. Drewal." African Arts 9. Benin and the Europeans1485-1897. The Sociology of the Yoruba. B. Extent andnature Average 12 months. Totaldistribution: (1) Officeuse. "Egungun Masquerades of the Igbomina Yoruba. Cordwell.African of CaliforStudiesCenter. F. R. Thompson. YorubaPalaces. African Arts of Transformation. Henry J. Prussin. 1:41-67.University nia. Bascom. and otherfree othermeans. C. Bascom. School of Oriental and African Studies.366. Eicher. of California. E. 1978. of of circulation: number 10. The Peoples of Southern Nigeria. Drewal." African Arts 9. J. Location fices of the publisher: Same addressesof publisher. Drewal. P 1960." Nigeria 73:4-12. OF OWNERSHIP STATEMENT Statement and circulation of ownership. 1962. ed. Cordwell. Bibliography. 1:48-55.151. Berkeley 28. Herbert M. Namesandcomplete editor. A.samples. Drewal. UCLA. John III.University LosAngeles. J. Drewal. 1979. 44 Photographs: University of California. (November. Robert Farris. income tax andtheexemptstatusforFederal ganization the preceding12 purposeshave not changedduring months. 1:52-59. Justin M.F. Ruth. "An Introduction to Indigenous African Architecture. 467-98." Proceedings of the Third Annual Conferenceof the WestAfrican Institute of Social and Economic Research. 405 Hilgard. Total: 5. Wallace. Benin. Ibadan: Biyi Printing Works. T. E. Northwestern University Dark. Nigerian Handcrafted Textiles. Atanda.$750. H. ed. Marilyn H. Houlberg. 18421872. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. "The Ogboni among the Oyo-Yoruba. London: University of London Press. Peter.D. Thompson. 30 (right). Ibadan: Oxford University Press. dissertation. ed. Stephen F 1978. Marilyn H. 3:66-79. 39. Department of Anthropology. University of London."African Arts 9. ARTS AFRICAN. A Dictionary of the Yoruba Language.from page 23 Bacon. 1975. "The History and Development of Wax-Printed Textiles Intended for West Africa and Zaire. D. Barbara:University of California. 1977b. Titleof publication: African Arts 2. London: Oxford University Press. R. 1973. October 10-14. John Michael. C. ed." in The Visual Arts.1. Beyioku. Drewal. Eve." in volume on the Yoruba god of iron. StudiesCenter. 1:40-47.London: University of London Press.2272 OverlandAve." African Arts 7. copies:149. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. J. Boston. Omer-Cooper.43. H.from page 94 Armstrong. "Egungun Masquerades in Iganna. 1958. Henry J. A.
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