FOSSIL COLLECT PENNSYLVANIA

by Donald M. Hoskins, Jon D. Inners, and JohnA. Harper

INTRODUCTION
by Donald M. Hoskins
The Pennsylvania Geological Survey frequently receives requests for information on where to collect fossils in the Commonwealth. This book is intended to supply such information; thus the major portion of the book i s devoted to a geographic and geologic description of fossil localities, including lists of the fossils t o be found at each locality. Although knowing the location of fossil-collecting sites is important, there is more to fossils than just collecting them. The study sf fossils (paleonto%ogy) i s the lifetime work of many scientists. Their work has given answers t o some of the basic questions of the evolution of life and the world we live in. To have a comprehensive understanding of what fossils signify gives the collector a greater appreciation s f the hobby in which he i s engaged. To enhance this appreciation, the first portion of the book i s devoted to the significance and uses of fossils as well as the description of the major groups s f fossils that one may encounter when engaged in fossil collecting in Pennsylvania. For those interested in Curther information on paleontology, references are listed near the end of the book.

WHAT I S A FOSSIL?
Fossils occur in many forms. The footprint or burrow of an animal preserved in rock i s a fossil; a clam shell preserved in rock i s a fossil; the imprint of a leaf in a rock i s a fossil. A fossil is any naturally formed record o f animal or plant life found in rocks that gives an idea s f the appearance of the original organism. Imagine for a moment a common dweller of today's ooceans-the clam. A clam i s composed of two shells (called valves) surrounding a fleshy body which contains muscles that open and close the shells. If we examine the various processes that may affect this clam after it dies, we will learn the many ways in which the clam can be preserved as a fossil.

FOSSIL COLLECT BNC IN PENNSYLVANIA

Fern

Some examples o f fossils.

When the clam dies, the fleshy parts qalickly decav and disappear ancd the shells are l e f t t o b e washed about o n the sea b o t t o m or shore Because the muscles that held them together are gone, the shells frequently separate The shells may be destroyed by currents o n the sea bottom, or they may be buried beneath sediments, wflich csntlnually accumulate o n the sea floor Burial by sediments is the first step in fossilization. 7-he sedinient surrounding the shell may become compacted clnd turn into hard rock, and the shell may be preserved w i t h n o further changes But many shells are dissolved by the water In the compacted sediment, leaving a space that becomes a mold, which preserves all the details o t the shell surface I f other material later tills this space and hardens, the hardened material becomes a cast Both casts and molds are tosslls because, although nothing o f the original shell is left, we can see what the thell looked Bike Since the outside and inside o f a shell generdlly are d i f ferent, we call molds and casts ~ n t e r n dQinslde) l and external ( o i ~ t ~ i d e cjej, pending o n which part o f the shell they represent M o l d s are common CIS fossils, b u t casts are relatively rare

MOLD

CAST

Mold and cast o f a pelecypod.

INTRODUCV ION

3

I f the clam shell escapes being dissolved, i t may be affected by other processes as t h e rock around it hardem O n e of these processes is replacement, When examined microscopically, most rocks formed from sediments are found t o contain many very small pores and spaces. The pores and spaces may be interconnected and may contain water carrying dissolved minerals. Under certain conditions, minerals carried by this water w i l l be substituted for the material of the shell, which is commonly the mineral calcite, so that the shell is gradually replaced by minerals such as quartz or pyrite. Some animals, such as insects, possess n o hard parts (skeleton or shell); their body covering consists o f an organic compound called chitin, a material similar t o our fingernails. These animals, when buried, are preserved under only the most exceptional circumstances whereby the chitin, through a process called distillation, is reduced t o a thin carbon f i l m as the sediment is compacted. This f i l m may preserve many o f the very fine features o f these animals. Plants are usually found as t w o types o f fossils. One i s the imprint o f leaves, ferns, and seeds that have been carbonized by the distillation process discussed above. Limbs, roots, and trunks o f trees are many times preserved as casts and molds; rarely, large portions are preserved through replacement o f plant tissue and filling o f tissue pore spaces by silica and other minerals. This is also called petrifaction. The trees found in the Painted Desert and Petrified Forest o f the American West are examples o f this process. The track made by the dinosaur as it stopped by a stream t o drink and the trail o f the crab skittering along the seashore, when preserved In rock, are also fossils because they give us an idea o f what the feet o f the anim a l looked like. The burrows and feeding traces of animals are also fossils; tracks, trails, burrows, and traces are referred t o as "trace fossils." Preservation by burial in sediment is one of the most important processes in the formation o f a fossil. M a n y organisms d o not die in places where sediment i s being deposited and thus have n o opportunity for fossilization. The possession o f hard parts i s also very important in the formation o f a fossil. Animals and plants live today for which there are n o known fossil ancestors. These unknown ancestors lacked hard parts, died where n o sediments were being deposited, or were not preserved due t o a combination o f these t w o factors. Trace fossils may be the only record w e have o f many o f the animals that d i d not possess hard parts One o f the most interesting studies a paleontologist undertakes i s the reconstruction o f an animal or plant f r o m the fragmentary fossils found. I n many cases this is a very d i f f i c u l t procedure because the various parts o f an individual animal or plant may have been widely scattered after death, and the skin, muscles, and other soft parts are miss~ng. I t i s often

4

FOSSIL C O L L E C T I N G 1N PENNSYLVANIA

6

FOSSIL C'OLLFCTINC; IN PI NNSVL 1'4NIA

necessary t o refer t o living animals and plants t o decide how t o reconstruct a fossil. Many fossils have been found that cannot yet be totally reconstructed because they have no living relatives t o which they can be compared. After reconstruction of a number of different fossils from the same age and environment, scientists often attempt t o place them together as they once musk have lived. An example of this is the sketch of the Devonian sea bottom shown o n page 4. I t is important t o remember i n co%Ieeting fossils that what you collect is usually only a fragment or impression of the original animal or plant, lacking its soft parts and frequently lacking many of its hard parts. I t i s also important t o remember that the fossil organism that you discover is only one of perhaps millions o f similar individuals that may Rave lived.

OF WHAT USE ARE FOSSILS?
Why study fossils? Are they more than just curiosities t o collect and place in a display cabinet? The answer is, as you might guess, yes. Fossils are the record of life o n the earth through billions of years since the first bacteria lived and the first algae began t o form layered mats still recognizable in very ancient rocks. As such they offer clues not only t o the history o f the development of life, b u t also t o the character o f past climates o n the earth and t o changes that have occurred o n the earth's surface and in its seas. Because fossils yield information about the environment in which they lived, they also tell us something about the history of the rock in which they are found. Knowledge of the rock history has practical use in the search for mineral resources such as oil and gas, coal, and limestone. The oldest known rocks o f sedimentary origin contain only very primitive fossil animals, such as algae. As younger and younger rocks are examined, we find that the fossils tkey contain have gradually changed and become progressively more like present-day living organisms. Detailed study of the fossils shows that certain older groups gradually changed (evolved) into younger groups. These changes support the theory o f evolution, a theory w i t h which scientists are m u c h concerned. The differences between fossils contained in younger rocks and those contained in older rocks provide a basis for dating and identifying rocks of similar age i n widely different areas. For example, if a paleontologist finds rocks in North America and South America that contain the same fossils, he can generally say that tkey were formed at the same time and thus are of the same age. A paleontologist working for an o i l company does the same thing with fossils, b u t this paleontologist may use only very small fossils called microfossils. The paleontologist may work w i t h rocks that occur only i n

Pennsylvania. i f the company has fossils from an oil-producing well drilled near Pittsburgh and drills another well in Clearfield County, the fossils may be used t o indicate t o the driller when the drill is approaching rocks o f the same age as those in the Pittsburgh well. This may help in determining how deep one has t o drill before intersecting the oil-bearing rocks. o unravel the history of the earth? The paleonHow d o fossils help us t tologist has been able t o determisle the conditions under which most fossils lived by stirdying modern life. Corals, Ccsr example, today live in the oceans. When a coral is found in a rock, it follows that the rock material must have been deposited o n a sea bottom. By collecting a Large number of fossils from all rocks of a given age over a large area, those areas occupied by land and sea o f that former time can be outlined. For example, the area s f land and sea existing in Pennsylvania 380 million years ago has been worked o u t i n this way and is shown below.

h m d and sea areas in Perarrasylvania cdl~arlng pa& o f Devonian eime.

Pliant fossils, like animal fossils, also tel% their o w n story. Trees grow o n the land surface. Certain assemblages of plants and trees are characteristic of swamps rather than dry Band. The coals o f Pennsylvania are composed o f trees and plants f r o m such assemblages, indicating that during the periods of coal formation extensive swamps existed in Pennsylvania (see page 46). Fossils may also be used t o determine past climates o n the earth. Corals, for example, are thought to have rived only in warm waters, as they

8

FOSSIL C O L L E C T I N G IN P E N N S Y L V A N I A

d o today Corals found in rocks in Alaska indicate that the area o f Alaska was at one time an area o f warm seas Fossils may also be used t o identify and date the rocks in which they are f o u n d These fossils are known as index fossils An index fossil generally has a distinctive and easily recognizable shape, occurs commonly over a large area, and is restricted t o a short period o f geologic t i m e The best index fossils are f r o m animals that were swimmers or floaters, so that they were destributed widely in the seas and oceans Some o f the best index fossils are graptolites and certain types o f cephalopods

FINDING FOSSILS
Although fossil-bearing (fossilifcrou\) rocks are prr3sc->nt In many are~ls o f Pennsylvania, fossils are n o t alwavs easv t o collect They are tound onIy in sedimentarc. rocks, such as Binle\tone, shnle, and sandstone, and then only in a small portion o f these types s t rocks I t you are a beginning in this book fossil collector, you are advised t o visit locdlitles cf~~gcrlbed s n order t o become acquainted w i t h the types o f rock that contain fossils and t o find o u t what fossils l s s k like In this book fossil localities are described for 52 sf Pennsylvania's 67 counties. A m a p o f Pennsylvania showing the location of each of the sites is o n page 50. A detailed Iocatiora map also accompanies each site description. Pennsylvania highway maps and topographic maps may further aid the collector i n finding the localities described in addition t o a description o f the hcpsbil srtes, w e include a list o f the generic names o f fossils we have found at each slte, the type of rock and its geologic age, and other information that may be o f snterest t o the collector W e expect that careful searching at dnv locality w i l l uncover addstionas genera o f fossils n o t given rn the fists For the ambitious collector, the I980 edition o f the Ceoioyrc Map o f Pel?nsylvania ( M a p 1 o f the P e n n ~ y l v ~ t nCeologscal id Survey) w i l l be of great aid This m a p shows the many rock foamatlons throughout the" state I f a sedimentary rock formation ~s round t o contain fossils at one place, i t is likely t o contain foss~lscliewhere After learning which rock units contain foss~ls, reter to this geologrc mclpt o fsnd other ;arec3sunderlain by the same rock units You mac then explore these areas for add#tisnal loca!ia~es

COURTESY IN COLLECTING
Overuse of ~3 srtsabv students and e ~ p l o a t ~ ~ tot r c ~ site n for commercsal purposes have resulted s n the r Bosrng to the put~lsco t t w o famous localltle.8, as well r ? severdl ~ lelss fanjc,u\ \lte\, In the paSt two decade^ Please,

INTROOUCT ION

9

do not do anything that will cause property owners to remove localities described herein from future collecting. Remember that in almost all cases the site a t which you are collecting
is on private property. If possible, obtain permission from the owner before you collect. Even roadside exposures within the highway "right-ufway" are private property. I f someone questions your presence a t a roadside exposure, explain your activity and request permission to continue collecting. Do not destroy fences or other private property and do not leave litter. Other people may want to visit this site, and careless or heedless actions on your part may destroy this opportunity for them.

COLLECTING AND PREPARING FOSSILS
The collector should take to the fossil locality a hammer, scrap paper, and a collecting bag. A hand lens i s useful where the fossils are small A chisel-edge hammer, such as that used by bricklayers. is most convenient for both breaking rock from the outcrop and for splitting the sample along natural layers. The rock at some localities is weathered so that it i s fragile and easily broken, whereas a t other localities it may be unweathered and very difficult to break. Specimens collected in the field should be wrapped in layers of paper to preserve them; it i s then most convenient t o place them in a collect~ng bag. I t is important that specimens be labeled with the locality and any other pertinent information when they are collected. Labeling at collection time will allow the specimens to be properIv identified at a later dare. A sample of the label used by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey is shown on the following page. After the fossils have been collected, it is often necessary to clean them by removing any dirt and rock layers that hide part of the specimen. It is advisable to wash the nonfragile specim~ns with water and a soft brush and then t o work on the rock with various chipping and scraping tools, ranging in sire from cold chisels to fine needles, depending on the size and fragility of the fossil. Old dental probes, if you can obtain them, may be sharpened easily into heedle and chisel points and make verv useful tools in cleaning fossils. Fragile specimens may be protected with a coating of clear plastic spray or clear nail pol~sh. After individual fossils have been cleaned and prepared, identification labels should be made out for each specimen, giving the locality, the fossil's name, and the name o f the collector. One of the best virtues of a fossil collector is patience Many of the very best specimens that have been collected come from sitting in one spot at a fossiliferous outcrop and patiently examining each piece of rock for fossils.

Eq~alpment o f the well-p~spaaed fesstl callecf~r.

IDENTIFYING AND CLASSIFYING FOSSILS
A fossil-collecting expedition is complete only when the fossils found have been given their proper names. A l l fossil plants and animals can be classified into progressively more limited categories until a generic and a specific name (genus and species) is applied, The first step, a simple one i n most cases, is t o decide if the fossil is an animal or plant (Kingdom Animalia or Kingdom Plarotae). Then the fcassii is placed in its proper phylum [plural: phyla) and class. Classes are subdivided into families and families into orders; these are mainly o f interest t o scientists and are not discussed here. The section o f this book entitled "'Characteristics of the Major Fossil Groups" (page 14) contains descriptions of the various phyla and classes and will help you classify your specimen i n the proper categoryThe final refinement o f the identification is t o determine the genus (plural: genera) and species o f the fossil specimen you have found. A l l individual specimens o f the same species may not look exactly alike, but they w i l l have many features i n common. Phis you can see by observing individuals o f the species t o which you belong (Homo sapiens). You can best identify the genus o f the fossils you ccsilect b y comparing them with pictures of fossils. The sketches at the back sf this book illustrate most of the fossils you are likely t o encounter at the localities described in the

book.
Fossils o n these plates are generally not shown at their actual size because of space limitations. The amount sf reduction or enlargement i s

shown under each fossil sketch. The figure ""x0.8" means that the picture is eight-tenths the size o f the actual speeinaen. Keep in mind, however, that a l l specimens o f the same genus will n o t be the same size, just as all H o m o sapiens are n o t the same size. 181ustrations o f fossils n o t shown on these plates may be found i n one or more o f the books listed in the "Additional Reading" section near the end s f this book. T w o o f the most usef u l references are lndex Fossils o f North America, b y Shimer and Shrock, and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontolagy, published b y the Geological Society of America and the University o f Kansas. The examples below show h o w three d idferent organisms are ciassif ied into various categories. The names may seem strange because they are based upon Latin and Greek words, b u t this has been done so that the names may be used and pronounced a i l over the world in an international system (code) o f zoological nomenclature
Category KIN(;DC),%~ PEJY LIM ~ C L A ~ ~ Example 1 Plantae Tracheophyta C ymnospermae Pinus strobus White pine tree Example 2 Animalia Brachiopoda Articlnlata A trypa reticularis Sea shela Example 3 Animalia Chordata Mammaiia Homo sapiens Man

G E N ei s SPEC/[ s luu~vrova~

It is common practice t o simplify frequently used names by dropping or changing endings. For example, members o f the phylum Brachiopoda are called brachiopods; members of the class Mammalia are called mammals. The generic and specific names are n o t used informally and are always written as you see them above, following rules o f the International Code.

GEOLOGIC TIME
The earth has been in existence for over 4,000 million years To be able t o talk about portions of this vast amount o f time, scientists have separated i t into divisions (called eons, eras, and periods), which are characterized by certain kinds of fossils. I n fact, fossils were one of the original means b y which the boundaries between these various time divisions were established. The accepted time divisions are shown o n the geologic time scale on the following page. The first column shows the times at which the various periods started, in millions o f years before the present The second column indicates some o f the characteristic animals and plants that lived in these periods o f the earth's history The third column shows the many types of rocks formed in Pennsylvania during certain periods o f time. I f you examine the time scale, you w i l l see that during most o f the Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods n o sediments were deposit-

FOSSIL COLLEC I INC ii\i F'ENNS) LL'ANIA LIFE RECORD
TYPICAL FOSSILS

ROCK RECORD
PREDOMINANT ROCKS

GEOLOGIC NAMES
PERIODS

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~3

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d

Z

CAMBRIAN

PRECAMBRIAN
BACTERIA

Geologic tHme scale.

INTRODllC7 ION

13

ed in Pennsylvania. W e thus assume that Pennsylvania was mainly a land region during these periods. Therefore we have no fossil record of life during these periods in Pennsylvania. The fourth and f i f t h coIumns list the period, era, and eon names that we use for the various divisions of time. As you can see, it is much easier t o say that you found a Devonian age fossil than t o say that you found a fossil between 365 and 405 million years old. The period names will be used a great deal in later portions of this book. The geologic time scale is the standard t o which scientists refer i n dating the various portions of the earth's history. Using this standard, paleontologists can study what occurred all over the world at any one time The periods and eras represent, i n general, times during which major geologic events took place, such as the formation of a range o f msuntains or the deposition o f a certain suite of rocks. Many Bong and detailed books have been written o n the subject of geologic time and the many geologic events that have taken place since the earth began. For those interested in this fascinating subject, references are given i n the section on "Additional Reading."

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