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Title: Caffeine as a Diuretic Problem statement: A student, on reading recent articles, wonders if caffeinated

beverages really do have a diuretic effect. Plan and design an experiment to investigate this.

Hypothesis: Coca-Cola has a diuretic effect. Aim: To determine whether or not the caffeine present in Coca-Cola has a diuretic effect
based on the volume of urine excreted within four hours of ingesting it.

Apparatus/Materials:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8 male subjects 8 females 16 Beakers for urine 32 330ml cans of Coca-cola soda (each of 32 mg caffeine ) 32 330ml cans of Caffeine Free Diet Coke ( each 0 mg caffeine) Stop watch

Procedure:
1) Each subject urinates just before the start of the experiment. 2) Ask 4 male and 4 female subjects to each ingest two Coca-cola sodas each within a 5 minute period. 3) After 5 minutes, start the stop watch for 20 minutes. 4) Subjects should remain sedentary throughout experiment. 5) Each subject urinates in a labeled beaker at the twentieth minute. 6) Measure the volume of urine in each beaker. 7) Repeat steps 5 and 6 every twenty minutes for four hours using the same beakers and measuring each cumulatively. 8) Discard urine samples and clan the beakers. 9) Make a table of total volume excreted for each subject. 10) Ask 4 other male and 4 other female subjects to ingest two bottles of Coca Cola Caffeine Free each within 5 minutes. 11) After 5 minutes, start the stopwatch for 20 minutes. 12) Repeat steps 6-11. 13) Two weeks later, repeat experiment with each subject drinking the other type of beverage. (Last week subject A drank caffeinated Coco-Cola, this week subject A drinks decaffeinated Coca-Cola.)

Variables: i) ii) iii) Dependent: volume of urine excreted within 4 hours Independent: soda ingested Controlled : age. health and activity level of subjects and diet from previous night. Expected results: Amount of time elapsed/minutes Volume of urine excreted after drinking caffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 Volume of urine excreted after drinking decaffeinated CocaCola/cm3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Subject) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Table showing the volume of urine excreted by males drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated Coca-Cola .

Amount of time elapsed/minutes Average volume of urine excreted after drinking caffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 Average volume of urine excreted after drinking decaffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Table showing average volume of urine excreted by males after drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated Coca-Cola Amount of time elapsed/minutes Volume of urine excreted after drinking caffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 Volume of urine excreted after drinking decaffeinated CocaCola/cm3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Subject) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Table showing the volume of urine excreted by females drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated Coca-Cola 8 .

Data analysis: If the area under the caffeinated graph is larger than that of the decaffeinated graph for males and females then the hypothesis is correct.Amount of time elapsed/minutes Average volume of urine excreted after drinking caffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 Average volume of urine excreted after drinking decaffeinated Coca-Cola/cm3 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Table showing average volume of urine excreted by females after drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated Coca-Cola Plot a graph of average volume of urine excreted against time for males with both caffeinated and decaffeinated being on the same graph. However if the area for the two graphs are the same or the decaffeinated graph is larger. A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine by the kidney. It is also believed to be a diuretic. It produces a higher degree of wakefulness. faster and clearer flow of thought. Discussion of expected results: Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant. then the hypothesis should be discarded. increased focus. and better general body coordination. Plot a similar graph to that stated above for females. .

3. Subjects should not drink within the three hours directly before the experiment as ingested liquids other than caffeine may cause micturition. 4. Subjects should not be regular drinkers of caffeinated beverages as this may cause caffeine tolerance. Subjects should not be taking drugs or be on medication.Expected precautions: 1. 5. The temperature should be constantly moderate. Subjects should avoid caffeine in any form for a week prior to the experiment. . Expected limitations: 1) The metabolic rate of the members of the sample is different thus the volume of urine passed would differ. 2) Different levels of serenity amongst subject where emotional stress of subjects may slow the rate of urination. 6. Subjects should fast from food for six hours in advance of the experiment 2.