A Look at Nuclear Science and Technology

Larry Foulke
Radiation and Modern Life 8.1 Course Recap

Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for the next 50 years*

1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9. 

ENERGY WATER FOOD ENVIRONMENT POVERTY TERRORISM & WAR DISEASE EDUCATION DEMOCRACY

10.  POPULATION

2012 2050

7.0 Billion People 8-10 Billion People
Image Source: See Note 1

• Adapted from a presentation by Richard Smalley At the MIT Enterprise Forum 1/22/03

Where is tomorrow’s energy going to come from? Image Source: See Note 2 .

Fission Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 3 .

Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Front End Back End Reactor Interim Storage Fuel Fabrication Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plutonium Enriching Uranium Transmutation Processing Milling Nuclear Engineering Exploration & Program Mining Geological Repository Image Source: See Note 3 .

The Einstein Connection E=mc2 Image Source: See Note 4 .

One truck load per month (2.000.000 kilograms) Image Source: See note 14 Image Source: See note 13 Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See note 15 .000 kilograms) versus 25 trainloads of coal per month (260.

Cross Section Hierarchy •  Micros on each level are the sum of all constituent micros on lower levels. σs=σe+σi σt=σa+σs σa=σc+σf Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 3 .

Neutron Interactions Pre-Collision Fission proton neutrons γ ray Electrons (beta particles) • Fission fragments (some unstable) Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 5 for Ionized nucleus .

Nausea and vomiting. Lethality 0% 0% 0% LD 10/30 LD 35/30 LD 50/30 LD 60/30 LD 100/14 LD 100/7 LD 100/2 LD xx/yy gives the percentage of fatalities (xx%) within yy days. Loss of hair. Mild radiation sickness.5 Sv Nuclear Engineering Program .5 (20-50) 0. without medical attention.Radiation Dose Effects Equiv Dose Sv (Rem) 0.25 Sv Mild radiation sickness Human LD 50/30 ≈4. Widespread damage to organs.5-1 (50-100) 1-2 (100-200) 2-3 (200-300) 3-4 (300-400) 4-6 (400-600) 6-10 (600-1000) 10-50 (1000-5000) >50 (>5000) Symptoms None No external. Widespread internal bleeding. Complete destruction of bone marrow. Increased severity of symptoms listed above.2 (5-20) 0.2-0. loss of white blood cells.05-0. No detectable response <0. Direct damage to central nervous system. Near shutdown of immune system. Direct burning damage to skin. Nausea and vomiting. Uncontrollable hemorrhaging. Immune system depressed. Temporary reduction in red blood count.

7 mSv 100 mSv Above 1 Sv Image Source: See Note 6 Human Health Effects of Radiation Dose .3.

NEUTRON MULTIPLICATION k Critical Subcritical = 1 < 1 ρ neutron population = 0 < 0 > 0 steady state decreasing increasing Supercritical > 1 k = effective multiplication factor = neutron production/ neutron loss ρ = reactivity = (k -1)/ k Nuclear Engineering Program .

25 sec n(t ) = a1et /T n(0) Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 3 .Response to Positive ρ Power x10 ~ 0.

Pressurized Water Reactors! Nuclear Engineering Program Image source: See Note 7 .

Fuel Assembly Features Rod Cluster Control Assembly Top Nozzle Guide Tubes Grid Strap Fuel Rods Grid Strap Grid Strap Bottom Nozzle Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 8 (not in all assemblies) shown partially withdrawn Grid Strap .

Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor •  Three loops •  Sodium coolant •  No moderator •  Fast Spectrum •  Breeder Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 9 .

Overcooling •  Removing too much energy from Overcoolingworking fluid on secondary side Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 7 .Accident Types .

Multiple Barriers 1st & 2nd Barriers Pellet & Cladding Nuclear Engineering Program 3rd Barrier Primary-System Boundary 4th Barrier Reactor Containment Image Source: See Note 10 .

Engineered Safety Features Nuclear Engineering Program Image Source: See Note 11 .

5. 2001 Image Source: See Note 12 Nuclear Engineering Program .000 deaths related to oil. Switzerland.Nuclear has best safety record Deaths from Accidents from Generating Electricity per Billion MWe-hr Hydro Coal Gas Nuclear 1 10 *Includes Chernobyl 101 39 400-page study of 4.000 related to coal. 8.000 related to gas. Paul Scherrer Institute.290 energyrelated accidents: 15.

•  Solar panels fill needs for inner solar system •  Deep-space research requires alternate power source •  Radioisotope power sources have been used for many missions Image Source: See Note 16 .

wikimedia.jpg 2. (slide 8). Figures 2-7 (slide 4). . Copyright 2008 by the American Nuclear Society.org/wikipedia/commons/ 9/97/The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.wikimedia.  Public domain: http://upload. 2-10.  Public domain: http://upload. 2nd Edition.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ a8/NASA-Apollo8-Dec24-Earthrise. 1-2 (slide 5). and 5-1 (slide 13).jpg 3. Illinois.  Reprinted with permission from the American Nuclear Society. Source: Nuclear Engineering – Theory and Technology of Commercial Nuclear Power by Ronald Allen Knief.Image Source Notes 1. American Nuclear Society. La Grange Park.

html 8.nrc.Image Source Notes 4. 7.  Reprinted with permission from Westinghouse. Oxford.  Public domain: http://en. UK.jpg 5.org/wiki/File:Einsteinformal_portrait-35.svg 6.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/students/ animated-pwr.  Public domain: http://www.wikipedia. Source: The Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant (The Masche Book) . World Nuclear University.  Reprinted with permission from Alan Waltar.wikipedia. 7-11-12.  Public domain: http://en.org/wiki/File:Alpha_Decay.

html 11. Warsaw.jpg 12.1-13.Paper Hirschberg Polish Conference November 2001a.nrc.. Switzerland.org/corporatesite/media/filefolder/ containment_wall_construction.gov.cyf. http://manhaz." S. Hirschberg. International Conference on Ecological Aspects of Electric Power Generation.pl/portal/cykle-paliwowe/ strona_konferencja_EAE-2001/13 .svg 10. Invited Paper. Paul Scherrer Institute.org/wiki/File:SodiumCooled_Fast_Reactor_Schemata.  Graph based on data from “Comparison Of Severe Accident Risks In Fossil.Image Source Notes 9. 14-16 November 2001. http://www. Nuclear And Hydro Electricity Generation.gov/about-nrc/regulatory/research/soar/ soarca-accident-progression.  Reprinted with permission from the USNRC.nei. Poland (2001) 13.  Reprinted with permission from Nuclear Energy Institute.wikipedia.  Public domain: http://en. http://www.pdf . EAE'2001.21. et al.

gov/rps/contact.wikipedia.nasa.  Reprinted with permission from Erik Arroyo – University of Pittsburgh 16.  Public Domain: http://en.  Reprinted with permission from the USNRC.cfm .  Public domain: http://solarsystem.org/wiki/Coal_train#Bulk 14. 15.Image Source Notes 13.

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