Jan- 26, 1954

F'iled March 28, ._ 1951


Mario/z O.M°/\’izzzzeg Jr?y


Patented Jan. 26,_ 1954

I i '~ i
“ ' ‘ 2,667,351


' .


2 .

NONLIFTING TOWED TARGET GLIDER Marion 0. McKinney, Jr., and John P. Campbell,
Hampton, Va.

Application March 28, 1951, Serial No. 218,058
2 Claims. (01. 27 3-1053)

(Granted under Title 35%)U. S. Code (1952), I
sec. 26

This invention relates to airplane-shaped tow targets for use in simulation of air combat condi
tions. '

of the Wing to insure a strong tendency of wing

Tow targets have been in common use 1n the form of towed gliders provided with conventional

wings. These gliders, while satisfactory for lower
speed uses have proven practically impossible for use at higher speeds due to general instability and
lack of strength at these speeds. If the glider is
of light construction the high speed loads pro- -

alignment with thewind; ‘also the wing is mass balanced to avoid flutten Thus the lift function of the wings is removed, dependence for stability being placed primarily on the towline and glider
wings alford. By the described modi?cation of the Wing struc ture glider speeds in the neighborhood of 500 miles per hour become feasible without substan tial changes in the overall construction form and
weight as used in the conventional glider. At

tails with such stability factors as the modi?ed

duce distortion of the airframe which in turn causes excessive accelerations and trim changes.
If of heavy construction to withstand air loads, trouble will be experienced in unstable lateral os- 1

these high speeds there is satisfactory stability
with marked reduction in sensitivity to trim

cillations due to the high mass and moments of
inertia. _ » _

changes and other modifying conditions.
It is pointed out that the wings are freely piv

The present invention meets the dlf?culties oted each entirely independently of the other, so mentioned by removing the lift function from the that each wing automatically adjusts itself to the wings, as it has been determined that there is no wind incidence, or the wings may be connected need for lift in a tow glider, and employing the together for simultaneous operation. Also, as wing only to make the target look like an airplane. demonstrated by tests, the towline provides ade The objects of the invention therefore include quate ‘bank stabilizations where the glider has provision of glider wings having nonlift attri zero lift, since the glider tends to trail below the butes, serving primarily as a means of providing towing airplane. It is, of course, necessary that the target with the shape of an airplane, and 25 the towline be attached to the glider ahead of and having a con?guration e?ective to reduce drag above the glider center of gravity, a value of one at high speeds, tenth span above, and one-half span ahead of, A further object is to provide a glider suitable the center of gravity, with a ?ve degree towline for tow target uses which is stable at airplane angle, giving satisfactory results. speeds in the neighborhood of 500 miles per hour, 30 In Fig. 2 a modi?ed form of wing 20 is shown and which at the same time simulates airplane with the airfoil sections 2| and 22 circular in construction. Other objects will appear on con section: i. e. rods or cylinders. These airfoils are sideration of the following description of a pre adequate for the tow function but are de?cient ferred embodiment of the invention taken in con in visibility for target purposes, a defect which junction with the drawings in which 35 may be recti?ed by hinging a panel or ?aps 30 Fig. l is a perspective View of a glider with and 3| to the trailing edge of the airfoil sections wings of conventional form pivoted axially ahead 2! and 22 respectively, as indicated in Fig. 3, so of the aerodynamic center; that the ?aps trail freely in the wind. The criti Fig. 2 is a view of a modi?ed non-lift wing cal Mach number of a circular airfoil section wing form; is relatively low. Accordingly, in order to avoid Fig. 3 is a view of the glider wing of Fig. 2 with undue drag at high speeds, it may be desirable a trailing ?ap; to sweep back the wing as shown by Wings 40 and Fig. 4 is a view of the glider wings of Fig. 3 with 4| in Fig. 4. a swept back construction. In all wing forms as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, In Fig. 1 the tow target form is that of a con 45 the nose of the wing airfoil is symmetrically con ventional glider l0 bearing the usual fuselage II toured so that the pro?les on both sides of the and tail ?ns including vertical ?n l2 and stabi nose tip are similar but reversed. It is pointed lizer | 3. out, also, that in all modi?cations the pitching The wings l5 include right and left sections l6 moment or, as otherwise stated, the lift is zero. and Il. Each of these sections is pivotally 50 Other modi?cations of the invention may be mounted on a rod support [8 extending laterally apparent to those skilled in the art and hence no from the fuselage and in line with each other and limitation is intended by the speci?c disclosure is free to pivot independently or together about other than may be required by the scope of claims the spanwise axis of the wing section. The pivot hereto appended, rod is placed ahead of the areodynamic center 55

The invention described herein may be manu.

4 .

factured and used by or for the Government of

the United States of America for governmental
purposes without the payment of any royalties
thereon or therefor.
. What is claimed is:

1. A tow-glider comprising a fuselage, guide V?ns including stabilizers at the tail end of said fuselage,=alined rodélike elements of uni-formcir» cular cross-section secured to and extending transversely from said fuselage. .a ,pair .of .wing simulating ?aps each pivoted freely on said ele
ments at a respective one ‘of 11991311 sides of said
fuselage on a line intermediate the nose and-wear

?aps each pivoted freely on one of said elements on a line intermediate the nose and rear edge of the ?ap and displaced toward the ?ap nose from the aerodynamic ?ap center whereby a zero lift characteristic is attained, the flaps having pro ?les symmetrically contoured on both sides of the fuselage. MARION‘O. MCKINNEY, JR. JOHN P. CAMPBELL.

‘References 'Ci‘téd in the ?le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS
4513-;0’16 1,805,927

edges of the flap and displaced toward the?ap
nose from the aerodynamic "?ap 'cen'ter "whereby ‘15 a zero lift characteristic is attained,‘.the ?aps

Sramek ‘uVa-rren Manson Sha?er

1932 1932 1941 1942

‘Love _____________ __ Feb. 16, 1926 Aldrich __________ __ May 26, 1931

having pro?les symmetrically contoured on both

sides of the fuselage. 2. A tow-glider comprising a fuselage, guide ?ns including stabilizers at the tail end of said 20 12.440373’? fuselage, alined support elements :secured to and 25.28268 extending transversely ‘from said ifuselage on" op posite sides ‘thereof, a ‘pair of 'viing simulating

1,844,448 1,85-7?01l ‘2,238,875 2,298,425

___________ __ Feb. 9, __________ __ May 10, __________ __ Apr. 15, _'___. ______ _- Oct, 13,

Ca-wein ~___________. .May ,4, .1948 -Dickins,on _s_-_._____ .Qct. 31,1959

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