MLA Citation Style The Modern Language Association (MLA) establishes values for acknowledging sources used in a research
paper. MLA citation style uses a simple two-part parenthetical documentation system for citing sources: Citations in the text of a paper point to the alphabetical Works Cited list that appears at the end of the paper. Together, these references identify and credit the sources used in the paper and allow others to access and retrieve this material. Note: A parenthetical reference to a familiar historical document -- i.e., the United States Constitution -- no longer requires a corresponding entry in the Works Cited list. Citing sources in the text In MLA style, writers place references to sources in the paper to briefly identify them and enable readers to find them in the Works Cited list. These parenthetical references should be kept as brief and as clear as possible. Give only the information needed to identify a source. Usually the author's last name and a page reference suffice. Place the parenthetical reference as close as possible to its source. Insert the parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur, preferably at the end of a sentence. Information in the parenthesis should complement, not repeat, information given in the text. If you include an author's name in a sentence, you do not need to repeat it in your parenthetical statement. The parenthetical reference should precede the punctuation mark that concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material. Electronic and online sources are cited just like print resources in parenthetical references. If an online source lacks page numbers, omit numbers from the parenthetical references. If an online source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering, such as numbering of paragraphs, cite the relevant numbers. Examples: Author's name in text Author's name in reference Multiple authors of a work Dover has expressed this concern (11821). This concern has been expressed (Dover 118-21). This hypothesis (Bradley and Rogers 7) suggested this theory (Sumner, Reichl, and Waugh 23). Williams alludes to this premise (136-39, 145). (Burns 54; Thomas 327) (Wilson 2:1-18)
Two locations Two works cited Multivolume works References to volumes and pages
Arrange entries in alphabetical order by authors' last names (surnames). Indentation: Align the first line of the entry flush with the left margin. vol. Works Cited list References cited in the text of a research paper must appear at the end of the paper in a Works Cited list or bibliography. Henderson suggests (United Nations. Use the conjunction "and. and descriptive words (Press. (Do not capitalize articles.. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source that specifically supports your research. pars. placing a semicolon between each. use the work's title or a shortened version of the title when citing it in text. Examples Books: References to an entire book should include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s) the complete title
.References to an entire volume In text reference to an entire volume Corporate authors Works with no author When a work has no author. (If abbreviating a title. or the "to" in infinitives.) Shorten the publisher's name. Inc. include all of them. omit initial articles and begin with the word by which it is alphabetized in the Works Cited list.
Online source with numbered paragraphs (Fox. Pagination: Do not use the abbreviations p. please refer to the MLA resources listed below. or by title for sources without authors. Economic Commission for Africa 51-63) as stated by the presidential commission (Report 4). and indent all subsequent lines (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent. Capitalize the first word and all other principal words of the titles and subtitles of cited works listed. or pp. When multiple publishers are listed." not an ampersand [&]. for example. 4-5) For more detailed information about citing references in the text. business abbreviations (Co. use only the first city. When more than one city is listed for the same publisher. when listing multiple authors of a single work. omit articles. prepositions.):
(Henderson. 3) In volume 3." Italics: Choose a font in which the italic style contrasts clearly with the regular style. coordinating conjunctions. to designate page numbers. Publisher).).
Two authors: Cross. Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience. Year of Publication. Leuchtenburg. Three authors: Lowi. Johnson Museum of Art. 1973. New York: Knopf. Freedom and Power. Sander. Print. Berkeley: U of California P. 1994. Print. The Growth of the American Republic. Ithaca: Cornell U. if indicated place of publication the shortened name of the publisher date of publication medium of publication Basic Format Lastname. Samuel Eliot. Another work. New York: Norton. Place of Publication: Publisher. Speak. et al. 1955. Henry Steele Commager. New York: Oxford UP. 1980. 2004. 2 vols. Analyzing American Government: American Government. Print. Johnson Museum of Art. Corporate author: Herbert F. and Steve Jackson. Firstname. Lolita. and William E. Multivolume work: Morison. New York: Guggenheim Museum. 3rd ed.
No author or editor:
. One author: Nabokov. Title of Book. Hysteria beyond Freud. edition. Medium of Publication. Susan. Print. New York: Putnam. Benjamin Ginsberg. A Guide to the Herbert F. Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. Print. and Christine Hoffman. Vladimir. More than three authors: Gilman. Theodore. same author: ---. London: Thames & Hudson. 1993. Print. 1999. Cornell University. Print.
2004. Ed. Princeton. and Marguerite Helmers. eds. place the author's name first. Articles or entries from reference books: If the article or entry is signed. NJ: Peterson's. 1990. 1a. edition.2 (1983): 29-33. 61.Peterson's Annual Guides to Graduate Study. Fauzia Erfan. "Welcoming Courtyards: Hospitality. Print. Lanham: Lexington Books. Essay or Chapter in Edited Books or Anthologies: References to an essay or chapter in an edited book or compilation must include the following elements: essay or chapter author(s) essay or chapter title book title book editor(s) or compilers place of publication the shortened name of the publisher date of publication inclusive page numbers of the cited piece medium of publication Article in a book: Ahmedi. 1993. if it is unsigned. "The Misreading of Kerouac. 2010. 308-10. give the title first. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1999. 33rd ed. Maurice Hamington. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Webster’s Third New World Dictionary. Include only the title of the reference source. Carl Riley. Charles A. it is not necessary to include full publication information." Def. Vol.. Ed. Print. Detroit: Gale. For well-known reference works. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism." Feminism and Hospitality: Gender in the Host/Guest Relationship. Print. Print. Print. Editor (anthology or collection of essays): Hill. Dictionary entry: "Hospitality." Review of Contemporary Fiction 3. and date of publication. Encyclopedia entry:
. Tim. Spirituality. 109-24. Mahwah. Reprinted article: Hunt. and Gender.
Jennifer. Magazines. David. David A.g. two authors: Laing. include the full publication information. one author: Matarrita-Cascante.) because different editions of a newspaper may contain different material. it is important to specify the edition used (e. 2004.4 reads as Volume 25." Fortune 1 Nov. Magazine article: Kaplan. and Newspapers: References to periodical articles must include the following elements: • author(s) • article title • publication title (journal. J." Annals of Tourism Research 37. Vol." International Journal of Hospitality Management 29. no author:
. 1 Gun For Hire. Journal article. Article from a less familiar reference book: For articles from less familiar reference sources. Newspaper article. Ed. When citing newspapers. Journal article. Smith. Becky. the number 25. magazine. Print.4 (2010): 1141-63. 2nd ed. Print. "Beyond Growth: Reaching Tourism-Led Development. issue 4." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. "How Green Was My Festival: Exploring Challenges and Opportunities Associated With Staging Green Events. Print.) • volume number • publication date (abbreviate months. "Setting Recycling Goals and Priorities. "Corporate America’s No. 1. Frank. Print. Herbert F. Andrew F. In the example below. "Cookies. Bernheisel. if used) • the inclusive page numbers • medium of publication Issue numbers should be stated as decimals to a given volume number.Mercuri. Ed. 2010: 81-95.2 (2010): 261-7. and Warwick Frost. late ed. Article in Journals. New York: McGraw-Hill. Print. etc. Lund. 2001." McGraw-Hill Recycling Handbook.
CD-ROM Citations should include the medium of the electronic publication (CD-ROM). Hearings 106th Cong. Committee on Governmental Affairs. 1." Granma International 31 May 2009. Senate. 1888. MGM/UA Home Video. 1st sess. Albany: Troy." August and Everything After. Woody Allen. "Marriage.0. Commission on Capital Punishment. the name of the vendor that made the material available on CD-ROM. 1977. August and Everything After. General Assembly. Print.. and publications dates for the version used. DGC. Vikas. Audio Visual Film or video recording: Annie Hall. New York: United Nations. Print. cite the government agency that issued the document as author. CD.: 16. DGC. discontinuous pages: Bajaj." Encyclopedia Judaica. 1999. Report of the Commission to Investigate and Report the Most Humane and Practical Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital Cases. The Future of the Independent Counsel Act. specific song: Counting Crows. Print. In general. 1993. 2010: B1+. Washington: GPO. English ed. Print. Sound recording."Africa Day Celebrated in Havana. Citing Materials from Online Sources
. 1993. Federal document: United States. "Mr. Print. State document: New York State. Newspaper article. Vers. one author." New York Times 27 Oct. Jones. Sound recording: Counting Crows. CD. if you do not know the writer of the document. if relevant. International document: United Nations. Dir. 1997. "The Double-Edged Rupee. CD-ROM. 1979. Government Documents: References to government documents vary in their required elements. Cong. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. 1991. Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia. Videocassette.
cornell. In general. Web. Jorgen S. 2011. 2009. 1999. like those for print sources. 16 Nov.Online Sources: Citations for online sources. pag. All citations should include the medium of publication (Web) and the date the content was accessed. Chaplin. 2008. Heather. 4 July 2009. you may use a genre label such as Home page. See sections 5. Ed. Richard C. In many cases." Cornell University Library." Salon 19 Feb. Cornell University.edu/resrch/intro>. All other examples below use the shorter citation format. Greg.library. Entry in an online encyclopedia: "Einstein.1-4 in the MLA Handbook for more complete information on creating citations for online sources. "Epidemic of Extravagance." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. 25 Jan. Introduction. Martin. Web. "European Culture and Islam. Web. Web. 19 June 2009 <http://www. should provide information that both identifies a source and allows that source to be located and retrieved again. Albert. New York: Macmillan Reference-Thomson/Gale. use n. Article from a less familiar online reference book: Nielsen. the information that is available to fulfill these objectives can vary widely from resource to resource. Jose Antonio. 12 July 1999. 1999: n. Rule. Web. 27 Apr. pag. 2004. Home page. "The Face of Facebook. Cornell University Library. in place of the page numbers. Article in an online periodical: If pagination is unavailable or is not continuous. Web. 2009. "Introduction to Research. Article in a full-text journal accessed from a database: Vargas.6. Academic Search Premier." New Yorker 86. list the complete address within angle brackets after the date. Web page: This example includes the optional URL. Online book with print information:
. etc. Personal Web site: If a work is untitled. it is also necessary to identify the Web site or database that has made the material available online." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. If the source is difficult to locate or your instructor requires a URL.28 (2010): 54-63. references to online works require more information than references to print sources. Because there are currently few standards that govern the organization and presentation of online publications.
1915. Robert. 2nd ed. Web. “Citation Management.
. Web..library. New York: Henry Holt and Co.cornell.Frost. 30 June 2009. 2013. Cornell University.” Cornell University Library.
Reference: Cornell University Library.edu/resrch/citmanage/mla>. Google Books. 26 June 2013 < http://www. North of Boston.