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Jamaican Maroons

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The Jamaican Maroons are descended from slaves who escaped from slavery and established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica during the long era of slavery on the island. African slaves imported during the Spanish period may have provided the first runaways, apparently mixing with the native Taino or Arawak people that remained in the country. Many gained liberty when the English attacked Jamaica and took it in 1655, and subsequently runaways were referred to as "maroons." The Windward Maroons and those from the Cockpit Countrystubbornly resisted conquest in the First and Second Maroon Wars.

1 History

o       

1.1 Deportation to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone

2 The Maroons today

3 Akan

4 Films

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links


When the British captured Jamaica in 1655 the Spanish colonists fled leaving a large number of African slaves. Rather than be re-enslaved by the British, they escaped into the hilly, mountainous regions of the island, joining those who had previously escaped from the Spanish to live with the Taínos. The Maroons intermarried with Amerindian natives, establishing independence in the back country and survived by subsistence farming and by raiding plantations. Over time, the Maroons came to control large areas of the Jamaican interior. Their plantation raids resulted in the First Maroon War. The two main Maroon groups in the 18th century were the Leeward and the Windward tribes, the former led by Cudjoe in Trelawny Town and the latter led by his sister Queen Nanny (and later by Quao).[1] Queen Nanny, also known as Granny Nanny (died 1700's) is the only female listed among Jamaica's National Heroes, and has been immortalised in songs and legends. She

the Dover. women and children. they agreed not to harbour new runaway slaves. The Lieutenant-Governor Sir John Wentworth believed that the Maroons would be good settlers. Scots Hall. The Duke of Kent and Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in North America. in the treaty of 1738. they were also paid to return captured slaves and fight for the British in the case of an attack from the French or Spanish.[3] The Jamaican government tired of the cost of maintaining order. but rather to help catch them. One arrived in Halifax on 21 July.Upper Canada (Ontario) had also been suggested as a suitable place. when a new Governor took power in 1795 and began to mistreat the Maroons tensions between planters and Maroons grew and a Second Maroon War broke out. the main town of the Windward Maroons who are concentrated in and around the Rio Grande valley in the northeastern parish of Portland. living under their own chief with a British superintendent. Originally. Mary. were sent from Jamaica with the Maroons as Commissioners. Jamaican Maroons fought against slavery and maintained their independence from the British. Two gentlemen. He then received orders from theDuke of Portland to settle them in Nova Scotia.000 troops. Nanny Town. and Anne sailed from Port Royal Harbour. They were to remain in their five main towns Accompong. On 26 June 1796. just a year later 568 were taken to Canada. However. The Accompong Maroons remained neutral and the British left them alone.Trelawny Town.[2] Deportation to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone[edit] Main article: Jamaican Maroons in Sierra Leone In 1796 about 568 Jamaican Maroons from Trelawny Town were deported from Jamaica to Nova Scotia following their rebellion against the colonial government. and Accompong alone remained. They were paid a bounty of two dollars for each returned slave. employed the group to work on the new fortifications at the Citadel Hill in Halifax. Immediate actions were put in place for the removal of one group of Maroons (Trelawney) to Lower Canada (Quebec). it was eventually decided that this group be sent to Halifax. until any further instructions were received from England. especially in guerrilla warfare. the other two followed two days later bringing in total 543 men. The British fought with 100 Cuban dogs and brought in 5. Nova Scotia. although from time to time runaways from the plantations still found their way into Maroon settlements. In exchange. impressed with the proud bearing and other characteristics of the Maroons. Following this . This last clause in the treaty naturally caused tension between the Maroons and the enslaved black population. Despite the fact that the Maroons surrendered on the condition that they would not be exported. promising them 2500 acres (10 km²) in two locations. which were particularly important in the First Maroon War in the early 18th century. However.was known for her exceptional leadership skills. had decided to rid themselves of "the problem". Messrs Quarrell and Octerloney. However. By the end of the war. In 1739-40 the British governor in Jamaica signed a treaty with the Maroons. Mountain Top. Her remains are reputedly buried at " Bump Grave" in Moore Town. Jamaica to Halifax. the other Maroon settlements in Jamaica had been destroyed.

000 Jamaican pounds from the government of Jamaica. The isolation used to their advantage by their ancestors has today led to their communities being amongst the most inaccessible on the island. Elizabeth. The British government decided it would be better to send them to Freetown in Sierra Leone (West Africa) rather than try to persuade them to farm in a cold climate of Canada. 90 per cent [sic] of the remaining Maroons in Freetown -. After the first winter. the Maroons. The Creole congregation of Freetown's St. based on the day of the week on which a person was born[7]: Sunday: Quashie / Quasheba Monday: Cudjoe / Kujo / Juba Tuesday: Bene Cobena Wednesday: Quaco Cooba .[5][6] The Maroon heritage of Moore Town was relisted on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008. Akan[edit] At least some of the Jamaican Maroons were originally of the Akan people of the present Ghana[7] and they used Akan names in various forms. "By 1841. the Leeward Maroons still possess a vibrant community of about 600. the descendants of various groups of freed slaves landed in Freetown between 1792 and about 1855.[4] The Jamaican Maroons are still well remembered in Sierra Leone today. Accompong. Tours of the village are offered to foreigners and a large festival is put on every 6 January to commemorate the signing of the peace treaty with the British after the Maroon War.000 acres (20 km2) of land and built the community of Preston.the two commissioners responsible with credit of 25.some 591 people --returned to Jamaica" to work for "Jamaican planters" who "desperately needed workers". In their largest town. and the survivors were deported there in 1800. Those who remained gradually merged with the larger Creole community. which was built by the Maroons in 1820 on what is now the city's main street. The Maroons today[edit] To this day. John's Maroon Church. are especially vocal in proclaiming their descent from the Jamaican exiles. Governor Wentworth also was granted an allowance of £240 annually from England to provide religious instruction and schooling for the community. exile to Africa was not an easy transition for the Trelawney Maroons.000 on 5. Not surprisingly. the Maroons in Jamaica are to a small extent autonomous and separate from Jamaican culture. expended £3. But some modern Creoles (or "Krios") still proudly claim descent from the Maroons. raised in an independent culture and not impressed with the apparently servile virtues of cultivating the soil. became less tolerant of the conditions in which they were living. in the parish of St.

ISBN 0-89789-148-1 6. ^ Understanding Slavery Initiative 3. From Repercussions: A Celebration of AfricanAmerican Music series.Thursday: Quaw Aba Friday: Cuffe Fiba Saturday: Quamin Mimba The council of a Maroon settlement is called an Osofu. Mavis Christine (1988). of the Maroon negroes of the island of Jamaica. church)[9][10] Films[edit]  1984 . Youth & Culture: Jamaica's National Heroes 2. 5. 23. 1655-1796: A History of Resistance. See also[edit]       Coromantee Maroon (people) Maroon Town. Ian.[8] very similar to the Akan:Twi word asafo (= assembly. Sierra Leone Dread & Alive comic series centered around a maroon. 9. 1964. . p. ^ Edwards. and habits of life. and a detail of the origin. Black Nova Scotians. program 6. Jamaica: A Benn Holiday Guide. Stockdale. Sierra Leone Krio people Black Nova Scotians Notes[edit] 1. "Observations on the disposition. Bryan (1801). 1980. 1973. London: J. Bryan (1796). The Maroons of Jamaica.Caribbean Crucible. 303-360. Slave Resistance: A Caribbean Study. Historical Survey of the Island of Saint Domingo. in Edwards. Collaboration & Betrayal. Directed by Dennis Marks and Geoffrey Haydon. John. 4. MA: Bergin & Garvey. Nova Scotia: The Nova Scotia Museum. Granby. ^ Anyamesɛm Anaa Twerɛ Kronkron Akan Kasa Mu (The Bible in Twi:Asante). ^ Campbell. ^ Fortin (2006). 7. ^ a b "The Maroons". ^ Sangster. progress. ^ Jamaican Ministry of Education. pp. character. Accra. manners. 8. and termination of the late war between those people and the white inhabitants". The Bible Society of Ghana. ^ Grant.

. Flight to Freedom: African Runaways and Maroons in the Americas. C. J. Basel: Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. Granby. from Their Origin to the Establishment of Their Chief Tribe at Sierra Leone. 1803. No. Alvin O. "'Blackened Beyond Our Native Hue': Removal. 1913. Identity and the Trelawney Maroons on the Margins of the Atlantic World. 17961800". 1. February 2006. compiler. Jamaica Maroon/Marocon culture [1] Queen Nanny Windward Maroons [2] The Maroons of Jamaica . ^ Rottmann. References[edit]  Campbell. The History of the Maroons. ISBN 976-640-180-2 External links[edit]    Common Medicinal Plants of Portland. Citizenship Studies. Jeffrey A. Mass: Bergin & Garvey. 1988. 5-34. Vol. London: Longman. Kristo Asafo Abakọsẹm Tẇi Kasa Mu (Church History in Tshi).  Thompson. 10.10. 2 vols. The Maroons of Jamaica. R. 2006.  Fortin. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press. W. Collaboration & Betrayal. 1655-1796: A History of Resistance. ISBN 0-89789-148-1  Dallas. Mavis C.