# Our problem with cosmic relic neutrinos …

Saturday 14th July, INSS 2012 problem presentation R. Castillo, M. Reeves, C. Sun, L. Yang

Why are relic neutrinos important?
Large scale structure, shift in turning point to larger k

Cosmic Microwave Background suppression of first peak Relic neutrinos have an effect on when there was matter/radiation energy parity in our current understanding of the evolution of the universe and leading from this has an effect on behaviour of the LSS and CMB. Relic neutrino's contribution to dark matter

How can you translate that into a concept for their detection (hint: coherent scattering)? Is it practical compared to existing technical capabilities?” Our approach ● ● ● ● ”What is the de Broglie wavelength of relic neutrinos with respect to mass?” ”What is the likelihood of detecting a relic neutrino?” ”What experiments might be capable of this observation?” ”Are these experiments currently technically feasible?” .The question “Compute the de Broglie wavelength of cosmics neutrinos as a function of their mass.

2005   .20205 ζ (4) = 1.Rev.de  Broglie  wavelength  of  relic  neutrino      λ= p dnν (Tν ) 1 1 = d3p 2π 3 exp( p / Tν ) + 1 3ζ (3) 3 nν (Tν ) = Tν 3 4π 2ζ (3) 3 nγ (T ) = T 3 π Tν 4 3 = ( ) .3 •10−4 eV 2 ζ (3) ζ (3) = 1.08232 λ ≅ 2 mm Phys.7 •10 −4 eV T 11 3 nν (Tν ) = nγ (T ) 22 nνi 0 ≈ 56cm−3 7 ζ (4) p = Tν 0 = 5. Tν 0 = 1.D71:083002.

Relic neutrino mass dependence ● We have derived the de Broglie wavelength in the mυ << T limit However dependent upon the absolute mass of the neutrino at the current temperatures neutrinos would most likely be non relativistic ● ● Consequences include: Non relativistic neutrinos can cluster around gravitational bodies. leading to local concentrations of relic neutrinos – This would help detection Lower average temperatures of neutrinos leading to even longer de Broglie wavelengths – This would hinder detection ● .

1km / s 10 2 Equatorial   speed   Φ = 1.Relic  Neutrino  Flux   We  are  not  rest  with  respect  to  CνB       Φ = n • vearth n = 336 cm −3 vearth = 465.56 •10 / cm / s .

Relic Neutrino Detection . Reeves. G2 dσ = F [Z (4 sin2 θW − 1) + N ]2 E 2 (1 + cos θ) d (cos θ) 8π where Z and N are number of protons and neutrons.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for single particle Let’s start from the coherent scattering cross section of single particle. R. L. Yang. Sun. (1) M. C. Castillo.

C. Castillo. Sun. R. Relic Neutrino Detection . Reeves. it reads σ= 2 N2 GF E2 4π (1) (2) M. G2 dσ = F [Z (4 sin2 θW − 1) + N ]2 E 2 (1 + cos θ) d (cos θ) 8π where Z and N are number of protons and neutrons. and after integration. Yang.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for single particle Let’s start from the coherent scattering cross section of single particle. L.

L. σ ≈ 0. G2 dσ = F [Z (4 sin2 θW − 1) + N ]2 E 2 (1 + cos θ) d (cos θ) 8π where Z and N are number of protons and neutrons.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for single particle Let’s start from the coherent scattering cross section of single particle. it reads σ= Finally. R. Sun. Relic Neutrino Detection . Castillo. Yang. Reeves.42 × 10−44 N 2 (E /1 MeV)2 cm2 (3) 2 N2 GF E2 4π (1) (2) M. C. and after integration.

Castillo. C. Reeves.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for a piece of material For a piece of material. R. Relic Neutrino Detection . Sun. L. σ ≈ 2. Yang. M.5 × 10−18 cm2 N2 (E /1MeV)2 A kg (4) where A is the nucleon number (mass number).

Castillo. C.5 × 10−18 cm2 N2 (E /1MeV)2 A kg (4) where A is the nucleon number (mass number).7 × 10−4 eV M. σ ≈ 2. If we use 2mm cube material as interaction ’particles’. L. Relic Neutrino Detection . and neutrino energy E = 1. Yang. Reeves. R. Sun.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for a piece of material For a piece of material.

7 × 10−10 )2 × (2 × 10−3 )3 · |ρ| · N2 2 cm A (5) (6) = 5.5 × 10−18 ) × (1. Relic Neutrino Detection . Yang. If we use 2mm cube material as interaction ’particles’. L. Reeves.7 × 10−4 eV σ ≈ (2. Sun. σ ≈ 2. Castillo.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Cross section for a piece of material For a piece of material. R. and neutrino energy E = 1. M. C.78 × 10−46 · |ρ| · N2 2 cm A where |ρ| is in unit of kg/m3 .5 × 10−18 cm2 N2 (E /1MeV)2 A kg (4) where A is the nucleon number (mass number).

Relic Neutrino Detection . Sun. Reeves. L. Castillo. Yang. C. M.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Recoiling target ∆2 = 2E 2 (1 − cos θ) is transmitted energy to the nucleon. R.

EA = (7) M. R. the recoiling energy. L. Sun. 2MA obviously. Relic Neutrino Detection . Reeves. C.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Recoiling target ∆2 = 2E 2 (1 − cos θ) is transmitted energy to the nucleon. ∆2 . Castillo. Yang.

EA = (7) taking average. Yang. E A = 1 ∆2 max . ∆2 . R.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Recoiling target ∆2 = 2E 2 (1 − cos θ) is transmitted energy to the nucleon. ∆max = 4E 2 3 2MA (8) M. the recoiling energy. Reeves. Castillo. C. 2MA obviously. Relic Neutrino Detection . Sun. L.

R. Reeves. Yang. Castillo.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy cross section recoiling energy Recoiling target ∆2 = 2E 2 (1 − cos θ) is transmitted energy to the nucleon. Sun.08 (E /1 MeV)2 keV = × 10−36 J 3A A Relic Neutrino Detection (9) M. 2MA obviously. L. the recoiling energy. ∆max = 4E 2 3 2MA (8) changing back to input variable E and plug in . C. EA = 2 3. EA = (7) taking average. E A = 1 ∆2 max . . ∆2 .

Yang. so far we have Φ ≈ 336 cm−3 × Vearth = 1. Reeves. Based on all the inputs above. C. Sun.78 × 10−46 · |ρ| · Ntarget = EA EA Vtarget V0 3.484 × 10−20 N2 2 cm A Vtarget 1 = − 3 3 (2 × 10 ) m3 (10) (11) (12) (13) ρ J m0 A (14) M.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy What we have. L. R. Castillo..56 × 1010 cm−2 · s−1 σ = 5.. Relic Neutrino Detection .08 = × 10−36 J A =1.

78 × 10−46 · |ρ| · · Vtarget 1 (2 × 10−3 )3 m3 N 2 Vtarget −1 y A (m3 ) (16) N2 A (15) cm2 = 3. Castillo. C. Relic Neutrino Detection .56 × 1010 cm−2 · s−1 · 5. R.Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy Expected number of events Finally we can ﬁnd the number of events is given by.56 × 10−20 |ρ| M. L. Yang. Reeves. Sun. Nevents = Φ · σ · Ntargets = 1.

Cross section and recoiling energy Number of events and recoiling energy A quick example For example the lead. Yang. Sun. M.3 × 10−12 y −1 .207 Plugging in.12 × 10−14 Vtarget −1 y (m 3 ) Vtarget E A =0. Vtarget ∼ 3. Relic Neutrino Detection . Castillo. L.0390 × 10−16 · J (m3 ) In order to make the recoiling energy ∼1eV. 208 Pb. Reeves. R. we have Nevents =3.13 × 104 kg /m3 N =126 Z =82 m0 =0. in order to have a 1y −1 event rate. C. number of events is ∼ 1. or we can make a target ∼ 68km. ρ =1.45 m3 But in that way.

What we need to detect relic neutrinos? •Highest cross-section target •The best energy resolution •Capability to reject background •Low energy threshold An experimental solution: Cryogenic Solid State Bolometers: •Working at very low temperatures allow as a better thermal noise rejection •Detection via coherent scattering enhances cross-section values •Recoil energy deposited in the target is ~eV. while the minimum mass needed is hundred of kilograms .

The bolometer is connected to the cold bath at Tb throught a weak thermal conductance Gpb Or using InGaAs (<1eV) at T~140k arXiv:1107. β is the exponent of the temperature dependance of the thermal conductivity between the bolometer and Conceptual schematic of the setup: the refrigerator.3512v2 [hep-ph] 21 Jul 2011 . An array of 10.000 mono-crystal Si bolometers. Si ~1eV Schem of a bolometer model.The threshold of a bolometer: Ctot is the total heat capacity of the bolometer.