DATE
THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
VIBRATION
1. VIBRATION RESONANCE
 Source of vibration
 Effects of resonance
 Resonance avoidance
2. VIBRATION SOURCE FREQUENCY
 Reciprocating compressors
 Centrifugal compressors
 Wind  vortex shedding
3 ~ PIPING NATURAL .FREQUENCY
 Basic equation
 Shape factor
 End restraint factor
.Concentrated mass factor
 Heavy insulation factor (liquidfilled)
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
1 OF 13
DATE
THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
1. VIBRATION RESONANCE
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
2 OF 13
Most of the problems and failures in pip1ng subject to vibration are due to
the occurrence of resonance. The condition of resonance is reached when
the frequency of the source of vibration matches "the mechanical natural
frequency of a span of pipe.
Source of Vibration
While any source of oscillating force will be a source of vibration, the
sources of vibration which are most troublesome to piping are the fluid
either inside or outside the pipe.
Reciprocating compressors, the main source of vibration problems, generate
pressure pulses in the gas being compressed. These pulses are carried by
the .piping and will generate a pulsating force on the pipe.
Flow in a header past a branch connection will generate pressure pulses as
the flow crosses this opening. If the length of the branch from this
connection to a closed or partially closed valve is right, the small
pressure pulses generated by the flow are amplified into pulses large
enough to cause vibration problems. While this phenomena can occur in any
piping system, it can be the most expensive to correct or alleviate in a
centrifugal compressor system.
Wind blowing across the outside of a pipe will generate an alternating
pressure perpendicular to the wind due to vortex shedding. The alternating
pressure causes alternating forces across the pipe.
Effects of Resonance
When resonance occurs, the effect of a force is multiplied by ten or more
times. A small force can have a large and destructive effect.
During resonance the force from the source of vibration pushes on the pipe
at the exact moment when the spring force in the pipe is the strongest and
in the same direction. Thus the deflections are magnified and the
alternating stresses, which produce fatigue failures, are magnified.
Resonance Avoidance
The design of piping systems for vibrating conditions is based upon
avoiding resonance. The technique can be deduced from the definition of
resonance. If the frequency of the source of vibration does not match the
mechanical natural frequency of the span of pipe, there is no resonance.
This technique requires a good knowledge of both the frequency of the
source of vibration and the mechanical natural frequency of the pipe.
DATE THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
3 OF 13
Since a span of pipe has a number of natural frequencies, the lowest
natural frequency is designed to be at least 20% above the frequency of the
source of vibration. The frequency which is 20% above (out of the
resonance region) the frequency of the source of vibration is called the
minimum natural frequency of the pipe, MNFP. The mechanical natural
frequency of the pipe span is called the actual mechanical natural
frequency of the pipe, ANFP. ANFP is greater than or equal to MNFP.
2. VIBRATION SOURCE FREQUENCY
The frequency of the source of vibration must be predicted in order to
establish the minimum natural frequency of the pipe.
Reciprocating Compressors
The reciprocating motion of the piston is the generator of the pressure
pulses which are the source of vibration. Therefore the frequency of
vibration is determined by the speed of the compressor (RPM) and whether
the piston is single or double acting. The highest frequency of pulsation
in the piping can only be determined by an acoustic study of the system,
but an estimate of this frequency can be made. Final verification of this
frequency can only come from the acoustic study.
To estimate the minimum mechanical natural frequency of the pipe.
MNFP = A (RPM)
MNFP = minimum mechanical natural frequency of pipe, Hz
RPM = compressor speed, revolutions/minute
A = 0.067 when there is only one cylinder connected to a pulse bottle
(the cylinder can be either single or double acting).
= 0.08 when there are
0
two doubleacting cylinders feeding into a
common bottle with 90 phasing with respect to each other.
DATE THE M. w: KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Centrifugal Compressors
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
4 OF 13
There are seldom vibration problems with centrifugal compressors. When
field vibrations have been experienced, they have usually been caused by
flow past a branch connection when the branch was terminated with a closed
or partially closed valve. Vibrations due to the blade passing frequency
are seldom a field problem.
The vibration design which has been done for centrifugal compressors is to
avoid the acoustic amplification of the small pulses generated at the
branch connection.
The lengths of the branch from the header to a closed or partially closed
valve which should be avoided are
A  acoustic velocity of the gas, ft/sec
Db  inside diameter of branch,in
.
Kb  flow constant which includes the range from .042 to .052
N  an integer number having values of N=1 or 3
V  mean flow velocity in header, ft/sec
lengths pipe (from header to closed/partially closed
valves) ranges be avoided, ft. (These lengths will be a series of
length ranges to be avoided. For example:
t  12' to 15' and 36' to 45')
A 
DATE THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY .
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Wind  Vortex Shedding
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
5 OF 13
The flow of wind over a pipe can cause vibration due to vortex shedding.
If resonance is present, these vibrations can damage the pipe and restraint
system.
Flow Phenomenon
>
)
>
alternating vortices produce an alternating sideways force on the pipe.
This is known as the Strouhal effect. The frequency of this
source of vibration corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.18 and yields the
minimum natural frequency of the pipe, MNFP
MNFP = 2.59 V/0
D  outside diameter of pipe, in
V  velocity of wind, ft/sec
There is some doubt whether vortex shedding occurs in an alternating
pattern which would cause vibration at high wind velocities. Use of the
Vertical Guide Table in Subject 3300 will avoid resonance due to vortex
shedding.
DATE THEM. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
3. PIPING NATURAL FREQUENCY
Basic Eguation
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
6 OF 13
The actua 1 mechani ca 1 natura 1 f"requency of a span of pipe, ANFP I must be
greater than or equal to the minimum mechanical natural frequency, MNFP, to
avoid resonance. The basic equation for ANFP uses the length of the span,
material properties of the pipe, and the moment of inertia of pipe cross
section. There are modifying factors for the shape of the span, the type
of end restraint, the presence of concentrated mass, and extra pipe weight
due to heavy insulation or liquid contents.
ANFP = .02175 (SHP) (END) (CON) (INS) K/L
2
v E/ 7f
ANFP  actual mechanical natural frequency of the pipe span, Hz
(This needs to be the lowest natural frequency.)
CON  concentrated mass factor, See Page 12.
E  pipe material modulus of elasticity at operating temperature, psi
END  end restraint factor, See Page 11.
INS  heavy insulation factor, See Page 13.
(This . factor can adjust for the presence of liquid rather than gas
inside the pipe.)
K  radius of gyration of bare pipe crosssection, in
L  length of pipe span or a portion of the span, ft
(The i ~ n g t h of pipe span used must be coordinated with the span
shape factor.)
SHP  span shape factor (The shape and size of span must be consistent
with the directions of restraint.)
t  density of pipe material, lbm/in
3
DATE
0
THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Span Shape Factor, SHP
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
7 OF 13
In general the span shape factor is based upon the shape of the pipe
between adjacent pipe restraints, but caution must be used because the pipe
restraint must be able to force a vibration node on the pipe where the
restraint contacts the pipe. A vibration node is a point of no vibration
motion. The vibration motions of concern are perpendicular to the axis of
the pipe, therefore the pipe restraint cannot allow any motion
perpendicular to the pipe axis if it is to force a node.
Take the following illustration:
6
..:..__
L, ____
0 
The span will be L
1
+ L
2
, not L
1
and L
2
separately. The restraint at 8
will not force a node in the Z direction, therefore the entire span from A
to C will vibrate as one unit. If the restraint at 8 had also acted in the
Z as well as the Y direction, there would have been two independent spans 0
L
1
and L
2
whose ANFP would have each been much larger than the ANFP of the
combined span L
1
and L
2
In addition the use of resting supports for vibration service is bad
practice because the forcing of a node depends upon either the fr1ction or
the weight of the pipe being sufficient to force a node. Weight or
friction may not be sufficient. A clamp type of restraint which securely
prevents motion in both the positive and negative sense of the direction
being restrained should be used.
DATE THEM. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
THIS IS BAD PRACTICE FOR VIBRATION SERVICE
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
8 OF 13
A third pitfall involves the ANFP which results from inplane or outplane
vibration motions. In general, the ANFP is based on the outplane mode of
motion, but a particular combination of restraints will cause the inplane
mode of motion to give a lower ANFP.
OUTPLANE INPLANE
Notice the longer span for inplane bending which may give a lower ANFP
than outplane bending.
DATE THEM. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Span Shape Factor, SHP
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
9 OF 13
Given below are several of the basic span shapes likely to occur between
pipe restraints and both the inplane and outplane values of SHP, the span
shape factor. Other variations of these shapes can be calculated with a
dynamic analysis.
SPAN SHAPE
L
L
.]
.JL
L
W::"
:1
L
;:,L
...r
L
LJ"o
The span factor can be
found for
0
several variations
of the 90 bend.
L
e.. rL
I
E
10
SHP
15'
.,__ __
SPAN SHAPE FACTOR (SHP)
outplane in plane
3.52 3.52
22.4 22.4
3.74 15.4
2.00 3.10
2.26 2.80
0
ISO
DATE THEM. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
End Restraint Factor, END
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
10 OF 13
The end restraint factors, END, are all based upon a value of END=1.0 for a
span of pipe which is fixed at both ends. Since all of the span shape
factors are fixed at both ends (excluding the cantilever), the end
restraint factors can adjust any span shape factor to reflect the actual
type of end restraint.
TYPE OF RESTRAINT END RESTRAINT FACTOR, END
~
~
1.0
fixed  fixed
J
)"'
0.71
fixed  simple
~
"""'
> 0.74 to 0.85

fixed  clamped
r/"
,./
'
/
0.54 to 0.71 .
ciamped  clamped
1\ /\
0.44
simple  simple
DATE THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Concentrated Mass Factor, CON
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
11 OF 13
The effect of a concentrated mass, such as a valve, in one leg of a pipe
span can be calculated using the concentrated mass factor, CON. The
equation for CON and the location factors, C, are given below.
1
CON =
V 1 + (C) P/W
CON  concentrated mass factor. This factor varies with the shape of
the span and the location of the mass along a particular leg.
C mass location factor. This factor is found in the following table.
P  mass of the concentrated mass, lbm.
W  total mass of leg L which includes the pipe, insulation and contents
during operation, lbm.
DATE
THEM. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88
DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Concentrated Mass Factor, CON
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
12 OF 13
SPAN SHAPE
MASS LOCATION FACTOR
& MASS LOCATION c
3.9
cantilever
L/2 L/2 2.7
F
fixed  fixed
L/2 L/2 2.3
1\
fixed 
.
L/2 L/2 2.0
/\
1\
simPle simple
L/2. t/2
0.28
. . :t:
LJ2 L/2
.....
0.70
L
L
L
"1
L/'2.
0.68
0
L./.2
L
1'
..
..
DATE THE M. W. KELLOGG COMPANY
JULY 88 DESIGN MANUAL PIPING MECHANICAL
Heavy Insulation Factor (or Liquid Contents Factor)
SUBJECT
3400
PAGE
13 OF 13
The formula for calculating ANFP is based upon the weight per unit length
of bare uninsulated pipe filled with gas. Most pipes subject to vibration
fall into this category. Even the lb/ft of insulated pipe is so close to
that of bare pipe that the ANFP of bare pipe is used for most insulated
pipes.
When the weight of insulation becomes high enough in comparison with the
weight of bare pipe, the extra weight will significantly lower the ANFP.
The heavy insulation factor, INS, will adjust the ANFP for the weight of
insulation.
In addition, if the pipe is filled with liquid instead of gas, the effect
will be the same as if the pipe were covered with heavy insulation. The
heavy insulation factor, INS, will adjust for the weight of liquid. Be
sure that the liquidfilled pipe represents an operating condition where
vibration is expected and not a hydrotest condition.
INS = 1.0, for w
0
/w more than 0.8
INS =yw/w for w
0
/w less than 0.8
INS  heavy insulation factor. Also used to adjust for liquid filled lines
or any other factor which increases the uniform distribution weight
of pipe.
w  uniform distributed weight of pipe, insulation and contents (plus
snow or ice, if applicable), lb/ft.
w
0
 unifnrm distributed weight of bare pipe, lb/ft.