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**TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
**

By

R. P. Maheshwari, Ph. D.

Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,

Roorkee

1. USE OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

Transformers are used in a.c. systems for the measurement of the basic quantities viz. current,

voltage and power. These are also used to connect various relays to the power system. In all these

applications transformer serves a measuring functions and thus requires consideration for both its

accuracy characteristics and the means of making experimental determination of the accuracy.

Transformers used in connection with instruments for measurement function are referred to as

instrument transformers i.e. current transformers (C.T.) and potential transformers (P.T.).

The main two reasons for use of transformers for making measurements in a. c. circuits: first to

multiply the range of instrument, and second, to insulate an instrument from a high voltage line.

Large a. c. generators usually operate at a voltage of 12 kV to 33 kV and more and transmission

line operates up to the present top value of about 400 kV to 800 kV. It is necessary to have a

measure of current and voltage in these generators and lines both for metering purposes and for

the operation of protective relays. It would be out of question to bring high voltage lines directly

to switch board instruments.

2. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

The primary winding is connected in series in the line wire and the secondary is closed through the

metering circuit. The primary and secondary are wound on the same side of the core in order to

keep the leakage flux between the windings to a low value. Operation of a current transformer

differs from a power transformer in two respects. Operation represents nearly a short circuit

condition; in this the burden is of very low impedance. Second, the current in the secondary

winding is determined by the primary current and not by the secondary circuit impedance. The

secondary burden can be varied over a considerable range with only a minor effect on the

secondary current, which is a valuable feature of the transformer in measurement work. There is

no appreciable voltage between the two terminals of the primary winding.

2.1 Theory of Current Transformers:

Fig. 1 shows the vector diagram of a current transformer.

Page 2 of 15

I

S

E

S

E

2

I

S

r

S

I

SX

S

I

e

I

0

I

0

I

P

I

m

n

I

S

90

o

δ

δ

∆

θ

Fig. 1: Phasor diagram of CT

n = turn ratio = number of secondary turns/ number of primary turns

r

s

= resistance of secondary winding

X

s

= reactance of secondary winding

E

z

= induced secondary voltage

T

p

= number of primary turns

T

s

= number of secondary turns

E

s

= voltage at secondary terminals

I

s

= secondary current

I

p

= primary current

O = phase angle of the transformer

| = working flux of the transformer

o = phase angle of total burden

A = phase angle of load

o = angle between I

o

and working flux

Transformation Ratio:

From the vector diagram the approximate expression of transformation ratio is

R = n + {I

o

Sin (o+ o)}/ I

s

= n + (I

e

Cos o + I

m

Sin o)/I

s

This expression is sufficiently accurate. This is the case when power factor of load is lagging.

Phase Angle:

The secondary current of C.T. is displaces nearly in phase by 180

o

from the primary current. But

due to magnetizing and iron loss component of primary current the angle is slightly less than 180

o

.

Phase angle is the angle between the primary current and reversed secondary current. Angle is

Page 3 of 15

said to be positive if the reversed quantity leads the primary current. On very low power factors

the phase angle may be negative.

Approximated expression of phase angle, O, is

O = (180/t) (I

m

Cos o - I

e

Sin o)/(nI

s

)

Composite Error:

In case of protection application, due to the presence of higher harmonics, vector representation

is not justified. Here concept of composite error is introduced. Composite error is defined as

Composite error = 100/I

p

{1/T

0

∫

T

(Ri

s

– i

p

)

2

dt}

1/2

Where

I

p

= primary current

T = cycle duration in seconds

R = rated transformation ratio = I

p

/I

s

I

s

= instantaneous value of secondary current

I

p

= instantaneous value of primary current

The numerical value of composite error is always higher than the vector sum of ratio and phase

displacement (due to the effect of harmonics). The composite error hence is true representation

of transformer errors. For differential relays the sum of composite errors of current transformers

involved is always a conservative estimate of maximum error. For burdens between 50% and 100%

of rated, it is usually conservative to estimate the composite error proportionally lower, but no

estimate can be made for greater burdens. Additional advantage of limiting the composite error is

to limit the harmonic contents of in secondary current, which is necessary for correct operation of

certain relays.

2.2 Errors Introduced by C.T.:

From the preceding discussion it is clear that actual current transformation ratio differs from that

of turns ratio by an amount, which depends upon the magnitude of exciting current along with

current and power factor of secondary circuit. Hence current ratio depends upon load condition as

well as frequency.

The ratio error = (Nominal ratio - Actual ratio)/Actual ratio, largely depends upon the value of iron

loss component I

e

of the exciting current and phase angle error upon the value of magnetizing

component I

m

. If angle which is fairly small is assumed as ‘0’ then

R = n + (I

e

/I

s

)

Page 4 of 15

And,

O = I

m

/nI

s

It is worth to be mentioned that ratio error is positive when secondary current is high.

2.3 Testing of Current Transformer:

The following are the definitions of standard terminology used in the IS: 2705 (Part 1, 2, 3 & 4) –

1992

2.3.1 Terminology:

Instrument transformer:

A transformer intended to supply measuring instruments, meters, relays and other similar

apparatus.

Current Transformer:

An instrument transformer in which the secondary current, in normal condition of use, is

substantially proportional to the primary current and differs in phase from it by an angle which is

approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.

Measuring Current transformer:

A current transformer intended to supply indicating instruments, integrating meters and similar

apparatus.

Protective Current Transformer:

A current transformer intended to supply protective devices (relays/trip coils).

Turns Ratio:

The ratio between the number of turns on the secondary winding and the number of turns on the

primary.

Instrument Security Factor (FS):

The ratios of instrument limit primary current to the rated primary current.

Rated Instrument Limit Primary Current:

The value of the minimum primary current at which the composite error of the measuring current

transformer is equal to or greater than 10 percent, the secondary burden being equal to the rated

burden.

Actual Transformation Ratio:

The ratio of the actual primary current to the actual secondary current.

Current Error (Ratio Error):

Page 5 of 15

The percentage error in the magnitude of the secondary current as defined by the following

formula:

Current error = {(K

n

I

s

– I

p

)/I

p

} 100 percent

Where

K

n

= rated transformation ratio

I

s

= actual secondary current

I

p

= actual primary current

Phase Displacement:

The difference in phase between the primary and the secondary current vectors, the direction of

the vectors being so chosen that the angle is zero for a perfect transformer.

The phase displacement is said to be positive when the secondary current vector leads the primary

current vector. It is usually expressed in minutes.

Composite Error:

Under steady state conditions, the rms value of the difference between:

a) the instantaneous values of the primary current, and

b) the instantaneous values of the actual secondary current multiplied by the rated

transformation ratio.

Highest System Voltage:

The highest rms line to line voltage, which can be sustained under normal operating conditions at

any time and at any point on the system. It excludes temporary voltage variations due to fault

conditions and the sudden disconnection of large loads.

Secondary Limiting e.m.f.: (for Measuring C.T.)

The product of the instrument security factor (FS), the rated secondary current and the vectorial

sum of the rated burden and the impedance of the secondary winding.

Secondary Limiting e.m.f.: (for Protective C.T.)

The product of the accuracy limit factor, the rated secondary current and the vectorial sum of the

rated burden and the impedance of the secondary winding.

Exciting Current:

The rms value of the current taken by the secondary winding of a current transformer when a

sinusoidal voltage of rated frequency is applied to the secondary terminals, the primary and any

other windings being open-circuited.

Page 6 of 15

Rated Short Time Thermal Current:

The rms value of the primary current, which the current transformer will withstand for a rated

time without suffering harmful effects with the secondary winding, short-circuited.

Rated Dynamic Current:

The peak value of the primary current which the current transformer will withstand without being

damaged electrically or mechanically by the resulting electromagnetic forces, with the secondary

winding short-circuited.

Rated Continuous Thermal Current:

The value of the current, which may be permitted to flow continuously in the primary winding

with, the secondary winding connected to the rated burden, without the temperature-rise

exceeding the specified value.

Knee-Point Voltage:

That sinusoidal voltage of rated frequency applied to the secondary terminals of the current

transformer, all other windings being open circuited, which when increased by 10 percent, causes

the exciting current to increase by 50 percent.

To prove the general qualities and design of a given type of current transformer and to prove

conformity with the requirements of this specification type testing is done. Routine tests are

conducted on each current transformer to check requirements likely to vary during production.

2.3.2 Classification of Tests:

A. Type Tests:

The following shall comprise the type tests:

(a) Verification of terminal Markings and Polarity:

Terminal markings and polarity shall be verified for their compliance with IS: 2705 (Part

1) 1992.

(b) High Voltage Power Frequency Test on Primary Windings:

These tests shall be conducted in accordance with IS: 2701-1992. The value of test

voltage should be chosen from clause 4.7 of IS: 2705 (Part 1)-1981. The test voltage

shall be applied between the terminals of primary windings connected together and

earth, the frame, case, core and all terminal of secondary winding being connected

together and earthed.

In this test stresses are introduced in the insulation so the test shall be restricted to a

minimum. But if the test is to be repeated than in no case the test voltage should

exceed 90% of the value given.

Page 7 of 15

(c) High Voltage Power Frequency Test on Secondary Windings:

This test is similar to the test discussed above. It is to be performed on secondary

winding to test the insulation. A test voltage of 2KV (rms) is applied between the

secondary windings connected together and earth, frame, case, core and all terminals

of primary winding being connected together and earthed. The winding should stand

the voltage for one minute without disruptive discharge.

(d) Over Voltage Inter-Turn Test:

This test is meant for testing the interturn insulation. The test can be applied on the

primary side or on the secondary side of the transformer. With the secondary side

open circuited, a voltage on the primary side is applied so that either current in primary

is equal to the rated primary current or voltage in secondary is 3.5 KV peak whichever is

lower. The voltage shall be withstood satisfactorily for one minute.

With this test, chances are there for the excessive heating and permanent

magnetization of the core and dangerous dielectric stresses on insulation. This

condition is to be avoided.

(e) Short Time Current Tests:

This test shall be made with secondary windings short-circuited and at a current I with

a time t such that I

2

t is not less than I

2

th

*t

s

, where I

th

is the rated short time thermal

current and t

s

is the rated time. At the end of the test the temperature rise should not

be more than 200

o

C in any part of the current transformer.

The dynamic current tests shall be made with the secondary winding short-circuited

and with a primary current, the peak value of which is not less than rated current for at

least one peak. The current transformer shall be deemed to have passed these tests if

after cooling to ambient temperature, it satisfy the following:

i. It is not visibly damaged.

ii. Its error after demagnetization do not differ from those recorded before the

test by more than half the limit of its accuracy class.

iii. It withstands the dielectric tests but with test voltage 90% of those specified for

the test.

(f) Temperature Rise Test:

The current transformer shall be mounted in the manner as to be used in the field. It

shall have attained a steady temperature when rate of rise of temperature does not

exceed 1

o

C per hour.

(g) Impulse Voltage Tests:

The primary insulation of current transformer for service in electrically exposed

installations shall be capable of withstanding the appropriate value as given in IS: 2705

(Part 1)-1981

Page 8 of 15

The impulse voltage shall be applied between the primary winding and earth. The

primary winding may be short-circuited. The secondary winding shall be short circuited

and connected to the frame, and case and earthed.

Five consecutive impulse voltage waves shall be applied. If a flashover or puncture does

not occur, the C.T. shall have passed the test.

If puncture or internal flashover occurs once ten additional impulses shall be applied

and if the puncture occurs for more than once in the first five impulses then

transformer shall have failed the test, otherwise it has passed the test.

B. Routine Tests:

The following shall comprise the routine tests and shall be carried out on all current

transformers.

(a) Verification of terminal Markings and Polarity

(b) High Voltage Power Frequency Test on Primary Windings

(c) High Voltage Power Frequency Test on Secondary Windings

(d) Over-voltage inter turn test

Tests (a) to (d) are performed as discussed in section (A) above.

(e) Determination of error:

This test is to be performed on each transformer. The different type of transformer has

different requirements. The ratio error and phase angle errors are measured in case of

measuring current transformers.

Composite error is calculated in case of protective type current transformers. For the

measurement of ratio error and phase angle errors Arnold’s method of comparison is

used. For the measurement of composite error any method can be used as given in IS:

2705 (Part 3)-1992.

3. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER COMPARATOR

(FOR CT’S and PT’S)

This instrument is capable of determining the errors of voltage or current transformers

with the aid of a calibrated reference standard transformer. A microprocessor can also be

used to enhance the performance of the instrument by controlling the balancing,

automatic zero and calibration routines. This instrument has the following characteristics:

Page 9 of 15

(i) 50 and 60 Hz operation

(ii) Automatic zero correction

(iii) Automatic phase angle correction for ratio error

(iv) Automatic calibration

(v) Digital display of test results.

The instrument discussed here is like an automatic comparator suitable for testing both

current and voltage transformers. The circuitry of the comparator is divided into following

portions:

(i) Input circuitry

(ii) Analog computing circuitry

(iii) Digital circuitry

(iv) Display and key board circuitry

(i) Input Circuitry:

Fig. 2 shows the connections for current and voltage transformers. This provides an output

proportional to the reference current or voltage, as well as an output proportional to

difference between two currents or two voltages. The output of this circuitry is applied to

analog computing circuitry for processing. The primary windings of CT configuration can be

multiple-wound, allowing CT’s of different ratios to be tested. This allows for testing of 1 A

CT’s with 5 A standard of vice-versa.

V V

STANDARD DIFFERENCE

(a)

V

(b)

STANDARD DIFFERENCE

STANDARD STANDARD TEST TEST

Fig. 2: Generation of Signal for Comparator

(ii) Analog Computing:

This circuit performs all manipulation required to perform measurement. Fig. 3 shows the

circuitry details. It has two major circuits i.e. the parallel summing circuit and the null

detector circuit. In the parallel circuit, the following are added to make the sum zero.

Page 10 of 15

Fig. 3: Analog Computing Circuit, Block Diagram

Difference signal, scaled according to range (A), portion of reference signal as determined

by P, portion of 90

o

– shifted reference signal as determined by Q. The parallel summing

circuit is equivalent to summing circuit used by Z

in

. Fig. 4 shows the vector diagram

showing the relations between P, Q, standard and difference signals. A more detailed

diagram of the analog circuit is shown in fig. 5. P and Q are digitally controlled attenuators

and their values are determined by the µP during balancing procedure. The zero, or

balance condition is determined by means of synchronous and phase sensitive null

detectors. Two 4-quadrant multipliers x

1

and x

2

are used to provide the detector with two

simultaneous signals, one proportional to in-phase and other proportional quadrature

component. The reference signal and the gain are maintained constant for a particular

calibration. This is obtained by two digitally controlled attenuators R

1

and R

2

, which are

also controlled by µP.

θ

P

Q

STANDARD

DIFFERENCE

TEST

Fig. 4: Vector Diagram of Comparator

STANDARD

DIFFERENCE

90

o

A S

P

Q

V

V

Page 11 of 15

STANDARD

DIFFERENCE

90

o

A S

P

V

V

Q

MUX

R

1

F

1

F

2

R

2

90

o

X

2

X

1

P Q

RMS AD

Fig. 5: Block Diagram of Computing Circuitry

At balance, outputs of two null detectors are zero and ratio and phase angle errors are

proportional to setting P and Q.

(ii) Digital Circuitry: This circuitry controls the operation of the instrument. It consists of

microprocessor, required memory, decoding and driving circuitry, an analog to digital

converter and a scanner. The microprocessor carries the following routines:

1. Zero correction

2. Calibration

3. Measurement

4. Correction and display of measured values.

(iv) Display and Keyboard: Instrument can be provided with digital display and keyboards and

printer for entering the specifications and taking the readings of results.

Corrections:

Microprocessor is used here to make the measurement automatic as well as for applying

necessary corrections, as discussed below:

(a) Zero Correction: Zero of in-phase and quadrature null detector may shift due to

temperature or change in reference input. To correct such drifts, the output of the two null

detectors is read at fixed intervals with error signals disconnected.

(b) Calibration: Following a zero test, the instrument performs an automatic calibration check.

This is accomplished by injecting portion of reference signal in to the measuring signal. This

calibration technique checks the operation of the instrument except for input circuit and

the ranging amplifier. The calibration connectors are given in Fig. 6.

Page 12 of 15

STANDARD

DIFFERENCE

90

o

A S

P

Q

V

V

R CAL. P

R CAL. P

D

Fig. 6: Calibration connections

(c) Frequency Correction: The phase shifter used here is an integrator, and its output

magnitude is therefore, frequency sensitive. By measuring the reference signal and the

output of phase shifter, the microprocessor can compute the operating frequency and

apply corrections to the phase angle measurement as required.

(d) Phase Angle Correction: From the vector diagram angle Q is computed from tangent when

tan = Q/S –P. The instrument measures tan θ = Q/S. this discrepancy is corrected by µP.

(e) Ratio Correction: From the vector diagram, the ratio error is large if θ is large. So ratio

error is corrected by Cos θ before it is displayed.

4. Potential Transformer:

Instrument potential transformers are used to operate voltmeters, the potential coils of

wattmeters, the potential coils of relays and others from high voltage lines. For all these

purposes it is important that the secondary voltage be an accurate known fraction of

primary voltage and primary and secondary voltage should be in phase. Two major

differences in a measuring transformer are first, the attention to accuracy in the voltage

ratio and second, the minimization of voltage drops in the winding, to avoid phase shift

and ratio error effect. The small voltage drops are secured by design for small leakage

reactance and the use of large copper conductors. Errors introduced by PT’s are less

serious as compared to CT’s. In PT’s the secondary current is of the same order as the

magnetizing current.

4.1 Theory

Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 show the vector diagram of PT

Φ= working flux in the core

I

m

= magnetizing component of the no load current

I

e

= iron loss component of the no load current

Page 13 of 15

I

o

= no load current

E

s

= voltage induced in the secondary

V

s

= secondary terminal voltage

I

s

= secondary current

I

s

r

s

= voltage drop in secondary winding resistance r

s

I

s

X

s

= voltage drop in secondary winding reactance x

s

I

p

= primary current

E

p

= primary voltage

I

p

r

p

= voltage drop in resistance of primary winding.

I

p

X

p

= voltage drop in reactance of primary winding.

Δ = phase angle of secondary load

(Δ is small since resistance is large as compared to reactance, voltmeter)

V

p

= primary terminal voltage

From phasor diagram

V

p

/V

s

= n + (I

s

/n){(R

p

Cos Δ +X

p

Sin Δ) + I

e

r

p

+ I

m

x

p

}/V

s

Rp = equivalent resistance referred to primary

Xp = equivalent reactance referred to primary

Difference between actual ratio and turn ratio

= (I

s

/n){(R

p

Cos Δ +X

p

Sin Δ) + I

e

r

p

+ I

m

x

p

}/V

s

And,

θ = (I

s

/V

s

)(X

s

Cos Δ – Rs Sin Δ) + (I

e

xp-I

m

r

p

)/V

s

n

IS

ES

E2

I

S

r

S

I

SX

S

Ie

I0

I0

IP

Im

n

I

S

δ

δ

∆

I

P X

P

EP

VP

90

o

90

o

90

o

Fig. 7: Vector Diagram of VT

Page 14 of 15

I

S

I

S

r

P

I

e

I

0

I

0

I

P

I

m

I

S

/

n

δ

∆

I

P

X

P

E

P

V

P

90

o

I

S

r

S

n

I

P

X

P

n

θ

β

Fig. 8: Vector Diagram of VT

4.2 ERRORS INTRODUCED BY VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

Both in magnitude and in phase, errors are introduced by PT's. The divergence of the actual

ratio V

p

/V

s

from n depends upon the reactance and resistance of the transformer windings

as well as upon the value of the exciting current of the transformer. The phase angle error

also depends upon the same factors.

4.2.1 Effect of Variation of Secondary Burden

With the increase in burden for a case of full primary voltage and rated burden, the

secondary current will increase.

Thus, with this increased I

s

, the primary current I

p

will increase, I

o

is reduced slightly, but its

variation is unimportant. Both primary and secondary voltage drops are increased and thus

for given V

p

, E

p

, E

s

and V

s

are reduced by increase in burden. The effect is therefore to

increase the ratio V

p

/V

s

.

With regards to phase angle V

p

is advanced in phase relating to Φ flux as the secondary

burden increases owing to increased voltage drops and to the phase advance of I

p

as I

s

increases. Again, V

s

is retarded in phase relating to Φ on account of the increased

secondary voltage drops. Hence phase angle is increased (lagging) as the burden increases.

4.2.2 Effect of Power Factor of Secondary Burden

As the P.F. is reduced, I

p

becomes more nearly in phase with I

o

, voltage V

p

and V

s

move

more nearly in phase with E and E

s

respectively and since the voltage drops in the windings,

Page 15 of 15

for a given volt-ampere load, are very little influenced by power factor of the load, the

result is an increase in V

p

relative to E

p

and a reduction of V

s

relative to E

s

. Hence ratio

increases as the p.f. of burden decrease.

Since V

s

is advanced in phase and V

p

retarted in phase, the phase of the transformer is

reduced (lagging) or increased (leading).

4.2.3 Effect of Frequency

For a given supplied voltage, reduction of frequency result in an increase in the core flux,

with a corresponding increase in the exciting current I

o

. Since the exciting current does not

influence the transformer errors very seriously the effect of variation of frequency are not

so great as in case of CT's. The reactance voltage drops in the windings are also

proportional to frequency.

Hence, the result of reduction of frequency, in the case of ratio error, dependent upon the

relative value of I

o

and the reactance of the windings. Since increase in I

o

tends to increase

the ratio, whilst the reduction of the reactance voltage drops tends to reduce it.

As regards phase angle, both effects retard V

p

in phase relative to Φ and the reduction of

secondary reactance advance V

s

in phase. Thus the phase angle is reduced (lagging) as the

frequency is reduced.

Difference in behavior of Voltage Transformer as compared to Current Transformers.

(a) The magnetic circuit of voltage transformer is operated at a high and nearly constant flux

density where as core of current transformer is operated at low and variable flux density.

(b) Because of high and constant flux density in voltage transformer s core, change in ratio and

phase angle with changing burden are predictable, in terms of either total transformer

impedance or limited performance data at selected burdens. This is not possible in CT’s as

flux is not constant with changing burden and its performance depends upon secondary

impedance.

(c) Because flux in voltage transformer is always high (near saturation), so significant

change/rise occur when the secondary circuit is opened and transformer is not injured. On

the other hand to open the secondary circuit of an operating CT is exceedingly hazardous

and should never be done, because very large flux increase in core can produce a

dangerously high voltage.

(d) There can be no significant permanent magnetization in voltage transformers as operating

flux is normally near saturation, where as one must always be alert to the possibility of

permanent magnetization of the core of CT. With the result its ratio and phase angle may

change significantly.

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