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AN INDUSTRIAL REPORT ON TURBINE SHOP AT HARIDWAR: AN INDUSTRIAL REPORT ON TURBINE SHOP AT HARIDWAR COMPANY PROFILE: COMPANY PROFILE A MAHARATNA

PUBLIC SECTOR ENTERPRISE ESTABLISHED IN 1964 ENERGYRELATED/INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR POWER, TRANSMISSION, INDUSTRY, TRANSPORTATION, RENEWABLE ENERGY, OIL & GAS AND DEFENCE . QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (ISO9001:2008) ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (ISO 14001:2004) OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (OHSAS 18001:2007) HIGHLY SKILLED AND COMMITTED WORKFORCE OF 46,748 EMPLOYEES MANUFACTURING PLANTS: MANUFACTURING PLANTS BHEL Haridwar has two manufacturing plants:- Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) and Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). HEEP includes design and manufacture of large steam and gas turbines, turbo generators, hydro turbines and generators, hydro turbines and generators, large AC/DC motors and so on. CFFP) is engaged in manufacture of Steel Castings: Upto 50 Tons Per Piece Wt & Steel Forgings: Upto 55 Tons Per Piece Wt. MAJOR PRODUCTS : MAJOR PRODUCTS Steam turbine Gas turbine Steam Generators HRSG- Heat recovery steam generator Transformers Locomotives Circuit Breakers Pumps Motors- BOTH AC AND DC, LT AND HT Generators TURBINE SHOP BLOCK 3: TURBINE SHOP BLOCK 3 GENERAL DETAILS OF BLOCK- 3: GENERAL DETAILS OF BLOCK- 3 Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines and Turbines Blades Special Tooling for all products in the Tool Room located in the same block Consists of four Bays, namely, Bay-I and II of size 36x378 meters and 36x400 meters respectively and Bay-III and IV of size 24x402 meters and 24x381 metres respectively Facilities of EOT Cranes, compressed air, Steam, Overspeed Balancing Tunnel, indicating stands for steam turbine, rotors, one Test stand for testing 210 MW steam turbines . DETAILS OF BAY- 1: DETAILS OF BAY- 1 Size- 36x378 meters. Consists of following machines:- Hydraulic lifting platform CNC turning lathe Combustion chamber assembly platform DETAILS OF BAY - 2: DETAILS OF BAY - 2 Size:- 36x400 meters CNC creep feed grinding machine (Gas turbine m/c area) External broaching machine CNC facing lathe Wax melting equipment Gas turbine test bed DETAILS OF BAY 3 : DETAILS OF BAY 3 Size :-24x402 meters CNC stub borer CNC milling machine Universal milling machine CNC bed type milling machine CNC surface broaching machine DETAILS OF BAY - 4: DETAILS OF BAY - 4 Size:- 24x381 metres Turbine blade machining shop Heat treatment zone GAS TURBINE: GAS TURBINE GAS TURBINE: GAS TURBINE also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, and even tanks MANUFACTURING FACILITIES: MANUFACTURING FACILITIES a) Hydraulic Lifting Platform: used for assembly and disassembly of G.T. Rotor. b) CNC Creep Feed Grinding M/c: grinds the hearth serration on rotor disc faces. c) External Broaching Machine: used

to make groove on the outer dia of rotor discs for the fitting of moving blades on the discs. d) CNC Facing Lathe : used for facing rotor disc. e) CNC Turning Lathe: used to turn Tie Rods of Gas Turbine. f) Wax Melting Equipment: used to mix and melt Wax to arrest the blade movement during the blade tip machining of stator blade rings. g) Gas Turbine Test Bed: used to finally assemble the gas turbine. h) Combustion Chamber Assembly Platform: used for assembly of Combustion Chambers of Gas Turbine. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES: MANUFACTURING PROCESSES MACHINING: one of the most important material removal methods, in which power driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machine and drill presses are used with sharp cutting tools to achieve the desired geometry. MAIN ASSEMBLY: Final assembly is done on test bed. Parts are assembled to make sub-assemblies. ROTOR ASSEMBLY: The rotor is assembled on Hydraulic Lifting Platform and sent to main assembly, where after checking clearances, it is sent for machining. Slide 15: COMBUSTION CHAMBER ASSEMBLY: This assembly is carried out on 3 tier platform installed for this purpose in Bay-I assembly. After machining of all components, ceramic tiles are fitted in flame tube. Burner and piping etc. is fitted in dome and combustion chamber is finally assembled. PAINTING, PRESERVATION AND PACKING: After testing, turbine is disassembled and inspected then the parts are painted and packed for final dispatch. STEAM TURBINE: STEAM TURBINE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES : MANUFACTURING PROCESSES The facilities and parts manufacturing of Steam Turbine are as follows: TURBINE CASING MACHINING SECTION: equipped with large size Planer, Drilling, Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, CNC Horizontal and Vertical Boring machines . ROTOR MACHINING SECTION : E quipped with large size machining tools like Turning Lathe, CNC Lathes, Horizontal Boring Machines, special purpose Fir tree Groove Milling Machine etc. Slide 18: ROTOR ASSEMBLY SECTION : Equipped with Indicating Stand, Small size Grinding, Milling, Drilling, machines, Press and other devices for fitting Rotors and Discs. TURBINE CASING ASSEMBLY SECTION : Machined casings are assembled and hydraulically tested by Reciprocating Pumps at two times the operating pressure. TEST STATION : Equipped with condensers, Ejector, Oil Pumps, Oil containers Steam Connections etc, required for testing. OVER SPEED VACUUM BALANCING TUNNEL: Vibration and frequency of rotor shaft is tested at very high speed of 4500rpm. BLADE SHOP: BLADE SHOP Turbine Blade Machining Shop is located in Bay-IV of Block-III. A batch production shop comprising of various kinds of CNC Machines and Machining Centers . MANUFACTURING FACILITIES: MANUFACTURING FACILITIES blade shop is divided into four distinct areas:- PLAIN MILLING SECTION: it prepares accurate reference surfaces on the blade blanks by milling and grinding operation. COPY MILLING SECTION: the semi blanks prepared from plain milling section are further machined by copy milling machines for concave and convex aero-dynamic profile forms. LP SECTION: this area deals with all types of free standing and forged blades for steam turbine compressor. POLISHING SECTION: blade contours are ground and polished to achieve the desired surface finish and other aerofoil requirements. INSPECTION DEVICES: INSPECTION DEVICES 3 D Coordinate Measuring Machines for taper and rhomboid checking. Moment weighing Equipment. Real time Frequency analyzer for checking frequency of free standing blades. Contour plotter for plotting of blade profile with various magnification. Magna spray crack detection equipment. MANUFACTURING PROCESS : MANUFACTURING PROCESS The manufacturing process of turbine blades primarily depends on the type of blade e.g. Bar type, Brazed type, Gas Turbine blade. BAR TYPES BLADES:

BAR TYPES BLADES PROCESS / OPERATION MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT U SED Blanking of area material Circular saw/band saw Sizing to rectangular shape Hor. Milling Machine Thickness grinding Surface grinder Rhomboid milling Duplex milling machine Taper grinding Surface grinder Grinding and polishing of profile Abrasive belt polishing m/c BRAZED TYPE BLADES: BRAZED TYPE BLADES PROCESS / OPERATION MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cutting of drawn profile & spacer blank Hor. Milling machine Thickness grinding Surface grinder Cutting-off spacer Abrasive cutting Milling of width Duplex milling machine Grinding and polishing Abrasive belt polishing m/c GAS TURBINE BLADES: GAS TURBINE BLADES PROCESS / OPERATION MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cerrobend casting Cerrobend casting equip. Root machining Hor. Machining center Length cutting Circular saw/hor. Milling m/c Tenon Hor. Milling m/c Grinding and polishing of fillet Abrasive belt polishing m/c

Krishan Kumar Goyal's Overview


Current AGM Turbine planning at Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd Past AGM Turbine Planning at BHEL haridwar AGM Turbine planning at Haridwar (Govt Education MBM Engineering College, Jodhpur MBM Engineering college Jodhpur Connections 30 connections

STEAM TURBINE LOSSES: STEAM TURBINE LOSSES SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY

Challenges: Challenges Rising fuel costs which in most of power generating companies are passed through to customer ,caught the attention to regulating agencies. Regulating agencies are now paying more attention to efficiency of power plants.

Heat Rate Definitions: Heat Rate Definitions Heat rate is defined in units of kJ/kWh and is simply the amount of heat input into a system divided by the amount of power generated by a system. Less heat rate (less fuel) means more efficient system.

BENEFIT -identification of losses: BENEFIT -identification of losses Efficiency increase Green house gases emission decrease Particulate emission reduction Availability improvement Reduction in O&M cost Less capacity addition Increase profitability

Steam Turbine losses: Steam Turbine losses Symptoms HP/IP/LP section efficiency less than design. Causes ( any one or more than one ) Change in internal conditions of turbine 1.Mechanical damages 2.Flow area decreases 3.Flow area bypass 4.Flow area increases Change in inlet conditions

1.MECHANICAL DAMAGES: 1.MECHANICAL DAMAGES Symptoms Sudden change in section efficiency. Sudden change in section pressure ratio. Cause Metallurgical defects. Maintenance practice.

Mechanical damages: Mechanical damages

2.FLOW AREA DECREASE: 2.FLOW AREA DECREASE Symptoms Increase in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Increase in up stream pressure cause Mechanical blockage Sudden increase in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden increase in up stream pressure Blade deposits Gradual increase in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual increase in upstream pressure

Mechanical blockage: Mechanical blockage

BLADE DEPOSIT: BLADE DEPOSIT

DEPOSIT IN SINGLE STAGE CASING TURBINE: DEPOSIT IN SINGLE STAGE CASING TURBINE

SOLUBILITY TRENDS THROUGH TURBINE: SOLUBILITY TRENDS THROUGH TURBINE

3.FLOW AREA BYPASS: 3.FLOW AREA BYPASS Symptoms Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Hp turbine bushing leakage Main steam stop valve leakage HP gland seal leakage IP stop/intercept valve leakage IP turbine bushing leakage

4.Flow area increase: 4.Flow area increase Symptoms Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Spill strip or packing leakage Erosion of turbine stages Solid particle erosion of nozzle block Blade mechanical damage

Spill strip or packing leakage : Spill strip or packing leakage Symptoms Increased down stream extraction temperatures Sudden decrease in stage efficiency Cause Thermal stress Rubbing Vibration Operating procedures

Solid particle erosion of nozzle blocks : Solid particle erosion of nozzle blocks Symptoms Increase in pressure down stream of first stage Increase in ratio of first stage to throttle pressure Cause Cycling Exfoliation in boiler tubes Condenser tube leak Poor water chemistry

Erosion of turbine stages: Erosion of turbine stages Symptoms Gradual decrease in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual decrease in upstream pressure

Blade mechanical damages: Blade mechanical damages Symptoms Sudden decrease in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden decrease in upstream pressure.

Cross section of turbine showing efficiency loss due to leakage: Cross section of turbine showing efficiency loss due to leakage Leaking steam not contribution to power generation (in RED)

SOLID PARTICLE EROSION: SOLID PARTICLE EROSION

TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE FINISH OF BLADE SURFACE : TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE FINISH OF BLADE SURFACE

Impact of parameter deviation on HEAT RATE (210 MW ,KWU Turbine )-operator controllable parameters..: Impact of parameter deviation on HEAT RATE (210 MW ,KWU Turbine )-operator controllable parameters.. SN PARTICULAR UNIT DESIGN PARAMETERS INCREASE OF HEAT RATE DUE TO DEVIATION IN KCAL/KWH MULTIPLICATION FACTOR 1 PARTIAL LOADING MW 210 24.7 PER 20 MW 1.235 2 MS PRESS KG/CM2 150 25.5 PER 20 KG/CM2 1.275 3 MS TEMP AT HPT INLET DEG C 535 7.5 PER 10 DEG C 0.75 4 HRH TEMP AT IPT INLET DEG 535 6.6 PER PER 10 DEG C 0.66 5 CONDENSER VACUUM mmHg 660 23.4 PER 10 mm Hg 2.34 6 FEED WATER TEMP DEG C 241 16 PER 20 DEG C 0.8 7 RH ATTEMP FLOW T/HR 0 6.4 PER 10 T/HR 0.64 8

PowerPoint Presentation: Turbine cylinder efficiency TURBINE- 500 MW

PowerPoint Presentation: Turbine cycle -500 mw Controllable losses Impact of Parameter deviation

LOSSES IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT (CEA): LOSSES IN A THERMAL POWER PLANT (CEA)

HP CYLINDER EFFICIENCY KWU TURBINE 210 MW: HP CYLINDER EFFICIENCY KWU TURBINE 210 MW S.N DESCRIPTION UNIT DESIGN OPERATING 1 POWER OUTPUT MW 210 210 2 INLET PRESS TO HP CYLINDER KG/CM2 150 139.7 3 INLET TEMP TO HP CYLINDER DEG C 535 537.8 4 OUTLET PRESS FROM HP CYLINDER KG/CM2 38.1 38.9 5 OUTLET TEMP FROM HP CYLINDER TEMP 334.8 361.3 6 ENTHALPY OF INLET STEAM KCAL/KG 814.73 819.25 7 ISENTROPIC ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 719.95 728.77 8 ACTUAL ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 730.88 746.15 9 CYLINDER EFFICIENCY % 88.47 80.9 INCREASED

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By: RVK2603 (13 month(s) ago) Dear Sir, Do you have statistics on nature of failures in steam turbine yearwise please. If so, kindly mail me at rvijay@igcar.gov.in.

By: rinjumon (27 month(s) ago) Please send me this presentation

By: slandge123 (29 month(s) ago) pl send me this presentation

Presentation Transcript
STEAM TURBINE FAILURE: STEAM TURBINE FAILURE SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY

MOVING BLADES: MOVING BLADES Erosion Cracking Lift up Rubbing, wear

NOZZLES: NOZZLES Erosion Deflection Rubbing, scuffing Cracking

Mollier diagram with (LP Turbine) region of chemical and corrosion effect : Mollier diagram with (LP Turbine) region of chemical and corrosion effect LP Inlet

Cross section of an LP Turbine with location of deposits and erosion: Cross section of an LP Turbine with location of deposits and erosion

Turbine blade failure: Turbine blade failure Corrosion fatigue of blades in low pressure (LP) turbines in the phase (dry-to-wet) transition zone (PTZ); the majority of LP blade damage occurs in the last two rows. stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in disc rim blade attachment

region in rotors. Damage in high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure (IP) turbines of fossil units caused by solid part icle erosion .

Damage Mechanism in L P turbine blade : Damage Mechanism in L P turbine blade

Relation between various plant problems and blade failures (epri).: Relation between various plant problems and blade failures (epri).

Solid particle erosion of nozzles/blades of turbine: Solid particle erosion of nozzles/blades of turbine Solid Particle Erosion occurs when exfoliated particles from boiler tubes, super heater and reheater tubes are carried over to the turbine through the steam path and the cost that is associated with regular inspection, repair or replacement of damaged components has been high.

ROTORS: ROTORS Cracking Bowing Vibration Rubbing wear

CASING ,VAVLES: CASING ,VAVLES Deformation Cracking Scuffing Steam leakage Erosion Valve shaft sticking/bowing/failure Bolt/bolt hole failure

STEAM PIPES: STEAM PIPES Steam erosion Deformation Cracking

BEARINGS: BEARINGS Vibration Rubbing Wear failure

Ranking of Top 15 Failure Causes for Fossil Steam Turbine Lost Availability In MW-Hrs per Year from 1998-2002 ( EPRI): Ranking of Top 15 Failure Causes for Fossil Steam Turbine Lost Availability In MW-Hrs per Year from 1998-2002 ( EPRI)