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General Psychology July 9, 2013
No. of Students:
Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to: 1. Define human development. 2. Describe the factors that affect human development. 3. Explain the sequential stages of human development. 4. Appreciate the value of human life.
Concept Development of an Individual
Sub Concept Factors affecting the development of an individual Sequential stages in human development
Materials Chalkboard Chalk Eraser
1. Routine Activities Greetings Checking of Attendance
In order to know if the students have an idea of the human development, ask some students to describe how does or when does human life begin.
B. Presentation 1. Give the definition of the word development, growth and maturation. Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual, and personality development. Growth refers to the quantitative changes such as an increase in size or structure. Maturation is the end or goal of development and growth.
2. Next, discuss how human life begins. Individual life can be said to begin when the female ovum is fertilized by the male sperm. Every human being begins life as a single cell, formed when father’s sperm fertilizes mother’s egg. Fertilization normally takes place in the mother’s Fallopian tube, which connects the uterus (womb) with the ovary. A woman ordinarily has two tubes and two ovaries, one at each side of her
uterus. Every month one of the ovaries in turn releases an egg (ovum) which passes slowly along the tube towards the womb cavity
If the egg is not fertilized within 12 hours or so of being released, it dies; it cannot develop further. But if the woman has sexual intercourse during the days of her monthly cycle just before or at the time when an egg has been released from the ovary, then many sperm cells released by her partner may travel up to the Fallopian tube and one may fertilize the egg. When fertilization is completed and the nuclei of egg and sperm have combined, a new being comes into existence and is capable of further development. Because the parents are human - belonging to the species Homo sapiens - the new being is also human. Fertilization (by which we mean conception) marks the beginning of the human lifespan.
At this moment of conception, we have the zygote. This single fertilized cell divides into many cells, thus the bone cells, the hair cells and all types of cells develop which gradually assume specialized forms and functions. In this state we speak of the embryo which lasts until around the second moth of prenatal life and which takes a human form. Form this time, it is called a fetus. Behavior begins with bodily movements at about the beginning of the fetal period.
3. Third, explain the factors that affect the human development. Human development involves a continuous interaction between biological predisposition determined by one’s genes, heredity and the experiences encountered while growing up in a particular family, culture and environment. Heredity refers to the process by which various characteristics or traits are transmitted to the offspring through the genes of parents/ ancestors at the time fertilization. The hereditary units we receive form our parents and transmit to our offspring are carried by microscopic particles known as
CHROMOSOMES, found in the nucleus of each cell in the body. Most body
cells contain 46 chromosomes. At conception, the human being receives 23 chromosomes from the father’s sperm and 23 chromosomes from the mother’s ovum. These 46 chromosomes form 23 pairs. Each chromosome is composed of many individual hereditary units called GENES. The total number of genes in each human chromosome is around 1, 000 or more. Chromosomes and genes will influence psychological as well as physical characteristics. Most genes are dominant, others are recessive, and some are sex-linked. The
colorings of hair, skin, and eyes, the sex of the new human being, and factors influencing height and build, are determined at fertilization by information on the DNA. Gender -- A baby’s sex is determined at fertilization. A chromosome from the father’s sperm determines whether the child is male or female. If an X chromosome is present, the baby is a girl; if a Y chromosome is carried by the sperm instead, the baby is a boy. o XX- chromosome of female o XY- chromosome of female Twins -- Occasionally two eggs are released by the ovary and fertilized. This results in fraternal twins who are different in appearance and may be of different sexes because their genes form from two eggs and two sperm cells. Rarely, one embryo splits into two and both cells develop separately, as identical twins, similar in appearance. "They have the same genetic make-up and apparently the whole genetic message is the same in both of them. Nevertheless, they are obviously different human beings."2 Principles of Heredity a. Principle of Reproduction. Individuals of the same family have similar genes and traits. Each parent contributes half of his or her genes to the child and the child in turn contributes half of his or her gen to his or her children. b. Principle of Variation. It is also known as the Principle of Individual Differences. No two individuals of the same kind are very exactly alike. Even if a child inherits the traits from his parents, the child may still
differ to a certain degree to his parents, so too of the brothers and sisters. Even though identical twins have identical hereditary traits, yet they differ to some extents- in physical, metal emotional, social, motor and moral-spiritual aspects. c. Principle of Chance. Because genes are assorted, by chance and there is no way of controlling the assortment, each child will be different form everyone else. The sex of the child is determined by chance the father, for instance, cannot command the Y chromosome to unite with the X chromosome of the mother, or the Y chromosome to meet with the X chromosome of the mother. d. Principles of Dominance and Recessiveness. Some genes are dominant, others are recessive. If both member of a gene pair are dominant, the child will manifest the trait determined by the dominant gene. If one gene is dominant and the other gene is recessive, the child will manifest the trait determined by the dominant gene, but will also carry the recessive gene which may be expressed later on in the offspring. A recessive trait can only appear when both gens of the parents are recessive. Dominant Genes: vision, normal blood Recessive Genes: blue eyes, light blonde/ red hair, straight hair color blindness e. Principle of Sex-linked Traits- Pair 23 (sex chromosomes) determines the sex of the individual and carries gene for certain traits that are called sex linked. Color blindness, hemophilia (failure of the blood to clot) and baldness are examples of sex-linked traits which are evident mostly in men these traits are carried by the same gene that determine the sex of the individual. brown eyes, dark hair, curly hair, normal color
Abnormalities of the Chromosome Abnormalities are linked to the 21 pairs and 23 pairs of chromosomes or the lack of specific genes or absence of the whole chromosomes.
PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU)- a mental retardation that may be caused by lack of specific gens or absence of the whole chromosomes. This disease is manifested in an inability to metabolize important amino acid. TURNERS SYNDROME—it is a condition wherein a female fails to develop sexually at puberty resulting from cases in which her X chromosome is single, instead of normal XX.
A male with an extra Y chromosome (XYY) may cause increase in height and with usually aggressive or violent behavior.
The presence of the third chromosome in the 21 pair of the two normal pairs results in Down syndrome or Mongolism.
Environmental Factors That Affect Development Environment It includes all the conditions inside and outside an organism that influence its behavior. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT—it is the immediate environment which includes: INTRACELLULAR ENVIRONMENT- consist of all the genetic materials held by the cell membrane EXTRACELLULAR ENVIRONMENT- consists of the blood, hormones, and lymph fluids in the body.
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT-includes: PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT- the organism is influenced by conditions before birth. These conditions or forces include the amniotic fluid that surround the fetus, nutrition and excretion of waste products, infections, chemical changes resulting to maternal stress, exposure to radiation,
smoking, drugs and alcohol. Abnormalities may result if the prenatal environment is defective.
POSTNATAL ENVIRONMENT- the life of the child after birth continues to come under the influence of varied environmental forces, such as physical environment (things in the world that directly affects us, such as food, water, sunlight, medicines, air, etc.) and social environment (human beings which influence us by direct contact such as our family, friends, classmates or through print media and non-print media.
4. Finally, describe the sequential stages of development. Prenatal Period-the period from conception to birth. Infancy—birth to two years. Early Childhood—exploratory and inquisitive period. Late Childhood—elementary school period. Puberty Stage—leading to physical and sexual maturation. Early Adolescence—teenage/young adolescent; late high school period. Late Adolescence—youth/older adolescent; development of intellectual and social skills. Early Adulthood—start of productive years; establishing personal and economic independence. Middle Age—time for preparation for retirement; deterioration of some physical and physiological functioning. Old Age/Late Adulthood—period of retirement; continuing declination of physical, physiological and mental functioning.
*Note: The students are motivated to participate in the class discussion and give their ideas on the topic being tackled.
C. Evaluation 1. A short role playing activity showing how an individual grows and how he is affected by some factors can be used to measure their learning. 2. Conduct a socialized recitation on what they have learned in the class. Asked them to give a brief summary. 3. Conduct a quiz regarding the topic discussed.
Assignment 1. Which do you think greatly influence the human development—the nature or the nurture? Explain and support your answer in not less than 1, 200 words. 2. Prepare for quiz next meeting.
Reference Evangelista, Lourdes L. Introduction to General Psychology, Revised Edition, 2004 Remarks If majority of the class understand the lesson well, proceed to the next lesson. If not, allow a 15-20 minute recap on the next meeting and ask them to study their lessons very well.
Ms. Carla Joyce B. Navarrete BBTE 4-1
Mr. Arnol L. Candare BBTE 4-1
Prof. Artemus G. Cruz, RGC, RP/P Coordinating Professor
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