You are on page 1of 37

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.

1 Quadratic Equations, Quadratic Functions, Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorem Note: 1. Question will state that and are the roots of an equation, Ax2 + Bx + C = 0, -B C then + = A , = A and discriminant, = B2 4AC 2. If the roots are real and distinct real and equal real imaginary B2 4AC > 0 B2 4AC = 0 B2 4AC > 0 B2 4AC < 0 3. p, q and k are real numbers satisfying the following conditions: p+q+k=2 pq + qk + kp = 1 (a) Express pq in terms of k. (b) Find a quadratic equation, with coefficients in terms of k, whose roots are p and q. Hence, find the range of possible values of k.

[91-P1-Q7]

3. For finding value of any expression, write down the sum and product of previous roots. 2 +2 = (+)2 - 2 3 +3 = (+)[(+)2 - 3] 4. Note whether a new quadratic equation have to be formed.

4. , are the roots of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 and +3, +3 are the roots of the equation x2 + qx + p = 0. Find the value of p and q. [93-P1-Q3] [Hint] From the first equation, + = -p , = q From the second equation, (+3)+(+3) = -q , (+3)(+3) = p From above, -p + 6 = -q , q - 3p + 9 = p Solving the last two equations, p = 1 and q = -5 5. Let f(x) = x2 + (1-m)x + 2m-5, where m is a constant. Find the discriminant of the equation f(x) = 0. Hence, find the range of values of m so that f(x) > 0 for all real values of x. [95-P1-Q1] [Solution] The discriminant for x2 + (1-m)x + 2m-5 = 0, = (1-m)2 4(1)(2m-5) = m2 10m + 21 If f(x) > 0 for all real values of x, the equation has no real roots, ie. <0 m2 10m + 21 < 0 (m-3)(m-7) < 0 3<m<7 6. Given x2 6x + 11 (x + a)2 + b, where x is real. (a) Find the values of a and b. Hence, write down the least value of x2 6x + 11. 1 (b) Using (a), or otherwise, write down the range of possible values of x2 6x + 11 [Solution] (a) Given x2 6x + 11 (x + a)2 + b x2 + 2ax + (a2 + b) Equating coefficients, a = -3 and b = 2 Hence, the least value of x2 6x + 11 is 2 (when x = 3). (b) From (a), > x2 6x + 11 > 2 1 1 So, 0 < x2 6x + 11 < 2 [96-P1-Q4]

Past Question
Year P&Q 1989 P1-Q5 P1-Q11 5 16 1990 P1-Q4 P1-Q9 6 16 1991 P1-Q7 P1-Q9 7 16 1992 P1-Q6 P1-Q9 6 16 1993 P1-Q3 P1-Q8 P1-Q10 6 16 16 1994 1995 P1-Q1 P1-Q10 5 16 16 1996 P1-Q4 P1-Q8 P1-Q13 5 7 16 1997 P1-Q8 1998 P1-Q2 P1-Q3 P1-Q11 4 4 16 1999 P1-Q4 2000 P1-Q7 P1-Q12 7 16

P1-Q8

Marks

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q09 6

2002 Q11 7

2003 Q03 4

2004 Q15 12

2005

2006 Q04 4

2007

Section A Questions: x2 + 5x + 1 1. Let x2 - x + 1 = r ...(*). Express (*) in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Hence find the range of the values of r for real values of x. 2. , are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 (k + 2)x + k = 0. (a) Find + and in terms of k. (b) If ( + 1)( + 2) = 4, show that = -2k. Hence find the two values of k.

[89-P1-Q5]

[90-P1-Q4]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.2 x2 + 2x + 8 7. The graph of y = x2 (k-2)x + k+1 intersects the x-axis at two distinct points (,0) and (,0), 13. Let p = ...(*) where x is real. x-2 where k is real. (a) Find the range of possible values of k. x2 + 2x + 8 By expressing (*) in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, find the range of possible values of . x-2 (b) Furthermore, if |+| < 5, find the range of possible values of k. [96-P1-Q8] 2 [Hint] x + 2x + 8 Hence find the range of possible values of | x - 2 |. [01-Q09] (a) Since the equation has 2 real and distinct roots, > 0 2 (k-2) 4(1)(k+1) > 0 k2 8k > 0 14. Let f(x) = x2 2x 6 and g(x) = 2x + 6. The graphs of y = f(x) k(k-8) > 0 and y = g(x) intersect at points A and B. C is the vertex of the Range of possible values of k is k < 0 or k > 8. graph of y = f(x). (a) Find the coordinates of points A, B and C. (b) If |+| < 5, |k-2| < 5 (sum of roots = negative of coefficient of x) (b) Write down the range of values of x such that f(x) < g(x). ie. 5 < k-2 < 5 Hence write down the value(s) of k such that the equation or, -3 < k < 7 f(x) = k has only one real root in this range. [02-Q11] Combining the result of (a), the range of possible values of k is -3 < k < 0. 8. Let and be the roots of the equation x2 + (k+2)x + 2(k-1) = 0, where k is real. (a) Show that and are real and distinct. (b) If |-| > 3, find the range of possible values of k. 9. , are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 2x + 7 = 0. Find the quadratic equation whose roots are (+2) and (+2). [Solution] Given + = 2 and = 7 (+2) + (+2) = 6 and (+2)(+2) = + 2(+) + 4 = 15 The required equation is x2 6x + 15 = 0

[97-P1-Q8]

15. and are the roots of the quadratic equation value of k. 16. If

x2 5x + k = 0 such that | - | = 3. Find the [03-Q03]

[98-P1-Q2]

kx2 + x + k > 0 for all real values of x, where k 0, find the range of possible value of k. [06-Q04]

10. The quadratic equations x2 6x + 2k = 0 and x2 5x + k = 0 have a common root (ie. is a root of both equations). Show that = k and hence find the value(s) of k. [98-P1-Q3] [Hint] Refer to Section B Questions, 95-P1-Q10 11. Let f(x) = 2x2 + 2(k-4)x + k, where k is real. (a) Find the discriminant of the equation f(x) = 0. (b) If the graph of y = f(x) lies above the x-axis for all values of x, find the range of possible values of k. [99-P1-Q4] 12. and are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 + (p 2)x + p = 0 (a) Express + and in terms of p. (b) If and are real such that 2 + 2 = 11, find the value(s) of p. where p is real. [00-P1-Q7]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.3 Section B Questions 1. , are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 + (p+1)x + (p-1) = 0, where p is a real number. (a) Show that , are real and distinct. (b) Express (-2)(-2) in terms of p. [92-P1-Q9(a,b)] [Hint] (a) Consider the discriminant, = (p+1)2 4(1)(p-1) = p2 2p + 5 = (p-1)2 + 4 >0 The roots of the equation are real and distinct. (b) (-2)(-2) = - 2(+) + 4 = (p-1) + 2(p+1) + 4 = 3p + 5 2. Let f(x) = x[x2 + kx + (2k-3)], where k is a real number. It is given that the equation f(x) = 0 has one real and two imaginary roots. (a) Find the real root of f(x) = 0. (b) Show that 2 < k < 6. (c) It is also given that the equation f(x) = 0 has tow distinct real roots and . (1) Express ( - )2 in terms of k. Hence, or otherwise, show that k 3. 2 (2) Suppose | - | < 3 and k is an integer. Using the results of (b) and (c)(1), find the value(s) of k. [94-P1-Q8] 3. Let f(x) = 12x2 + 2px q and g(x) = 12x2 + 2qx p where p, q are distinct real numbers. , are the roots of the equation f(x) = 0 and , are the roots of the equation g(x) = 0. (a) Using the fact that f() = g(), find the value of . Hence, show that p + q = 3. (b) Express and in terms of p. 7 (c) Suppose |3 + 3| < 24 . (1) Find the range of possible values of p. (2) Furthermore, if p > q, write down the possible integral values of p and q. [Hint] (a) Since is a root of both equations, f() = g() = 0, ie. 122 + 2p q = 0 and 122 + 2q p = 0 Subtracting second from first, 2p - 2q = -(p q) -1 = 2 -1 -1 Substituting the value back into f() = 0, 12( 2 )2 + 2p( 2 ) q = 0 p+q=3 -1 -p -1 -p (b) Hence, ( 2 ) + = 6 and ( 2 ) = 12 -p + 3 p ie. = 6 and = 6 (c) (1) Substituting in, |p2 3p + 3| < 7 Solving, -1 < p < 4 (2) If p > q and p + q = 3, the integral solutions are p=2,q=1 or p=3,q=0

[95-P1-Q10]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.4 Inequalities and Absolute Value Sign Note: 1. For the absolute value part being the subject of a quadratic equation, solve and reject negative root of the equation. 2. In other problems, consider each possible cases. 3. For inequality, inequality sign has to be changed when multiplying or dividing negative values. Type 2: An absolute sign comparing with a value. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 1992 P1-Q3 6 1993 P1-Q5 6 1994 1995 1996 1997 P1-Q5 6 1998 1999 2000 P1-Q5(a) 2

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002 Q07 5

2003

2004 Q08 6

2005 Q07 5

2006

2007

Type 1: Fraction comparing with a value. Past Questions


Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 P1-Q1 4 1995 1996 P1-Q3 4 1997 1998 1999 P1-Q2 4 2000 P1-Q1 3

1. Solve |x(x+5)| > 6 for real values of x. [Solution] -6 > x(x+5) or x(x+5) > 6 (x+2)(x+3) < 0 or (x-1)(x+6) > 0 -3 < x < -2 or (-6 > x or x > 1) Combining, the solution is x < -6 or -3 < x < -2 or x > 1. 2. Solve |-x2 + 2x + 3| > 5 for real values of x. [Solution] -5 > -x2 + 2x + 3 or -x2 + 2x + 3 > 5 or x2 2x + 2 < 0 (no possible solution) (x+2)(x-4) > 0 The solution is -2 > x or x > 4.

[92-P1-Q3]

[93-P1-Q5]

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q11 6

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

1. Solve the inequality [Solution]

2(x + 1) x-2 >1

[94-P1-Q1] 3. Solve |3x 4| < 2 [Solution] and

1 2x - 1 < 1

[97-P1-Q5]

2(x + 1) x-2 -1>0 x+4 x-2 >0 x < -4 or x > 2 2. Solve the inequality 2x - 3 x+1 <1 [96-P1-Q3]

1 2x - 1 1 < 0 2 - 2x 2 < 3x < 6 and 2x - 1 < 0 2 1 and (x < 2 or x > 1) 3 < x <2 Combining the two solutions, 1 < x < 2. -2 < 3x 4 < 2 and

x 3. Solve the inequality x - 1 > 2 4. Solve 1 x >1

[99-P1-Q2]

4. (a) Solve

|1x|=2

[00-P1-Q5a]

[00-P1-Q1]

5. Solve the following inequalities: (a) | x 1 | > 2 (b) | | y | - 1 | > 2 6. Solve the following equations: (a) | x - 3 | = 1 (b) | x - 1 | = | x2 - 4x + 3 |

[02-Q07]

y 5. Solve y - 2 < 2. 2x Hence, or otherwise, solve 2x - 2 < 2. [01-Q11]

[04-Q08]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.5 7. Solve |x - x2| = -4x [05-Q07]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.6 Type 3: Quadratic Functions involving absolute value sign. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P1-Q8 6 1990 P1-Q6 6 1991 P1-Q3 5 1992 1993 1994 P1-Q7 7 1995 1996 1997 1998 P1-Q6 6 1999 P1-Q3 5 2000

Others:

Consider case by case.

Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 1992 P1-Q6 6 1993 1994 1995 P1-Q4 6 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 P1-Q5 5

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003 Q05 4

2004

2005 Q05 4

2006 Q04 4

2007

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007 Q11 5

1. Solve (x 2)2 5 | x 2 | - 6 = 0. 2. Solve (x + 2)2 8 | x + 2 | + 15 > 0. 3. Solve | x 2 | = | x2 4 |

[89-P1-Q8] [90-P1-Q6] [91-P1-Q3] [94-P1-Q7]

4. Solve (x-3)2 - |x-3| - 12 = 0 [Solution] (|x-3| + 3)(|x-3| - 4) = 0 |x 3| = -3 (rej.) or The solution is x = -1 or x = 7.

|x 3| = 4 x 3 = -4 or x 3 = 4

1. , are the real roots of the equation x2 + (k-2)x (k-1) = 0. If || = ||, find k. [Solution] + = 2-k and = 1-k Case 1 =, 2 = 2-k and 2 = 1-k 4(1-k) = (2-k)2 k2 = 0 k=0 ( = = 1) Case 2 = - 0 = 2-k and - = 1-k k=2 ( = - = +1) Hence, k = 0 or 2.

[92-P1-Q6]

5. (a) Solve x2 6x 16 > 0 (b) Using (a), or otherwise, solve (y+1)2 6|y+1| - 16 > 0 [Solution] (a) Factorizing (x+2)(x-8) > 0 The solution is x < -2 or x > 8 (b) Substituting x with |y+1| gives |y+1| < -2 (rej.) or ie. 8 > y + 1 or y + 1 > 8 The solution is y < -9 or y > 7. 6. Solve |x 3| = |x2 4x + 3| [Hint] Factorizing |x 3| = |x 1||x 3| |x 3| ( |x 1| - 1) = 0 The solutions are x = 3, x = 0 or x = 2. 7. Solve the inequality x2 > | x | 8. Find the range of values of k such that 9. Solve x |x| + 5x + 6 = 0

2. By considering the two cases x>0 and x<0, or otherwise, solve the inequality [98-P1-Q6] [Solution] Case 1 Consider x > 0, |y+1| > 8 x2 5 > 4x (x + 1)(x 5) > 0 x < -1 or x > 5 Since x > 0, the solution is x > 5. Case 2 Consider x < 0, x2 5 < 4x -1 < x < 5 Since x < 0, the solution is 1 < x < 0 Combining the two cases, the solution is 1 < x < 0 or

5 x - x > 4. [95-P1-Q4]

[99-P1-Q3]

x > 5.

[03-Q05] x2 - x - 1 > k(x - 2) for all values of x. [05-Q05] [06-Q06]

3. (b) By considering the cases x < 1 and x > 1, or otherwise, solve | 1 x | = x 1. 4. (a) Solve | x 1 | = | x | - 1, where 0 < x < 1. (b) Solve | x 1 | = | x | - 1.

[00-P1-Q5b]

[07-Q11]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.7 Mathematical Induction Type 1: Given terms on LHS and expression on RHS. Note: 1. For positive integer: For non-negative integer: For even positive integer: For odd positive integer: 2. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Past Questions:
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q2 5 1990 P2-Q2 5 1991 P2-Q7 8 1992 P2-Q1 5 1993 P2-Q1 5 1994 P2-Q5 5 1995 1996 1997 P2-Q7 5 1998 P2-Q3 6 1999 P2-Q12a 6 2000 P2-Q4 6

5. Prove that [Solution] then k+1 after k. then k+1 after k. then 2(k+1) after 2k. then 2k+1 after 2k-1.

122+223++n2(n+1) =

n(n+1)(n+2)(3n+1) 12

for any positive integer n. [93-P2-Q1]

begin from 1, begin from 0, begin from 2, begin from 1,

Let P be the proposition that 122+223++n2(n+1) = When n=1, LHS = 122 = 2 1(1+1)(1+2)(31+1) RHS = =2 12 P is true for n = 1. Assume P is true for n = k, where k is an integer ie.

n(n+1)(n+2)(3n+1) . 12

Declare proposition. Show that LHS = RHS for the initial condition. Assume that LHS = RHS for n = k (or values mentioned above). Adding an extra term to LHS, transfer to previous expression, factorize with fractions. Show that both sides are still agree. Concluding the proposition matches.

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q12 8

2002 Q12 8

2003 Q07 5

2004

2005 Q08 5

2006

2007 Q05 5

k(k+1)(k+2)(3k+1) 12 k ( k +1)( k+2)(3k+1) then 122+223++k2(k+1) + (k+1)2(k+1+1) = + (k+1)2(k+1+1) 12 (k+1)(k+2) = [ k(3k+1) + 12(k+1) ] 12 (k+1)(k+2) = (3k2 + 13k + 12) 12 (k+1)(k+2) = (k+3)(3k+4) 12 (k+1)[(k+1)+1][(k+1)+2][3(k+1)+1] = 12 If P is true for n = k, it is also true for n = k+1. By the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P is true for any positive integer n. 122+223++k2(k+1) =

1. Prove, by mathematical induction, that 123 + 234 +...+ n(n+1)(n+2) = for all positive integers n. 2. Let Tn = n2 + n for any positive integer n.

n(n+1)(n+2)(n+3) 4 [89-P2-Q2]

1 3 5 2n-1 6. Prove that 2 + 22 + 23 ++ 2n

=3-

2n+3 2n

for any positive integer n.

[94-P2-Q5]

1 Prove, by mathematical induction, that T1 + T2 +...+ Tn = 3 n(n+1)(n+2) for any positive integer n. [90-P2-Q2] 1 3. (a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that 12 + 22 ++ n2 = 6 n(n+1)(2n+1) for all positive integers n. (b) Using the formula in (a), find the sum 12 + 23 ++ n(n+1) [91-P2-Q7] 12+25+38++n(3n-1) = n2(n+1) for all positive [92-P2-Q1]

7. Let Tn = (n2+1)(n!) for any positive integer n. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that T1 + T2 ++ Tn = n[(n+1)!] for any positive integer n. [Note: n! = n(n-1)(n-2)321] [97-P2-Q7] [Hint] T1 + T2 ++ Tk = k[(k+1)!] T1 + T2 ++ Tk + Tk+1 = k[(k+1)!] + [(k+1)2+1][(k+1)!] = [(k+1)!][k + (k+1)2 + 1] = [(k+1)!](k+1)(k+2) = (k+1)[(k+1)+1]! 8. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that integers n. 12+23+224++2n-1(n+1) = 2n(n) for all positive [98-P2-Q3]

4. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that integers n.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.8 9. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that cos + cos 3 + cos 5 ++ cos (2n-1) = where sin 0, for all positive integers n. [Hint] cos ++ cos (2k-1) sin 2n Type 2: An expression on LHS is divisible by RHS. , 2.sin [99-P2-Q12(a)] Note: 1. Beware of the condition of integers. 2. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 P2-Q6 6 1996 P2-Q4 6 1997 1998 1999 2000

sin 2k 2.sin sin 2k cos ++ cos (2k-1) + cos [2(k+1)-1] = + cos (2k+1) 2.sin 1 [ sin 2k + 2.sin .cos (2k+1) ] = 2.sin 1 [ sin 2k + sin (2k+2) - sin 2k ] = 2.sin sin 2(k+1) = 2.sin =

Declare proposition Show the divisibility for the initial condition Assume that LHS is a multiple of RHS for n = k Change the (k+1)-th term in the form of k-th term. multiple. Concluding the proposition

Show that the expression is also a

10. Prove, by mathematical induction, that n(n + 1) 12 22 + 32 42 +...+ (-1)n-1 2 11. Prove, by mathematical induction, that 1 12+23+34+...+n(n+1) = 3 n(n+1)(n+2) Hence evaluate 13+24+35+...+5052.

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004 Q07 5

2005

2006 Q08 5

2007

for all positive integers n.

[00-P2-Q4] 1. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that (8n-1) is divisible by 7 for all positive integers n. [95-P2-Q6]

for all positive integers n. [01-Q12]

12. (a) Prove, by mathematical induction, that 2(2) + 3(22) + 4(23) +...+ (n + 1)(2n) = n(2n + 1) for all positive integers n. (b) Show that 1(2) + 2(22) + 3(23) +...+ 98(298) = 97(299) + 2. [02-Q12] 13. Prove, by mathematical induction, that 2 3 n n+2 1 2 + 22 + 23 ++ 2n = 2 - 2n

for all positive integers n.

[03-Q07]

14. Prove, by mathematical induction, that 12 222 323 n2n 2n + 1 + + +...+ = 34 45 (n + 1)(n + 2) n+2 -1 23 15. Let a 0 and a 1. Prove by mathematical induction that 1 1 1 1 1 for all positive integers n. a - 1 - a - a2 - ... - an = an(a - 1)

[05-Q08]

2. Prove, by Mathematical Induction, that for all positive integers n, (2n3+n) is divisible by 3. [96-P2-Q4] [Solution] Let P be the proposition that (2n3 + n) is divisible by 3. When n = 1, 2(1)3 + (1) = 3 which is divisible by 3. P is true for n = 1. Assume P is true for n = k, where k is an integer ie. 2k3 + k = 3N where N is a natural number 3 then 2(k+1) + (k+1) = 2k3 + 6k2 + 6k + 2 + k + 1 = (2k3 + k) + (6k2 + 6k + 3) = 3N + 3(2k2 + 2k + 1) = 3(N + 2k2 + 2k + 1) Since k is a positive integer, (N + 2k2 + 2k + 1) is also a positive integer. ie. 2(k+1)3 + (k+1) is divisible by 3. Hence, P is true for n = k+1 if it is true for n = k. By the Principle of Mathematical Induction, P is true for all positive integers n. 3. Prove that 9n - 1 is divisible by 8 for all positive integers n. [04-Q07] [06-Q08]

[07-Q05]

4. Prove that n3 - n + 3

is divisible by 3 for all positive integers n.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.9 Binomial Theorem Type 1: Expanding binomial to power m and adding or multiplying to another binomial to power n. Note: 1. Expand the binomial according to Binomial Theorem. 2. Equating coefficients of appropriate terms to evaluate the unknown. 3. When multiplying to another polynomial, consider the power of x clearly. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q1 5 1990 1991 1992 P2-Q2 5 1993 1994 P2-Q3 5 1995 P2-Q4 6 1996 1997 P2-Q8 7 1998 P2-Q1 4 1999 P2-Q7 6 2000 P2-Q2 5

5. Expand (1 + x)n(1 2x)4 in ascending powers of x up to the term x2, where n is a positive integer. [97-P2-Q8] If the coefficient of x2 is 54, find the coefficient of x. [Solution] (1 + x)n(1 2x)4 n(n-1) = (1 + nx + 2 x2 +)(1 8x + 24x2 +) n(n-1) = 1 + (n-8)x + [24 8n + 2 ]x2 + If the coefficient of x2 is 54, n(n-1) 16n + 48 = 108 n2 17n 60 = 0 (n + 3)(n 20) = 0 Since n is a positive integer, n = 20, and the coefficient of x = 12 2 6. Find the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of (x - x )6 [98-P2-Q1]

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q04 4

2002 Q01 4

2003 Q12 6

2004 Q02 4

2005

2006

2007 Q12 6

2 1. Find the constant term in the expansion of (1 + x)10(1 - x )3.

[89-P2-Q1]

2. In the expansion of (1 + 3x)2(1 + x)n, where n is a positive integer, the coefficient of x is 10. (a) Find the value of n. [92-P2-Q2] (b) Find the coefficient of x2. 3. (a) Expand 1 (1 2x) and (1 + x )5
3

7. (a) Expand (1 + 2x)n in ascending powers of x up to the term x3, where n is a positive integer. 3 (b) In the expansion of (x - x )2(1 + 2x)n, the constant term is 210. Find the value of n. [99-P2-Q7] 8. Expand (1 + 2x)7(2 x)2 in ascending powers of x up to the terms x2. 1 9. Find the constant term in the expansion of (2x3 + x )8. [00-P2-Q2] [01-Q04]

1 (b) Find, in the expansion of (1 2x)3(1 + x )5 (1) the constant term, and (2) the coefficient of x. 1 1 c 4. Given (x2 + x )5 - (x2 - x )5 = ax7 + bx + x5 , find the values of a, b and c. 1 5 1 5 ) - (2 ) Hence evluate (2 + 2 2

10. If n is a positive integer and the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of (1 + x)n + (1 + 2x)n is 75, find the value(s) of n. [02-Q01] [94-P2-Q3] 1 11. Determine whether the expansion of (2x2 + x )9 consists of (a) a constant term, (b) an x2 term. In each part, find the term if it exists. 12. (a) Expand (1 + 2x)6 in ascending powers of x up to the term x3. 1 1 (b) Find the constant term in the expansion of (1 - x + x2 )(1 + 2x)6.

[95-P2-Q4]

[03-Q12] [04-Q02]

5. If the coefficient of x2 in the expansion of (1 2x + x2)n is 66, find the value of n and the [07-Q12] coefficient of x3.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.10 Type 2: Extending to trinomial Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 P2-Q1 5 1991 P2-Q1 5 1992 1993 P2-Q3 6 1994 1995 1996 P2-Q2 6 1997 1998 1999 2000

4. (a) Expand (1 + y)5 (b) Using (a), or otherwise, expand (1 + x + 2x2)5 in ascending powers of x up to the term x2. [05-Q02] 5. It is given that (1 - 2x + 3x2)n = 1 - 10x + kx2 + terms involving higher powers of x, where n is a positive integer and k is a constant. Find the values of n and k.

[06-Q03]

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006 Q03 5

2007

1. Given (1 + 2x 3x2)n = 1 + ax + bx2 + terms involving higher powers of x, where n is a positive integer. (a) Express a and b in terms of n. (b) If b = 63, find the value of n. [90-P2-Q1] 2. Given that (1 + x + ax2)8 = 1 + 8x + k1x2 + k2x3 + terms involving higher powers of x. (a) Express k1 and k2 in terms of a. (b) If k1 = 4, find the value of a. [91-P2-Q1] Hence, find the value of k2. 3. Given (1 + 4x + x2)n = 1 + ax + bx2 + other terms involving higher powers of x, where n is a positive integer. (a) Express a and b in terms of n. (b) If a = 20, find n and b. [93-P2-Q3] [Solution] (a) [1 + (4x + x2)]n n(n-1) = 1 + n(4x + x2) + 2 (4x + x2)2 + = 1 + 4nx + [8n(n-1) + n]x2 + Equating coefficients, a = 4n and b = 8n2 7n (b) If a = 20, n = 5 and b = 165 4. It is given that (1 + x + ax2)6 = 1 + 6x + k1x2 + k2x3 + terms involving higher powers of x. (a) Express k1 and k2 in terms of a. (b) If 6, k1 and k2 are in A.P., find the value of a. [96-P2-Q2] [Solution] (a) [1 + (x + ax2)]6 = 1 + 6(x + ax2) + 15(x + ax2)2 + 20(x + ax2)3 + = 1 + 6x + (6a + 15)x2 + (30a + 20)x3 + Equating coefficients, k1 = 6a + 15 k2 = 30a + 20 2k1 = 6 + k2 (b) If 6, k1 and k2 are in A.P., 2(6a + 15) = 6 + (30a + 20) 2 a= 9

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.11 Trigonometric Functions Note: 1. Remember or look up all trigonometric formulae. 2. Dont mix up the general solutions of all trigonometric functions. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q5 P2-Q6 5 5 1990 P2-Q5 P2-Q6 5 5 1991 P2-Q3 P2-Q8 5 16 1992 P2-Q5 P2-Q12 6 16 1993 P2-Q2 5 1994 P2-Q2 4 1995 P2-Q6 P2-Q9 6 16 1996 P2-Q1 5 1997 P2-Q1 P2-Q4 4 5 1998 P2-Q7 6 1999 P2-Q8 7 2000 P2-Q7 8

7. By expressing 3 cos x sin x in the form r.cos (x+), find the general solution of the equation 3 cos x sin x = 1, giving your answer in terms of . [93-P2-Q2] [Solution] 3 cos x sin x = 1 2.cos(x + 6 ) = 1 x + 6 = 2n + 3 (4n - 1) (12n + 1) or where n is an integer x= 2 6 8. Find the general solution of the equation cos(x 7o) = 2.cos(x + 7o), giving the answer correct to the nearest 0.1 degree. [94-P2-Q2] [Solution] cos x cos 7o + sin x sin 7o = 2.cos x cos 7o 2.sin x sin 7o cos x cos 7o = 3.sin x sin 7o 1 tan x = 3 cot 7o x = (180n + 69.8)o where n is an integer 9. (a) Show that cos2A cos2B = sin(A+B).sin(B-A) (b) ABC is a triangle. (1) Using (a), show that cos2A cos2B + sin2C = 2.cos A.sin B.sin C (2) If cos2A cos2B cos2C = -1, show that ABC is a right-angled triangle. (c) Using (a), or otherwise, show that cos2x sin2y = cos(x+y).cos(x-y) Hence, find the general solution of cos22 - sin23 + cos .sin 5 = 0 10. Find the general solution of the equation sin 5 + sin 3 = cos [Solution] sin 5 + sin 3 = cos 2 sin 4.cos = cos cos (2.sin 4 - 1) = 0 cos = 0 or sin 4 = 0.5 1 = (2n + 2 ) or 4 = n + (-1)n( 6 ) n 4n + 1 or = 4 + (-1)n(24 ) = 2

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q06 5

2002 Q08 5

2003 Q10 5

2004 Q05 5

2005 Q04 4

2006 Q02 Q09 3 6

2007 Q03 4

1. Let y = 5 sin - 12 sin + 7. (a) Express y in the form r sin( - ) + p where r, and p are constants and 0o < < 90o. (b) Using the result in (a), find the least value of y. [89-P2-Q5] 2. Find the general solution of 2 cos 2 + 5 sin - 3 = 0. x 3x 3. Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin 2 sin 2 = 1. 4. (a) If cos + 3 sin = r cos( - ), where r > 0 and 0o < < 90o, find r and . cos 4 + cos 2 = cos [89-P2-Q6] [90-P2-Q5] [90-P2-Q6] [91-P2-Q3]

5. Find the general solution of

[95-P2-Q9] [96-P2-Q1]

6. By using the identity cos 3 = 4.cos3 - 3.cos , find the general solution of the equation [92-P2-Q5] sin 2(4.cos2 - 3) sin = 0 [Solution] sin 2(4.cos2 - 3) sin = 0 2.sin .cos(4.cos2 - 3) sin = 0 sin (2.cos 3 - 1) = 0 sin = 0 or cos 3 = 0.5 = n or 3 = 2n + 3 (6n + 1) where n is an integer = n or = 9

where n is an integer

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.12 11. Show that [Solution] sin 3 cos 3 + = 4.cos 2 sin cos sin 3 cos 3 sin 3.cos + cos .sin 3 + = sin cos sin .cos sin 4 = sin .cos 4.sin 2.cos 2 = sin 2 = 4.cos 2 [97-P2-Q1] 19. Find the general solution of the equation sin 3x + sin x = cos x. 20. Find the general solution of the equation sin( + 30o) = cos . 21. Prove the identity cos2x - cos2y - sin(x + y) sin (x - y) [04-Q05] [05-Q04] [06-Q02]

22. (a) Express cos - 3 sin in the form r cos( + ), where r > 0 and 0o < < 90o (b) Find the general solution of the equation cos 2x - 3 sin 2x = 1 [06-Q09] 23. Find the general solution of the equation cos x 2 cos 2x + cos 3x = 0 [07-Q03]

12. By expressing 6.sin x + 8.cos x in the form r.sin(x+), find the general solution of the equation 6.sin x + 8.cos x = 5, and give your answer correct to the nearest degree. [97-P2-Q4] 13. Show that 1 + sin 6x sin(3x+4 ).cos(3x-4 ) = 2

3 Hence, or otherwise, find the general solution of the equation sin(3x+4 ).cos(3x-4 ) = 4 [98-P2-Q7] 14. (a) Show that cos 3 = 4.cos3 - 3.cos (b) Find the general solution of the equation cos 6x + 4.cos 2x = 0 [99-P2-Q8] 15. (a) By expressing cos x - 3 sin x in the form r cos(x + ), or otherwise, find the general solution of the equation cos x - 3 sin x = 2. (b) Find the number of points of intersection of the curves y = cos x and y = 2 + 3 sin x for 0 < x < 9 [00-P2-Q7] 16. (a) If sin x + cos x = r cos(x + ) for all values of x, where r > 0 and - < < , find the values of r and . (b) Find the general solution of the equation sin x + cos x = 2 [01-Q06] 17. Given 0 < x < 2 . tan x - sin2x 4 Show that tan x + sin2x = 2 + sin 2x 1. tan x - sin2x Hence, or otherwise, find the least value of tan x + sin2x .

[02-Q08]

18. Given two acute angles and . + sin + sin = tan( 2 ) (a) Show that cos + cos (b) If 3sin - 4cos = 4cos - 3sin , find the value of tan( + ).

[03-Q10]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.13 Three-dimensional Problems Note: 1. Familiarize the usage of Sine Law and Cosine Law. 2. State clearly the name of angle between line (or plane) and a plane. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 16 16 1989 P2-Q12 1990 P2-Q13 7 1991 P2-Q6 1992 P2-Q7 P2-Q12 8 16 1993 P2-Q7 7 16 1994 P2-Q12 7 16 16 16 16 16 1995 P2-Q7 1996 P2-Q12 1997 P2-Q12 1998 P2-Q13 1999 P2-Q11 2000 P2-Q12

4.

In the figure, VPQRST is a right pyramid whose base PQRST is a regular pentagon. PQ = 10 cm and PVQ = 42o. U is a point on VQ such that PU is perpendicular to VQ. Find, correct to 3 significant figures, (a) PU and PR, (b) the angle between the faces VPQ and VQR. [95-P2-Q7]

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q15 12

2002

2003 Q18 12

2004 Q11 6

2005

2006

2007

Section A Questions 1. In the figure below, VABCD is a right pyramid with a square base of sides of length 4 cm. VAB = 60o. Find, correct to the nearest 0.1 degree, (a) the angle between the plane VAB and the base ABCD, (b) the angle between the planes VAB and VAD. [91-P2-Q6] V

5. In the Figure, OABC is a pyramid such that OA = 3, OB = 5, BC = 12, AOC = 120o and OAB = OBC = 90o. (a) Find AC. (b) A student says that the angle between the planes OBC and ABC can be represented by OBA. Determine whether the student is correct or not.

[04-Q11]

C D A

2.

In the figure above, VABCD is a right pyramid with a square base of side 6 cm. VB = 9 cm. Find, correct to the nearest 0.1 degree, (a) the angle between edge VB and the base ABCD, (b) the angle between the planes VAB and VAD. [92-P2-Q7]

3. In the figure, VABC is a right pyramid whose base ABC is an equilateral triangle. AB = 12 cm and VA = 24 cm. D is a point on VB such that AD is perpendicular to VB. Find, correct to 3 significant figures, (a) VBA and AD, (b) the angle between the faces VAB and VBC. [93-P2-Q7]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.14 Phase 2 (Additional Mathematics) F.4 Summer Vacation Assignment HKCE 01 Phase 1 (Additional Mathematics) HKCE 00 Paper 1 HKCE 01 1 Diff. 11 Ineq. 1 Ineq 1 Ind.Int 1 Diff 1 Def.Int 1 1st Pr 1 Binom 1 Diff 1 Trig 1 Diff 1 Gen.Sol 2 Ind.Int. 12 MI 2 Diff 2 Binom 2 Ineq 2 Ind.Int 2 Quad 3 MI 2 Diff 2 Ind.Int 2 1st Pr 2 Binom 4 Binom. 6 Gen.Sol. 7 Slope 9 Quad. Paper 2 HKCE 99 Paper 1 3 1st Pr 4 MI 3 Abs 6 Slope 3 Quad 4 Slope 4 Rate 4 Gen.Sol 3 Ineq 4 MI 4 Slope 7 Gen.Sol 4 Quad 7 Binom 6 Abs 6 Def.Int 5 Abs 5 Slope 4 Quad 6 Slope 5 Abs 7 Quad Paper 2 HKCE 98 Paper 1 6 Slope 8 Gen.Sol 8 Slope 7 Gen.Sol 8 Quad 7 MI 6 Slope 8 Rate Paper 2 HKCE 97 Paper 1 Paper 2 HKCE 96 Paper 1 Paper 2 8 Binom 8 Quad 15 16 18 3D Int.Vol. Sketch 10 12 13 Sketch Quad. Rate 8 11 12 Red.Form Int.Vol. 3D 9 12 13 Sketch Quad. Diff. 11 12 13 3D MI+Int. Int.Vol. 10 11 13 Sketch Quad. Rate 9 12 13 Int. Int.Vol. 3D 10 12 13 Sketch Diff. Rate 10 11 12 Int. Red.Form 3D 12

HKCE 00 Paper 1 Paper 2 HKCE 99 Paper 1 Paper 2 HKCE 98 Paper 1 Paper 2 HKCE 97 Paper 1 Paper 2 HKCE 96 Paper 1 Paper 2

(Mathematics) Odd-numbered problems of P.221-236 in Canotta 4B textbook (except M.C.) NB: There will have a test in the first week for Mathematics.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.15 Differentiation Type 1: First Principle of Differentiation Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 P1-Q2 5 1992 1993 P1-Q1 5 1994 1995 1996 P1-Q2 4 1997 1998 P1-Q1 4 1999 2000 P1-Q3 5

5. (a) Show that

1 1 = x x + x

-x x( x + x)( x +

x + x)

d 1 (b) Find dx ( ) from first principles. x [00-P1-Q3] d 6. Find dx (x3) from first principles. d 1 7. Find dx (x ) from first principles. d 8. Find dx (x2 + 1) from first principles. [03-Q02]

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003 Q02 4

2004

2005 Q03 4

2006

2007 Q04 4

[05-Q03]

1 1. Let f(x) = 1 + x Find f(x) from first principles. 2. (a) Simplify ( 2(x + x) - 2x )( 2(x + x) + 2x ) d (b) Find dx ( 2x ) from first principles. [Solution] (a) ( 2(x + x) - 2x )( 2(x + x) + 2x ) = 2(x + x) 2x = 2x d (b) dx ( 2x ) 1 ( 2(x + x) - 2x ) = lim x x 0 = lim 2(x + x) + 1 ( 2(x + x) - 2x )( x 2(x + x) + 1 2x ( ) = lim x 0 x 2(x + x) + 2x 2 = lim ( ) x 0 2(x + x) + 2x 1 = 2x
x 0

[91-P1-Q2]

[07-Q04]

[93-P1-Q1]

2x ) 2x

d 3. Find dx (x2) from first principles. d 4. Find dx ( x ) from first principles.

[96-P1-Q2]

[98-P1-Q1]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.16 Type 2: Differentiation and Differential Equation Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P1-Q1 P1-Q4 4 5 1990 P1-Q1 5 1991 1992 P1-Q5 6 1993 1994 P1-Q4 6 1995 1996 P1-Q1 3 1997 P1-Q1 P1-Q2 3 3 1998 1999 P1-Q1 4 2000

Differentiating

dy x2dx + (y2 + 1) = 0 with respect to x,

d2y dy dy 2xdx + x2dx2 + 2ydx = 0 d2y dy x2dx2 + 2(x+y) dx = 0 d2y 2(x + y) dy dx2 + x2 dx = 0 5. Let f(x) = sin3x Find f(x) and f(x)

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q01 3

2002 Q03 4

2003

2004

2005 Q09 6

2006 Q01 3

2007

[96-P1-Q1]

Section A Questions 1. Let y = x sin 5x. d2y dy Find dx and dx2 . d2y Hence find dx2 + 25y. 2. Let tan = 2 tan x and y = tan( - x) where 0 < x < 2 . (a) Express y in terms of tan x. dy (b) When dx = 0, find the value of x. 3. Let f(x) = x + k sin 2x, where k is a constant. If f(0) = 1, find the value of k. 1 4. Let y = tan(x ) dy Show that x2dx + (y2 + 1) = 0 d 2y 2(x + y) dy Hence show that dx2 + x2 dx = 0 [Solution] 1 Given y = tan(x ) -1 dy 2 1 dx = x2 sec (x ) dy -1 1 1 x2dx + (y2 + 1) = x2 x2 sec2(x ) + [tan2(x ) + 1] =0
2

6. Let f(x) =

3 + x2 .

Find f(-1).

[97-P1-Q1]

[89-P1-Q1]

d 7. Find (a) dx sin(x2 + 1) d sin(x2 + 1) (b) dx [ ] x d 8. Find (a) dx sin2x d (b) dx sin2(3x + 1) d x2 9. Find dx (2x + 1 ) dy 10. Let x sin y = 2002. Find dx .

[99-P1-Q1]

[89-P1-Q4]

[00-P1-Q2]

[90-P1-Q1]

[01-Q01]

[02-Q03]

[94-P1-Q4]

d 11. (a) Find dx sin3(x2 + 1) dy (b) Let xy + y2 = 2005. Find dx . d sin(2x + 1) 12. Find dx [ ] x [05-Q09]

[06-Q01]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.17 Type 3: Find equation of tangent or normal from a curve Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P1-Q3 5 1990 P1-Q7 7 1991 P1-Q6 7 1992 P1-Q5 6 1993 P1-Q7 7 1994 P1-Q6 7 1995 P1-Q6 7 1996 P1-Q6 7 1997 P1-Q2 3 1998 P1-Q8 7 1999 P1-Q6 6 2000 P1-Q4 5

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q07 5

2002 Q02 4

2003 Q04 4

2004 Q09 6

2005

2006 Q12 5

2007

1. Find the coordinates of the two points on the curve y = x3 at which the tangents to the curve have a 3 slope of 4 . Hence find the equations of the two tangents to the curve y = x3 which are parallel to the line 3x 4y = 0. [89-P1-Q3] dy 2. Given the curve C : x2 + 4xy + 5y2 = 1, find dx . -1 Hence find the equations of the two tangents to C which are parallel to the line y = 2 x. [90-P1-Q7] 1 1 5 3. Let C be the curve y = x + x , where x 0. P(1, 2) and Q(2 , 2 ) are two points on C. (a) Find equations of the tangent and normal to C at P. (b) Show that the tangent to C at Q passes through the point A(0, 4) [91-P1-Q6] 4. The curve (x-2)(y2+3) = -8 cuts the y-axis at two points. Find (a) the coordinates of the two points; (b) the slope of the tangent to the curve at each of the two points. [Solution] (a) Put x = 0, y = +1 ie. the points are (0, 1) and (0, -1) (b) Differentiate with respect to x, dy (y2 + 3) + (x 2)(2ydx ) = 0 dy y2 + 3 = 2y(2 - x) dx dy dx |(0,1) = 1 dy dx |(0, -1) = -1

5. Given the curve C : x2 2xy2 + y3 + 1 = 0 dy (a) Find dx . (b) Find the equation of the tangent to C at the point (2, -1) [Solution] dy dy (a) 2x 2y2 4xydx + 3y2dx = 0 dy 2x - 2y2 = 4xy - 3y2 dx dy 2(2) - 2(-1)2 (b) At (2, -1), dx = 4(2)(-1) - 3(-1)2 -2 = 11 y+1 -2 Equation of tangent is x - 2 = 11 2x + 11y + 7 = 0

[93-P1-Q7]

[92-P1-Q5]

6. Given the curve C : x2 + y.cos x y2 = 0 dy (a) Find dx . - (b) P(2 , 2 ) is a point on the curve C. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at P. [94-P1-Q6] 7. P(4, 1) is a point on the curve y2 + y x = 3, where x>0. dy (a) Find the value of dx at P. (b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at P. [95-P1-Q6] [Solution] (a) Differentiate the equation with respect to x, dy y dy =0 2ydx + x dx + 2 x dy dy (1) At P(4, 1), 2(1) dx + ( 4 )dx + =0 2( 4) dy -1 dx = 16 (b) Slope of normal = 16 y-1 The equation of the normal is x - 4 = 16 16x y 63 = 0

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.18 8. Find the equations of the two tangents to the curve C : x + 6y + 10 = 0 9. P(8, 1) is a point on the curve y2 +
2 3

6 y = x + 1 which are parallel to the line [96-P1-Q6] [97-P1-Q2]

Type 4: Rate of Change Past Questions


Year P&Q Marks 16 1989 1990 1991 P1-Q12 7 16 16 16 1992 P1-Q7 1993 1994 P1-Q12 1995 P1-Q9 1996 P1-Q11 5 16 1997 P1-Q4 1998 P1-Q13 7 16 1999 P1-Q8 2000 P1-Q13

x y 3 = 0.
2

dy Find the value of dx at P.

10. P(0, 2) is a point on the curve x xy + 3y = 12. dy (a) Find the value of dx at P. (b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at P.

[98-P1-Q8]

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003 Q19 12

2004

2005

2006

2007 Q09 5

11. The point P(a, a) is on the curve 3x2 xy y2 a2 = 0, where a is a non-zero constant. dy (a) Find the value of dx at P. (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at P. [99-P1-Q6] 12. P (-1 , 2) is a point on the curve (x + 2)(y + 3) = 5. Find dy (a) the value of dx at P. (b) the equation of the tangent to the curve at P.

Section A Questions 1. A vessel is in the shape of a right circular cone and with semi-vertical angle 30o. Water is flowing out of the cone through its apex at a constant rate of cm3/s.

[00-P1-Q4]

13. P (2 , 0) is a point on the curve x (1 + sin y)5 = 1. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at P. [01-Q07] 14. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve C : y = 4x + 8. y = (x 1)4 + 4 which is parallel to the line [02-Q02] [03-Q04] (a) Let V cm3 be the volume of water in the vessel when the depth of water is h cm. Express V in terms of h. (b) How fast is the water level falling when the depth of water is 4 cm? [92-P1-Q7] [Solution] (a) Let r cm be the radius of water surface when the depth of water is h cm. r h ie. r= tan 30o = h 3 1 h 2 therefore, V = 3 ( )h 3 h3 = 9

dy 15. Given that 3x2 + 3y2 2xy = 12, find dx when x = 2, y = 0. 16. In the Figure, P (a , b) is a point on the curve C : y = x3. The tangent to C at P passes through (0 , 2). (a) Show that b = 3a3 + 2. (b) Find the values of a and b. [04-Q09]

17. (a) Let

dy x2 - xy + y2 = 7. Find dx . (b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve x2 - xy + y2 = 7 at the point (1 , 3)

[06-Q12]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.19 (b) dV 2dh dt = 3 h dt dh dV Put dt = -, and at h = 4, (-) = 3 (4)2 dt dh -3 dt = 16 3 ie. water is falling at a rate of 16 cm/s. 4. Two rods HA and HB, each of length 5 m, are hinged at H. The rods slide such that A, B, H are on the same vertical plane and A, B move in opposite directions on the horizontal floor, as shown in the figure. Let AB be x m and the distance of H from the floor be y m.

2. A man stands at a horizontal distance of 30 m from a sight-seeing elevator of a building. The elevator is rising vertically with a uniform speed of 1.5 m/s. When the elevator is a height h m above the ground, its angle of elevation from the man is . Find the rate of change of with respect to time when the elevator is at a height 30 3 m above the ground. [Note: You may assume the sizes of the elevator and the man are negligible.]

(a) Write down an equation connecting x and y. (b) When H is 3 m from the ground, its falling speed is 2 m/s. Find the rate of change of the distance between A and B with respect to time at that moment. [07-Q09]

[97-P1-Q4] 3. A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the roof of a building 40 m in height. After t s, the height of the ball above the roof is h m, where h = 20t 5t2. At this instant, the angle of elevation of the ball from a point O, which is at a horizontal distance of 55 m from the building, is .
ball

Figure 1

hm

40m O

55m

(a) Find (1) tan in terms of t, (2) the value of when t = 3 (b) Find the rate of change of with respect to time when t = 3.

[99-P1-Q8]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.20 Type 5: Maxima and minima Past Questions
Year P&Q 1989 P1-Q10 P1-Q12 Marks 16 16 16 1990 P1-Q11 1991 P1-Q4 P1-Q11 7 16 1992 P1-Q11 1993 P1-Q9 1994 1995 P1-Q12 1996 1997 P1-Q12 P1-Q13 16 16 1998 P1-Q13 1999 P1-Q12 Year P&Q Marks 16 Year P&Q Marks 2001 2002 2003 Q13 7 2004 Q16 12 2005 2006 2007 Year P&Q Marks 2001 Q18 12 2002 2003 Q17 12 2004 Q17 12 2005 2006 Q13 7 2007 Q10 5 16 16 16 16 1989 1990 P1-Q10 1991 P1-Q11 1992 P1-Q12 1993 P1-Q11 1994 P1-Q9 5 16 16 16 16 16 1995 P1-Q3 1996 P1-Q9 1997 P1-Q10 1998 P1-Q10 1999 P1-Q9 2000 P1-Q10 2000

Type 6: Sketch curve Note: 1. Find the x- and y-intercepts, turning points and extreme points (and asymptotes, if required). 2. See whether the question asks for the testing of turning points. Past Questions

16

16

16

16

16

Section A Question 1. Let y = x + sin 2x, where 0 < x < . dy d2y Find (a) dx and dx2 (b) the maximum and minimum values of y. Section A Question 1. Using the information in the following table, sketch the graph of y = f(x), where f(x) is a polynomial. x<0 x=0 0<x<1 x=1 1<x<2 x=2 x>2 f(x) 1 2 1 f'(x) <0 0 >0 0 <0 0 >0 [Solution]

[91-P1-Q4]

2. Let f(x) = 2 sin x x for 0 < x < . Find the greatest and least values of f(x).

[03-Q13]

y (1 , 2)

y = f(x)

(0 , 1)

(2 , 1)

2. Let f(x) be a polynomial. Figure 2 shows a sketch of the curve y = f '(x), where -2 < x < 6. The curve cuts the x-axis at the origin and (a , 0), where 0 < a < 6. It is known that the areas of the shaded regions R1 and R2 as shown in Figure 2 are 3 and 1 respectively. (a) Write down the x-coordinates of the maximum and minimum points of the curve y = f(x) for -2 < x < 6. (b) It is known that f(-2) = 2 and f(0) = 1. (i) By considering

a 0

f '(x) dx, find the value of f(a).

(ii) In Figure 3, sketch the curve y = f(x) for -2 < x < 6.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.21 3. Let f(x) be a function of x. The figure shows the graph of x- and y-intercepts 4 and 2 respectively. y = f(x) which is a straight line with

(a) Find the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at x = 1. (b) Find the x-coordinate(s) of all the turning point(s) of the curve y = f(x). For each turning points, determine whether it is a minimum point or a maximum point. [07-Q10]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.22 Integration Type 1: Indefinite and Definite Integration Note: 1. Make clear whether the integration is definite or indefinite. 2. Use Trigonetric Identities for those problems involving trigonometric functions. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q4 5 1990 1991 P2-Q2 5 1992 1993 1994 P2-Q1 4 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 P2-Q1 3 2000 P2-Q1 4

7. Find (a) (b) 8. Find

cos(3x + 1) dx (2 - x)2004 dx [04-Q01] [05-Q01]

(2x - 3)7 dx x4 + 1 x2 dx

9. Find

[07-Q01]

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003 Q01 3

2004 Q01 4

2005 Q01 2

2006

2007 Q01 3

1. (a) Find

cos22x dx.

(b) using the result in (a), find

sin22x dx.

[89-P2-Q4]

2. Evaluate

2 0

(sin x + cos x)2dx

[91-P2-Q2]

3. Find

(sin x cos x)2 dx (sin x cos x)2 dx =

[94-P2-Q1]

[Solution]

(or

(1 - 2sin x cos x) dx where C is a constant where C is a constant)

x + cos2x + C

= x sin x + C 1 or x + 2 cos 2x + C

4. Evaluate

2 0

cos2x dx

[99-P2-Q1]

5. Find 6. Find

2 x + 1 dx cos2 d.

[00-P2-Q1] [03-Q01]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.23 Type 2: Integration with substitution Note: 1. By means of substitution, change the problem into a simpler one. 2. For trigonometric integration, think about sinmx cosnx and tanmx secnx. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q3 5 1990 P2-Q3 5 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 P2-Q2 4 1998 P2-Q6 6 1999 P2-Q2 4 2000

7. Find

1 dx. 1 - x2 (Hint: Let x = sin .)

1 2 0

[02-Q04]

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q02 4

2002 Q04 4

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

1. Using the substitution u = 2x2 + 1, evaluate

8x3 2x2 + 1

dx

[89-P2-Q3]

2. Using the substitution u = sin2x, find

sin x cos x 9 sin 2 x + 4 cos 2 x

dx

[90-P2-Q3]

3. Find

x x - 1 dx [97-P2-Q2]

[Hint: Let u = x 1 ] [Solution] Let u = x 1 , du = dx

x x - 1 dx = =

(u + 1) u du (u3/2 + u1/2) du

2 2 where C is a constant = 5 u5/2 + 3 u3/2 + C 2 2 = 5 (x 1)5/2 + 3 (x 1)3/2 + C 4. Using the substitution u = sin , evaluate

cos5 sin2 d

[98-P2-Q6]

5. Find

x(x + 2)99dx

[99-P2-Q2]

6. Find

x dx. 3x2 + 1 (Hint: Let u = 3x2 + 1.)

[01-Q02]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.24 Type 3: Find equation from given slope Note: After each integration, a constant is added and have to be found. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 P2-Q5(a) 3 1992 P2-Q4 6 1993 P2-Q6 7 1994 P2-Q8 7 1995 P2-Q1 5 1996 P2-Q6 6 1997 P2-Q5 5 1998 P2-Q4 5 1999 P2-Q6 6 2000 P2-Q6 7

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004 Q03 4

2005 Q10 6

2006 Q10 5

2007

dy 4. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve C is given by dx = 8 10x and C passes through the point A(1,13). (a) Find the equation of C. (b) Find the equation of the normal to C at the point where C cuts the y-axis. [94-P2-Q8] [Hint] The equation of C is y = -5x2 + 8x + 10 (b) It cuts y-axis at (0,10), the slope of the tangent is 8. -1 The slope of the normal is 8 . The equation of the normal is x + 8y 80 = 0

dy 1. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve C is given by dx = 4 2x and C passes through the point (1, 0). (a) Find an equation of C. (b) Find the area of the finite region bounded by C and the x-axis.

dy 5. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve C is given by dx = 2x x2 + 1 and C cuts the y-axis at the point (0,1). Find the equation of C. (Hint: Let u = x2 + 1.) [95-P2-Q1] [91-P2-Q5]

2.The slope of the tangent to a curve C at any point (x, y) on C is x2 2. C passes through the point (3, 4). (a) Find the equation of C. (b) Find the coordinates of the point on C at which the slope of the tangent is 2. [92-P2-Q4] [Solution] dy (a) Given dx = x2 2 1 y = 3 x3 2x + C Put x=3, y=4, C = 1 1 Equation of C : y = 3 x3 2x + 1 (b) For slope of tangent = -2, x2 2 = -2 x=0,y=1 The coordinates of the point is (0, 1) 3. The slope of a curve C at any point (x, y) on C is 3x2 6x 1. C passes through the point (1,0). (a) Find the equation of C. (b) Find the equation of the tangent to C at the point where C cuts the y-axis. [93-P2-Q6] [Hint] (a) The equation of C is y = x3 3x2 x + 3 (b) It cuts the y-axis at (0,3), and the equation of the tangent is x + y 3 = 0

dy 6. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve is given by dx = tan3x.sec x. If the curve passes through the origin, find its equation. (Hint: Let u = sec x.) [96-P2-Q6] [Solution] y= y=

tan3x.sec x.dx (u2 1)du

Let u = sec x, du = tan x.sec x.dx u3 = 3 u+C 1 = 3 sec3x sec x + C Since the curve passes through O, 1 0= 3 1+C 2 C= 3 The equation of the curve C is

where C is a constant

1 2 y = 3 sec3x sec x + 3

dy 1 7. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve is given by dx = 6x + x2 , where x>0. If the curve cuts the x-axis at the point (1,0), find its equation. [97-P2-Q5]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.25 dy 8. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve is given by dx = cos2x. point (2 , ), find its equation. If the curve passes through the [98-P2-Q4]

dy 9. The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve is given by dx = 3x2 2x + k. If the curve touches the x-axis at the point (2,0), find (a) the value of k, (b) the equation of the curve. [99-P2-Q6] [Hint] The curve touches x-axis at (2,0), ie. slope of tangent at (2,0) is 0.

dy 10. The slope at any point (x , y) of a curve C is given by dx = 2x + 3. The line y = -x + 1 is a tangent to the curve at point A. Find (a) the coordinates of A, (b) the equation of C. [00-P2-Q6] dy 11. The slope of any point (x , y) of a curve C is given by dx = 3x2 + 1. find the equation of C. If the x-intercept of C is 1, [04-Q03]

d 12. (a) Show that dx [x(x + 1)n] = (x + 1)n - 1[(n + 1)x + 1], where n is a rational number. dy (b) The slope at any point (x , y) of a curve C is given by dx = (x + 1)2004(2006x + 1). If C passes through the point (-1 , 1), find the equation of C.

[05-Q10]

dy 13. The slope at any point (x , y) of a curve is given by dx = 3 + 2 cos 2x. If the curve passes 3 [06-Q10] through the point (4 , 4 ), find its equation.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.26 Type 4: Finding area Note: 1. Find the intersecting points. 2. Keep the positive value of the area. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q8 6 1990 P2-Q4 5 1991 P2-Q5(b) 4 1992 P2-Q6 6 1993 P2-Q5 6 1994 P2-Q7 6 1995 P2-Q5 6 1996 P2-Q5 6 1997 1998 P2-Q8 6 1999 P2-Q4 5 2000

5. The figure shows the curve of y = sin x and y = cos x, where 0 < x < 2, intersecting at points A and B. (a) Find the coordinates of A and B. (b) Find the area of the shaded region as shown in the figure. [93-P2-Q5] 6. The figure shows two curves y = x3 and y = x3 6x2 + 12x intersecting at the origin and a point A. (a) Find the coordinates of A. (b) Find the area of the shaded region in the figure. [94-P2-Q7] 7. The figure shows the curve C : y = sin x for 0 < x < (a) Find the area of the finite region bounded by the curve C and the x-axis. 1 (b) A horizontal line L cuts C at two points A and B. A is the point (6 , 2 ). (1) Write down the coordinates of B. (2) Find the area of the finite region bounded by C and L. [Solution] (a) Area = =2

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002 Q06 5

2003 Q09 5

2004

2005 Q13 6

2006

2007 Q06 5

1. The figure shows the graph of y = sin x for 0 < x < . (a) Copy the figure into your answer book and sketch the graph of y = sin 2x for 0 < x < on the same figure. Calculate the x-coordinates of the intersecting points of the two curves for 0 < x < . (b) Find the area bounded by the two curves for 0 < x < . [89-P2-Q8] 2. In the figure, the shaded area enclosed by the curves y = cos x, y = k(x - 2 )2 and the y-axis is 2 squared units. Find the value of k. [90-P2-Q4]

[95-P2-Q5]

sin x dx

5 1 (b) (1) The coordinates of B are ( 6 , 2 )


5 6

(2) Area = =

1 (sin x - 2 ) dx

3 - 3

dy 3. The slope at any point (x , y) of a curve C is given by dx = 4 2x and C passes through the point (1 , 0). (a) Find an equation of C. (b) Find the area of the finite region bounded by C and the x-axis. [91-P2-Q5] 4. The curve y = x3 x2 2x cuts the x-axis at the origin and the points (a, 0) and (b, 0), as shown. (a) Find the values of a and b. (b) Find the total area of the shaded parts. [92-P2-Q6]

8. The curve C : y = 4x x2 cuts the x-axis at the origin O and the point A(4, 0) as shown. (a) Find the area of the region bounded by C and the line segment OA. (b) In the other figure, the shaded region is enclosed by the curve C and the line segments OP and PA, where P is the point (1,3). Using (a), find the total area of the shaded region. [96-P2-Q5] [Hint] (a) Area of (a) =

(4x x2) dx

(b) Area of (b) = Area of (a) Area of OPA

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.27 9. The line L : y = 3x 2 and the curve C : y = x2 intersect at two points A(1,1) and B(2,4). Let S1 denote the area of the region bounded by C and line segment AB, and S2 denote the area bounded by C, L and the y-axis. (a) Find S1. (b) Which of the following expressions represent(s) the total area S1 + S2? (1) (2) (3) (4) [Hint] (a) S1 = 13. (a) Find

sin x dx.

(b) The Figure shows two curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersecting at three points (0 , 0), (1 , 2) and (2 , 0) for 0< x < 2. It is given that f(x) - g(x) = 2 sin x. Find the area of the shaded region as shown in the Figure.

|
0

0 1

(3x 2 x2) dx (x2 3x + 2) dx + | 3x 2 x2 | dx (3x 2 x2) dx | [98-P2-Q8] [05-Q13] (3x 2 x2) dx 14. The following figure shows the graph of region. y = sin 2x and y = cos x. Find the area of the shaded

(3x 2 x2) dx

0 2

(b) Both (2) and (3) are correct. 10. In the figure, the line L : y = 6x and the curves C1 : y = 6x2 and C2 : y = 3x2 all pass through the origin. L also intersects C1 and C2 at the points (1, 6) and (2, 12) respectively. Find the area of the shaded region. [99-P2-Q4] [Hint] Area of the shaded region =

(6x2 3x2) dx +

(6x 3x2) dx [07-Q06]

11. The figure shows the curves y = sin x and Find the area of the shaded region.

y = cos x. [02-Q06]

12. In the figure, the curve C : y = x2 and line L : y = 4x 4 intersect at the point (2 , 4). Find the area of the shaded region bounded by C, L and the x-axis. [03-Q09]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.28 Type 5a: Integrate hard trigonometric functions Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q9 16 1990 P2-Q9 16 1991 P2-Q12 16 1992 P2-Q10 16 1993 1994 1995 P2-Q12a 16 1996 P2-Q9 16 1997 P2-Q11 16 1998 P2-Q9 16 1999 P2-Q12 16 2000 P2-Q8 16

Type 6a: Volume by revolving about axis Past Questions


Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 P2-Q12 16 1991 P2-Q11 16 1992 P2-Q11 16 1993 P2-Q12 16 1994 P2-Q13 16 1995 P2-Q12b 5 1996 1997 P2-Q10 16 1998 P2-Q12 16 1999 P2-Q13 16 2000 P2-Q11 16

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q16 12

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Type 5b: Integrate differential equation Past Questions


Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 1992 P2-Q8 16 1993 P2-Q9 16 1994 1995 P2-Q8 16 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Type 6b: Volume by revolving about off-axis Past Questions


Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q13 16 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 P2-Q12c 3 1996 P2-Q11 16 1997 1998 1999 2000

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004 Q04 4

2005

2006

2007

1. In the Figure, the shaded region is bounded by the circle x2 + y2 = 9, the x-axis. the y-axis and the line y = 2. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region about the y-axis.

[04-Q04]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.29 Coordinate Geometry Type 1: Straight Lines and Rectilinear Figures Note: Remember the formulae of finding distance between lines or point-to-line, and finding area. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q7 6 1990 P2-Q7 6 1991 1992 P2-Q3 6 1993 P2-Q4 6 1994 P2-Q6 6 1995 1996 1997 P2-Q3 5 1998 1999 P2-Q3 5 2000 P2-Q3 P2-Q5 6 6

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q10 6

2002

2003

2004 Q12 7

2005 Q06 Q12 4 6

2006 Q11 6

2007 Q02 Q07 3 5

5. Let be the acute angle between the two lines L1 : y = 2x and L2 : y = 3x. (a) Find tan . (b) Find the equation of the line other than L2 which makes an angle with L1 and passes through the origin. [94-P2-Q6] [Solution] (a) Slope of L1 = 2 and slope of L2 = 3, 3-2 tan = 1 + (3)(2) 1 = 7 (b) Let the slope of the required line be m. 2-m 1 1 + 2m = 7 13 m= 9 ie. the equation of the required line is 13x 9y = 0 6. Given three points A(0 , 2), B(4, 6) and C(3 , 0). P is a point on AB such that AP : PB = : 1, where > 0. (a) Find the coordinates of P in terms of . (b) If the area of PAC is 6, find the value(s) of . [97-P2-Q3] [Solution] 6 + 2 4 , ) (a) The coordinates of P are ( 1+ 1+ (b)
0 1 3 4 2 1+ 0 2 0 6 + 2 = 6 1+ 2

1. A straight line L1 : y = mx + c, where m and c are constants, make an angle of 45o with the line L2 : 17x 7y + 14 = 0. (a) Find the two values of m. (b) If the distance from the point (1 , 2) to L1 is 5, and m takes the greater of the two values obtained in (a), find the two values of c. [89-P2-Q7]

2. In the figure, A(3, 0), B(0 , 5) and C(0 , 1) are three points and O is the origin. y

B D C x O A D is a point on AB such that the area of BCD equals half of the area of OAB. Find the equation of the line CD. [90-P2-Q7] 3. A straight line with slope m passes through the point (4 , 7). (a) Write down the equation of the line. (b) If the distance from the origin to the line is 1, find the two possible values of m.

3 = 2

(c) Let the equation of L3 be 2x + 2y + c = 0


1 2(0) + 2( ) + c 2 =3 2 22 + 22

[92-P2-Q3]

1 4. Two lines pass through (4, 3) and each line makes an angle 4 with the line y = 3 x. Find the equations of the two lines. [93-P2-Q4]

| 1 + c | = 12 c = 11 or 13 (rej.) ie. the equation of L3 is 2x + 2y + 11 = 0

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.30 7. L1 : 2x + 2y 1 = 0 and L2 : 2x + 2y 13 = 0 are two parallel lines. (a) Find the y-intercept of L1. (b) Find the distance between L1 and L2. (c) L3 is another line parallel to L1. If the distance between L1 and L3 is equal to that between L1 and L2, find the equation of L3. [99-P2-Q3] [Solution] 1 (a) The y-intercept of L1 = 2 (b) Distance between L1 and L2 = 2(0) + 2( 2 ) 13
2 +2
2 2

12. The figure shows the line L1 : 2x + y - 6 = 0 intersecting the x-axis at point P.

(a) Let be the acute angle between L1 and the x-axis. Find tan . (b) L2 is a line with positive slope passing through the origin O. If L1 intersects L2 at a point Q such [05-Q06] that OP = OQ, find the equation of L2. 13. A (-1 , 0), B (4 , 2) and C (0 , 6) are three points on a rectangular coordinates system. (a) Find the area of ABC. 1 area of APC = 4 . Find the coordinates of P. (b) P is a point on the line segment BC such that area of ABC [05-Q12] 14. Let L1 be the straight line y = 2x - 5. L2 and L3 are two straight lines passing through the origin and each makes an angle of 45o with L1. (a) Find the equations of L2 and L3. (b) Find the area of the triangle bounded by L1, L2 and L3. [06-Q11]

=3 2 8. Given an ellipse E : where 0 < <


x2 y2 + = 1. 16 9

P(-4 , 0) and Q(4 cos , 3 sin ) are points on E,

. R is a point such that the midpoint of QR is the origin O. 2 (a) Write down the coordinates of R in terms of . (b) If the area of PQR is 6 squared units, find the coordinates of Q.

[00-P2-Q3]

9. The coordinates of points A and B are (1 , 2) and (2 , 0) respectively. in the ratio 1 : r. (a) Find the coordinates of P in terms of r. 2r (b) Show that the slope of OP is 2 + r . (c) If AOP = 45o, find the value of r.

Point P divides AB internally

[00-P2-Q5]

15. It is given that the four points A (0 , -2), B (1 , -3), C (2 , 0) and D (k , k) form a quadrilateral ABCD. Find the area of this quadrilateral. [07-Q02] 16. It is given the points A (2 , 1) and B (-2 , 4). C is a point on AB such that AC : CB = 1 : 2. (a) Find the coordinates of C. (b) Show that OC bisects AOC, where O is the origin. [07-Q07]

10. Two lines L1 : x + y 5 = 0 and L2 : 2x 3y = 0 intersect at a point A. Find the equations of the two lines passing through A whose distances from the origin are equal to 2. [01-Q10] 11. The Figure shows two lines L1 : y = -x + c and L2 : y = 2x, where c > 0. The two lines intersect at point P. (a) Let be the acute angle between L1 and L2. Find tan . (b) L1 intersects the x- and y-axes at the points A and B respectively. Find AP : PB. [04-Q12]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.31 Type 2: Family of Straight Lines Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 1991 P2-Q4 5 1992 1993 1994 1995 P2-Q2 6 16 1996 P2-Q8 6 6 6 1997 P2-Q6 1998 P2-Q5 1999 P2-Q5 2000

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003 Q08 5

2004

2005

2006

2007

1. A family of straight lines is given by the equation (2 k)x + (1 + 2k)y (4 + 3k) = 0, where k is any constant. Find equations of the two lines in the family whose distances from the origin are equal to 1. [91-P2-Q4] 2. A family of straight lines is given by the equation 2x 3y + 4 + k(4x + 2y 1) = 0, where k is any constant. (a) Find the equation of the line in the family which passes through the point (1, 0). (b) Find the equation of the line in the family with slope 2. [95-P2-Q2] 3. L is the line y = 2x + 3. (a) A line with slope m makes an angle of 45o with L. Find the value(s) of m. (b) A family of straight lines is given by the equation 2x 3y + 2 + k(x y 1) = 0 where k is real. Using (a), find the equation of the line in the family with positive slope which makes an angle of 45o with L. [97-P2-Q6] 4. Two lines L1 : 2x + y 3 = 0 and L2 : x 3y + 1 = 0 intersect at a point P. (a) Write down an equation of the family of straight lines passing through P. (b) Suppose L is a line passing through P and the origin, find (1) the equation of L, (2) the acute angle between L and L1 correct to the nearest degree. 5. A family of straight lines is given by the equation y 3 + k(x y + 1) = 0 where k is real. (a) Find the equation of a line L1 in the family whose x-intercept is 5. (b) Find the equation of a line L2 in the family which is parallel to the x-axis. (c) Find the acute angle between L1 and L2.

[98-P2-Q5]

[99-P2-Q5]

6. Given two lines L1 : 2x 3y + 4 = 0 and L2 : x + y 3 = 0. (a) Write down the equation of the family of straight lines passing through the point of intersection of L1 and L2. (b) Find the equations of two lines in the family in (a) such that the distance from the origin to each line is 1. [03-Q09]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.32 Type 3: Locus Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 1990 P2-Q8 6 1991 1992 1993 1994 P2-Q4 5 1995 P2-Q3 6 1996 P2-Q7 6 1997 1998 P2-Q10 16 1999 P2-Q10 16 2000

5. Given a point A(4 , 0), P(h , k) is a variable point on the circle C : x2 + y2 = 4. Let M be the midpoint of AP. (a) Express the coordinates of M in terms of h and k. (b) Find the equation of the locus of M. [01-Q03] 6. P (x , y) is a variable point such that the distance from P to the line twice the distance between P and the point (1 , 0). (a) Show that the equation of the locus of P is 3x2 + 4y2 12 = 0. (b) Sketch the locus of P. x 4 = 0 is always equal to

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q03 4

2002 Q05 5

2003

2004 Q10 6

2005

2006 Q05 4

2007 Q13 7

[02-Q05]

1. S and T are variable points on the lines y = 0 and x y = 0 respectively, such that the length of ST is always equal to 2 units. Find the equation of the locus of the mid-point of ST. [90-P2-Q8] 2. P(0, 4) and Q(2, 6) are two points and R(x, y) is a variable point. (a) Find the area of PQR in terms of x and y. (b) If the area of PQR is 4 squared units, find the equation of the locus of R.

7. Let O be the origin and A be the point (3 , 4). P is a variable point such that the area of OPA is always equal to 2. Show that the locus of P is a pair of parallel lines. Find the distance between these two lines. [04-Q10] 8. The straight line y = x + k intersects the curve y = x2 at two points P and Q. It is known that the locus of the mid-point of PQ, as k varies, lies on a straight line L. Find the equation of L. [06-Q05] 9. The curve C : y = x2 and the straight line L : y = mx 2m intersect at two distinct points A and B. (a) Find the range of values of m. m m 2 4m (b) (1) Show that the coordinates of the mid-point of AB are ,
2 2

[94-P2-Q4]

1 3. A(t , 2 t2) is a point on the parabola x2 = 2y. B is the point (2 , 2). (a) Find the equation of the locus of the mid-point of AB as A moves along the parabola. (b) Sketch the locus in (a). [95-P2-Q3] 4. P(x , y) is a variable point such that the distance between P and the point (4 , 0) is always equal to twice the distance from P to the line x 1 = 0. (a) Find the equation of the locus of P. State whether the locus is a circle, ellipse, a hyperbola or a parabola. (b) Sketch the locus of P. [96-P2-Q7] [Solution] (a) (x - 4)2 + y2 = 2|x 1| 2 x + y2 8x + 16 = 4x2 8x + 4 3x2 y2 = 12 which is a hyperbola (b) y

(2) It is given that the straight line x + y = 5 bisects the line segment AB. otherwise, find the value(s) of m.

Using (b)(1), or [07-Q13]

x -2 2

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.33 Type 4: Circles and Family of Circles Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P2-Q10 16 1990 P2-Q11 16 1991 P2-Q9 16 1992 P2-Q10 16 1993 P2-Q11 16 1994 P2-Q9 16 1995 P2-Q10 16 1996 P2-Q10 16 1997 1998 P2-Q2 4 1999 2000 P2-Q9 16

Year P&Q Marks

2001

2002

2003

2004 Q14 12

2005

2006

2007

1. Given a line L : x 7y + 3 = 0 and a circle C : (x 2)2 + (y + 5)2 = a , where a is a positive number. (a) Find the distance from the centre of C to L. (b) If L is a tangent to C, find a.

[98-P2-Q2]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.34 Vector Note: 1. Obtain vectors through (a) addition or subtraction. (b) point of division. 2. DO NOT forget the vector sign for vectors. 3. a b = a . b cos where is the angle between the two vectors. O Let OA = a and OB = b. (a) Express OC in terms of a and b. (b) (1) Let OC : CE = k : 1. Express OE in terms of k, a and b. Past Questions
Year P&Q Marks 1989 P1-Q2 P1-Q9 5 16 1990 P1-Q2 P1-Q8 6 16 1991 P1-Q5 P1-Q8 7 16 1992 P1-Q1 P1-Q8 5 16 1993 P1-Q6 P1-Q8 7 16 1994 P1-Q3 P1-Q10 6 16 1995 P1-Q7 P1-Q8 8 16 1996 P1-Q7 P1-Q10 6 16 1997 P1-Q7 P1-Q9 7 16 1998 P1-Q5 P1-Q9 6 16 1999 P1-Q7 P1-Q10 6 16 2000 P1-Q8 P1-Q9 7 16

3. In the figure, OAD is a triangle and B is the mid-point of OD. The line OE cuts the line AB at C such that AC : CB = 3 : 1. D E B C A

4. When a is perpendicular to b , a b = 0 5. To prove A, B and C are collinear, check whether AB = k AC .


2

6. a

= aa

(2) Let AE : ED = m : 1. Express OE in terms of m, a and b. Hence find k and m. [Solution] (a) OC =
a + 3b 4 k+1 (b) (1) OE = k OC k+1 3(k + 1) b = 4k a + 4k

[91-P1-Q5]

Year P&Q Marks

2001 Q08 Q14 5 12

2002

2003 Q06 Q14 5 12

2004 Q06 Q13 5 12

2005 Q11 6

2006 Q07 5

2007 Q08 5

1. Let OA = i + 3j, OB = 4i j and C be a point dividing AB internally in the ratio k : 1. (a) Express OC in terms of k, i and j. (b) If OC is perpendicular to AB, find the value of k. [89-P1-Q2]

(2) As OD = 2 b , OE =

2. Given OA = 5j, OB = -i + 7j.

P is a point such that AP = t AB .

(a) Express OP in terms of t. (b) If OP is perpendicular to AB, find (1) the value of t. (2) OP . [90-P1-Q2]

a + 2 mb 1+ m 2m 1 = 1+m a + 1+m b Equating the vectors of (1) and (2), 1 k +1 4k = 1 + m 3( k + 1) 2m = 1+ m 4k 5 3 Solving, m = 2 and k = 3

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.35 4. Given OA = 5i j, OB = -3i + 5j and APB is a straight line. (a) Find AB and | AB |. (b) If [92-P1-Q1] [Solution] |
AP

7. Let OP = 2i + 3j and OQ = -6i + 4j. Let R be a point on PQ such that PR : RQ = k : 1, where k > 0. 4, find
AP

(a) Express OR in terms of k, i and j. (b) Express OP OR and OQ OR in terms of k. (c) Find the value of k such that OR bisects POQ. [Solution]
OP + k OQ k +1 3 + 4k 2 - 6k = k+1 i + k+1 j 2(2 - 6k) 3(3 + 4k) (b) OP OR = k + 1 + k + 1 13 = k+1 -6(2 - 6k) 4(3 + 4k) OQ OR = k+1 + k+1 52k = k+1 (c) If OR bisects POQ, cos POR = cos QOR

(a) AB = OB - OA = -8 i + 6

[95-P1-Q7]

(a) OR =

| AB | = (-8)2 + 62 = 10 4 (b) AP = 10 AB = -3.2 i + 2.4

5. Given OA = 3i 2j, OB = i + j. C is a point such that ABC is a right angle. (a) Find AB . (b) Find AB AB and AB BC . Hence find AB AC . [93-P1-Q6]

OP OR = OQ OR OQ OR OP OR

6. P, Q and R are points on a plane such that OP = i + 2j, OQ = 3i + j and PR = -3i 2j, where O is the origin. (a) Find PQ and | PQ |. (b) Find the value of cos QPR. [94-P1-Q3]

13| OQ | = 52k | OP | 13 52 = 52k 13 1 k= 2 16 8. Given OA = 4i + 3j and C is a point on OA such that | OC | = 5 . (a) Find the unit vector in the direction of OA . Hence find OC .

OB (b) If [96-P1-Q7]

4j,

show

that

BC

is

perpendicular

to

OA.

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.36 9. Let a and b be two vectors such that a = 2i + 4j, |b| = between a and b. (a) Find |a|. (b) Find ab. (c) If b = mi + nj, find the values of m and n. 10. 4 5 and cos = 5 , where is the angle 12. B D

O [97-P1-Q7]

In the figure, OA = i, OB = j. C is a point on OA produced such that AC = k, where k > 0. D is a point on BC such that BD : DC = 1 : 2. 1+k 2 (a) Show that OD = 3 i + 3 j. (b) If OD is a unit vector, find (1) k, (2) BOD, giving your answer correct to the nearest degree.

[00-P2-Q8]

The figure shows the points A, B and C whose position vectors are i j, 4i + 4j and 2i + 7j respectively. (a) Find the vectors AB and AC . (b) By considering AB AC , find BAC to the nearest degree. [98-P1-Q5]

13. Let a and b be two vectors such that |a| = 4, |b| = 3 and the angle between a and b is 60o. (a) Find a.b (b) Find the value of k if the vectors (a + kb) and (a 2b) are perpendicular to each other. [01-Q08] 14. The figure shows a parallelogram OABC. The position vectors of the points A and C are i + 4j and 5i + 2j respectively. (a) Find OB and AC . (b) Let be the acute angle between OB and AC. to the nearest degree. Find correct [02-Q10]

11. Let a, b be two vectors such that a = 3i + 4j and |b| = 4. The angle between a and b is 60o. (a) Find |a|. (b) Find ab. (c) If the vector (ma + b) is perpendicular to b, find the value of m. [99-P1-Q7] [Solution] (a)

a=

3 2 + 42 = 5

15. In the figure, point P divides both line segments AB and OC in the same ratio 3 : 1. Let OA = a,

(b) a b = a b cos 60 o = (5)(4)cos 60o = 10 (c) If (m a + b ) is perpendicular to b , (m a + b ) b = 0 m a b + bb = 0 10m + 42 = 0 m = -1.6

OB = b.
(a) Express OP in terms of a and b. (b) Express OC in terms of a and b. Hence show that OA is parallel to BC.

[03-Q06]

16. In the Figure, OAB is a triangle. C is a point on AB such that AC : CB = 1 : 2. Let OA = a and

OB = b.

(a) Express OC in terms of a and b. 2 (b) If | a| = 1, |b| = 2 and AOB = 3 , find OC .

[04-Q06]

F.5 Additional Mathematics Revision Notes / P.37 17. The figure shows two vectors a and b, where |a| = 3, |b| = 5, and the angle between the two vectors is 120o. (a) Find a.b (b) Let c be a vector such that a + b + c = 0. Find |c| [05-Q11] 18. Let a and b be two vectors such that |a| = 3 , |b| = 2 and the angle between them is 150o. (a) Find a.b (b) Find |a + 2b| [06-Q07] 19. In the figure, OCA is a straight line and BC OA. It is given that OA = 6i + 3j and

OB = 2i + 6j. Let OC = k OA .
(a) Express BC in terms of k, i and j. (b) Find the value of k. [07-Q08]