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**exchanger, for cryogenic applications, using ﬁnite element method
**

V. Krishna

a,⇑

, Pradeep G. Hegde

a

, N. Subramanian

b

, K.N. Seetharamu

a

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.E.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore 560085, India

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.M.S. College of Engineering, Bangalore 560004, India

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 1 August 2011

Received in revised form 31 March 2012

Accepted 10 April 2012

Available online 7 June 2012

Keywords:

Heat exchangers

Effectiveness

Finite element method

Ambient heat in leak

a b s t r a c t

In most cryogenic applications, heat in leak from the ambient is a signiﬁcant factor for the degradation in

the performance of heat exchangers. The effect of heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid in a three-ﬂuid heat

exchanger, for a cryogenic application, involving thermal interaction between all the three ﬂuids, has

been investigated using both the analytical and ﬁnite element methods. Cooling of the hot ﬂuid has been

identiﬁed as the objective of the three ﬂuid heat exchanger. Seven non-dimensional parameters, includ-

ing one to account for ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid, have been identiﬁed and their effects on hot

ﬂuid behaviour – temperature proﬁle, effectiveness and degradation factor – have been studied. The

results presented give valuable inputs towards better understanding of the behaviour of the hot ﬂuid

in this class of heat exchangers.

Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Three ﬂuid heat exchangers, involving all the three ﬂuids in

thermal communication, are used in several applications found in

aerospace, petro-chemical and chemical industries to name a

few. Systems that deal with ammonia gas synthesis, puriﬁcation

and liquefaction of hydrogen, air separation systems and helium-

air separation units are typical applications which make use of

three ﬂuid heat exchangers [1].

The general analytical procedure to obtain the temperature dis-

tribution in all of the ﬂuid streams in multi-stream, one-dimen-

sional heat exchangers assuming that there are no multiple

eigenvalues to the solution have been presented by several

researchers [2,3]. Others have presented explicit/iterative ﬂow

direction dependent solutions for this class of three-ﬂuid heat

exchangers [4–7] assuming that multiple eigenvalues do not exist.

Three-ﬂuid models involving three thermal communications and

also multiple zero eigenvalues have been developed by Aulds

[18] and Aulds and Barron [8]. Sekulic and Shah [1] have provided

an extensive review of the work related to three-ﬂuid heat

exchangers. A model of a two-ﬂuid counter current heat exchanger

where both ﬂuids are subjected to external heating has been devel-

oped by Ameel and Hewavitharana [9]. Another model of a two-

ﬂuid parallel ﬂow heat exchanger where again both ﬂuids can

interact with the ambient has been developed by Ameel [10]. Both

models [9,10] have been developed assuming that multiple eigen-

values do not exist. As the ambient can be considered a third ﬂuid

with inﬁnite thermal capacity, both models [9,10] can be consid-

ered special cases of three-ﬂuid heat exchangers with three ther-

mal communications. Barron [11] has also developed a model

where one of the ﬂuids in a two-ﬂuid heat exchanger is interacting

with the ambient. A uniﬁed, ﬂow direction independent, non-

dimensional model for three-ﬂuid heat exchangers with two ther-

mal communications has been developed for all possible ﬂuid ﬂow

cases by Sekulic and Shah [1]. The need for a general model for a

three-ﬂuid heat exchanger with three thermal communications is

expressed in their paper. This has been addressed by Shrivastava

and Ameel [12] who have developed a three-ﬂuid HX model with

three thermal communications that is insulated from the ambient.

Their model considers all possible thermal interactions and ﬂow

arrangements. It is also mentioned by Sekulic and Shah [1] that

further studies should be conducted on the overall performance

of the three-ﬂuid heat exchanger as well as on reconsideration of

the overall three-ﬂuid heat exchanger effectiveness. This concern

is also addressed in a second paper by Shrivastava and Ameel

[13]. Saeid and Seetharamu [15] have presented a ﬁnite element

method (FEM) model for a three ﬂuid heat exchanger (HX) with

two thermal communications. They have compared the effective-

ness values obtained from their model with those obtained from

standard 2 – NTU equations and obtained accurate results. Krishna

et al [16] have extended this FEM analysis and have proposed an

FEM model to predict the performance of a two-ﬂuid counter-ﬂow

HX with heat leak to the evaporator considering the effect of

0017-9310/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.05.005

⇑

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 80 26722108; fax: +91 80 26720886.

E-mail addresses: vkrishna@pes.edu (V. Krishna), pghegde@gmail.com (P.G.

Hegde), subramaniankrishn@gmail.com (N. Subramanian), knseetharamu@yahoo.

com (K.N. Seetharamu).

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j hmt

longitudinal heat conduction in the separating wall. This method-

ology has been further extended, in the present paper, to a three

ﬂuid HX, with thermal communication between all the ﬂuids, in

addition to, heat leak in from the ambient to the cold ﬂuid.

Effectiveness is a measure of the performance of any heat ex-

changer. In three-ﬂuid heat exchangers, with three thermal com-

munications, the heat exchanged between the cold and

intermediate temperature streams or the hot and intermediate

temperature streams cannot be neglected in comparison to the

heat exchanged between the cold and hot ﬂuid streams. Several

effectiveness deﬁnitions have been proposed in the past to assess

the performance of three-ﬂuid heat exchangers. Most of these def-

initions give the temperature effectiveness of a particular stream

and are deﬁned as the ratio of the actual temperature difference

to the maximum temperature difference that the stream of inter-

est can attain [1–6]. These deﬁnitions assess the performance of a

three-ﬂuid heat exchanger by its ability to achieve a maximum

temperature difference for a selected stream. The temperature

effectiveness deﬁnition is based on the actual temperature change

of a single stream. Thus, at least three separate and different tem-

perature effectiveness deﬁnitions of this kind are possible for

three-ﬂuid heat exchangers [13]. The deﬁnition of effectiveness

for any three ﬂuid HX depends on its objective. Aulds and Barron

[8] deﬁned effectiveness for three ﬂuid heat exchangers with three

thermal communications as the ratio of the actual heat transferred

to the cold and intermediate ﬂuids to the maximum heat that

could be transferred to both of these streams. A speciﬁc objective

of their heat exchanger has not been mentioned. However, given

their deﬁnition, the objective could be identiﬁed as to cool the

hot ﬂuid. It can be concluded from the above discussion that there

can be no single deﬁnition to evaluate the general performance of

three-ﬂuid heat exchangers with three thermal communications.

Shrivastava and Ameel [13] identify ﬁve different objectives for

three-ﬂuid heat exchangers:-(1) heating the cold ﬂuid, (2) cooling

the hot ﬂuid, (3) cooling the intermediate ﬂuid, (4) heating the

intermediate ﬂuid, and (5) maximizing the enthalpy change of

the central ﬂuid stream or the two lateral ﬂuid streams.

The model of the three ﬂuid HX proposed in this paper is a gen-

eral model and can be applied for all three ﬂuid, single pass, parallel

ﬂow heat exchangers considering all possible thermal interactions

and ﬂow arrangements. In the present paper, governing equations

have been solved for the ﬂow arrangement in Case (2) with objec-

tive of determining the deviation in the behaviour of the hot ﬂuid

due to ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid. The equations have

been solved by both the analytical method and FEM. Both the meth-

ods give matching results with no deviations. The results have been

further validated by comparing them with values published earlier

by neglecting the effect of the ambient [1,8,12,13]. A degradation

factor, s, is deﬁned to evaluate the deterioration in the performance

of the heat exchanger due to heat in leak from the ambient. The re-

sults obtained for the degradation factor have been validated by

comparing them with values published by Gupta and Atrey [14]

for a coiled tube-in-tube two-ﬂuid heat exchanger with heat in leak.

The values obtained by the model proposed match very closely with

the values published. After validating the methodology, the effect of

ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid and how it affects the perfor-

mance of a three ﬂuid HX, has been studied. The objective of the

three ﬂuid HX has been identiﬁed as the cooling of the hot ﬂuid.

The effect of ambient heat in leak has been studied for its effect

on the temperature proﬁle, effectiveness and degradation factor

of the hot ﬂuid, and how these vary with respect to various non-

dimensional parameters on which the performance of the HX

depends.

Many of the simplifying assumptions that are required for ana-

lytical solutions are not required in the FEM analysis adopted in

this paper. The methodology presented is very versatile and can

accommodate most real time situations since it is element based.

In most cryogenic applications, heat in leak from the ambient is

a signiﬁcant factor for the degradation in the performance of heat

exchangers. The effect of ambient heat in leak on the performance

of a three ﬂuid HX, with all three ﬂuids in thermal communication

with each other, has not been examined earlier. This has been

examined in the present paper to arrive at the extent of degrada-

tion in the performance of the three ﬂuid HX.

2. Model formulation

A three ﬂuid, single pass, parallel ﬂow heat exchanger involving

thermal communication between all the three ﬂuids – hot, inter-

mediate and cold – has been considered. The pipe conﬁguration

for the HX appears as shown in Fig. 1. Each of the ﬂuids interacts

Nomenclature

HX heat exchanger

_ m mass ﬂow rate, (kg/s)

_

Q heat transfer rate, (W)

c

p

speciﬁc heat at constant pressure, (J/kg-K)

T temperature (K)

C heat capacity rate of the ﬂuids deﬁned by the product of

_ m and c

p

(W/K)

P wetted perimeter for any contact area (m)

P

1

, P

2

, P

3

, P

4

wetted perimeters corresponding to areas A

1

, A

2

, A

3

,

A

4

respectively

L heat exchanger length (m)

L

e

effective length of heat exchanger as deﬁned by L/num-

ber of elements (m)

A surface area for heat transfer as deﬁned by the product

of P and L

e

(m

2

)

A

1

, A

2

, A

3

, A

4

areas as illustrated in Fig. 1

U overall heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m

2

-K)

U

1

, U

2

, U

3

, U

4

overall heat transfer coefﬁcients as illustrated in

Fig. 1

H

1

, H

2

, H

3

dimensionless parameters as deﬁned in Eq. (4)

R

1

, R

2

ratio of heat capacity rates as deﬁned in Eq. (5)

x axial co-ordinate (m)

NTU number of transfer units as deﬁned in Eq. (4)

X non-dimensional axial co-ordinate as deﬁned in Eq. (5)

N

1

& N

2

shape functions as deﬁned in Eq. (13)

i

h

, i

i,

i

c

Directional constants as deﬁned in Eqs. (1)–(3)

Greeks

h dimensionless temperature as deﬁned in Eq. (5)

2 thermal effectiveness

m temperature effectiveness

s degradation factor as deﬁned in Eq. (33)

Subscripts

c cold ﬂuid

h hot ﬂuid

i intermediate ﬂuid

in inlet

out outlet

1 Ambient

5460 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

with the other two while the cold ﬂuid interacts with the ambient

in addition to the hot and the intermediate ﬂuids. The HX consid-

ered is for a cryogenic application and as such the effect of the

ambient will be a heat leak in to the cold ﬂuid. Depending on the

ﬂow directions, four different ﬂow arrangements Cases 1–4 are

possible [1,12], as shown in Fig. 2. The following assumptions have

been made for the analysis: (a) The HX is in a steady state (b) All

properties are constant with time and space. (c) There is no axial

conduction in the pipes or the ﬂuids (d) Within a stream the tem-

perature distribution is uniform in the transverse direction and

equal to the average temperature of the ﬂuid. (e) There is no heat

source or sink in the HX or in any of the ﬂuids (f) There is no phase

change in the ﬂuid streams (g) The heat transfer area is constant

along the length of the HX.

In the ﬂow arrangements indicated, Cases (2)–(4) are similar, in

the sense that, in each of these cases, two ﬂuids ﬂow in one direc-

tion while the other ﬂows in the opposite direction. It can be

shown that ﬂuid streams in these three cases are thermally

identical if proper values of the non dimensional parameters are

chosen [12]. Thus there are only two major cases – Case (1) and

Case (2) – that need to be studied to understand the behaviour

of three-ﬂuid heat exchangers [12]. Case (1) corresponds to a case

of parallel, co-current ﬂow involving all three ﬂuids, while in Case

(2) the cold and the intermediate ﬂuids ﬂow in one direction while

the hot ﬂuid ﬂows in the opposite direction. It is also observed that

the effect of the different parameters on the Cases (1) and (2) are

similar [12]. Case (2) is more widely used and more effective since

it involves the hot and cold ﬂuids ﬂowing in opposite directions.

Thus the present model has been analyzed only for Case (2).

The governing equations for the hot, cold and the intermediate

ﬂuids, obtained by energy balance, are as follows:

Hot Fluid:

i

h

dh

H

dX

À

NTU

R

2

ðh

h

À h

c

Þ À

NTU Ã H

2

R

2

ðh

h

À h

i

Þ ¼ 0 ð1Þ

Intermediate Fluid:

i

i

dh

i

dX

þ

NTU Ã R

1

Ã H

1

R

2

ðh

i

À h

c

Þ À

NTU Ã R

1

Ã H

2

R

2

ðh

h

À h

i

Þ ¼ 0 ð2Þ

Cold Fluid:

i

c

dh

c

dX

ÀNTUðh

h

Àh

c

Þ ÀNTUÃ H

1

ðh

i

Àh

c

Þ ÀNTUÃ H

3

ðh

1

Àh

c

Þ ¼0 ð3Þ

In the above expressions h

h

, h

i

and h

c

represent the dimensionless

temperatures of the hot ﬂuid, intermediate ﬂuid and the cold ﬂuid

respectively. Directional constants – i

h

, i

i

& i

c

– are introduced to

the governing equations to make them applicable for all four ﬂow

arrangements. Their values are +1 for the positive x direction and

À1 for negative x direction. For the ﬂow arrangement of Case (2)

analysed in this paper, i

h

= À1, i

c

= +1 and i

i

= +1. The different

non-dimensional terms used in the analysis are deﬁned as men-

tioned below:

NTU ¼

U

1

P

1

L

e

C

c

; H

1

¼

U

2

P

2

U

1

P

1

; H

2

¼

U

3

P

3

U

1

P

1

; H

3

¼

U

4

P

4

U

1

P

1

; ð4Þ

R

1

¼

C

h

C

i

; R

2

¼

C

h

C

c

; h ¼

T À T

c;in

T

h;in

À T

c;in

; X ¼

x

L

e

ð5Þ

Fig. 1. Tubular arrangement of the three ﬂuid heat exchanger chosen for analysis

with ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid.

Fig. 2. Flow arrangements.

V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470 5461

3. Analytical solution

The governing equations, Eqs. (1)–(3), are rearranged and writ-

ten in matrix form as

d

dX

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼ A

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ þ f ð6Þ

where

A ¼

ÀNTU

ic

ð1 þ H

2

þ H

3

Þ

NTU

ic

NTU

ic

H

2

NTU

i

h

R

2

À

NTU

i

h

R

2

ð1 þ H

2

Þ

NTU

i

h

R

2

H

1

NTUR

1

i

i

R

2

NTUR

1

H

1

i

i

R

2

À

NTUR

1

i

i

R

2

ðH

2

þ H

1

Þ

_

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

_

and f =

NTUH

3

ha

ic

0

0

_

_

_

_

This system of differential equations is solved using the method

of decoupling transformations.

A is diagonalised as x

À1

A x = D where D is a diagonal matrix con-

taining the Eigen values of A and x contains the Eigenvectors of A.

The Eigen values and Eigenvectors are directly computed using in-

built functions in MATLAB.

i.e.,

D ¼

D

1

0 0

0 D

2

0

0 0 D

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ and x ¼

x

11

x

12

x

13

x

21

x

22

x

23

x

31

x

32

x

33

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

Eq. (6) is written as

x

À1

d

dX

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼ Dx

À1

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ þ x

À1

f

d

dX

z

1

z

2

z

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼ D

z

1

z

2

z

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ þ g ð7Þ

where

z

1

z

2

z

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼ x

À1

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ and x

À1

f ¼

g

1

g

2

g

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ð8Þ

Eq. (7) represents a set of 1st order linear equations which can be

solved by simple integration.

We have

dz

i

dX

¼ D

i

z

i

þ

g

i

D

i

_ _

where i = 1, 2, 3 from which we get

z

i

¼ e

ðD

i

XþC

i

Þ

À

g

i

D

i

ð9Þ

Boundary Conditions:

h

c;in

¼ 0 at X ¼

ð1Àic Þ

2

h

h;in

¼ 1 at X ¼

ð1Ài

h

Þ

2

h

i;in

¼ any value between 0 À1 at X ¼

ð1Ài

i

Þ

2

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

ð10Þ

In this paper the value of h

i,in

has been taken to be 0.5 to compare

the results with those published by Ameel and Shrivastava [12].

From Eq. (8) we have

x

z

1

z

2

z

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

h

c

h

h

h

i

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ð11Þ

Substituting for z from Eq. (9) and incorporating boundary condi-

tions from Eq. (10) into Eq. (11) we get a system of linear equations

with three variables e

D

1

C

1

; e

D

2

C

2

& e

D

2

C

2

which are solved to give

; ¼

;

1

;

2

;

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_ ¼

e

D

1

C

1

e

D

2

C

2

e

D

3

C

3

_

¸

_

_

¸

_

i.e.,

C

i

¼

1

D

i

ln ;

i

ð12Þ

Substituting Eq. (12) and (9) in Eq. (11) we get the temperature pro-

ﬁle equations for the three ﬂuids:

h

c

¼

3

i¼1

x

1i

e

ðD

i

Xþln;

i

Þ

À

g

i

D

i

_ _

h

h

¼

3

i¼1

x

2i

e

ðD

i

Xþln;

i

Þ

À

g

i

D

i

_ _

h

i

¼

3

i¼1

x

3i

e

ðD

i

Xþln;

i

Þ

À

g

i

D

i

_ _

This method is applicable when the three eigen values D

1

, D

2

and D

3

are different from each other. Combinations of design parameters

which give multiple eigen values have little importance in real

world problems [12] and hence this has not been considered.

4. Finite element method

The heat exchanger is discretized into a number of elements. A

linear variation is assumed for the hot, intermediate and the cold

ﬂuids in a single element. The ﬂuid temperature at any point, for

co-current arrangement – Case 1, is given by the following

equations:

h

h

¼ N

1

h

h;in

þ N

2

h

h;out

ð13Þ

h

i

¼ N

1

h

i;in

þ N

2

h

i;out

ð14Þ

h

c

¼ N

1

h

c;in

þ N

2

h

c;out

ð15Þ

where N

1

and N

2

are the shape functions and given by

Fig. 3. Effect of H

2

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with no

ambient heat in leak. Comparison of Present values (Analytical & FEM values) with

Shrivastava and Ameel’s values [12]. Values of other non dimensional parameters:

H

1

= 1.5, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25, NTU = 1, h

i,in

= 0.5.

5462 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

N

1

¼ 1 À X and N

2

¼ X: ð16Þ

For the counter ﬂow arrangement of Case 2, the equations for h

i

and

h

c

do not change. However, the equation for h

h

changes and is given

by:

h

h

¼ N

1

h

h;out

þ N

2

h

h;in

ð17Þ

Using the Galerkin’s method of minimizing the weighted residual

(Lewis et al. [17]), the governing equations are reduced to a set of

algebraic equations. The discretized governing equations are writ-

ten in matrix form for each element as:

½Kfhg ¼ ff g ð18Þ

where [K] is known as the stiffness matrix and it is a (6 Â 6) matrix

for each element, {h} is the non-dimensional temperature vector

and {f} gives the loading terms. The expressions for [K], {h} and {f}

for Case 2 are provided in the Appendix. The stiffness matrix is

assembled for all the elements in the solution domain to get the glo-

bal stiffness matrix. The boundary conditions are enforced and the

system of equations is solved by MATLAB to get the dimensionless

temperatures along the heat exchanger.

4.1. Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions for the four different ﬂow conditions

are provided in the Table 1. It can be noticed that in each case three

boundary conditions are speciﬁed. These are enforced in the global

stiffness matrix before solving the equations.

5. Effectiveness

Cooling of the hot ﬂuid has been identiﬁed as the objective of

the three ﬂuid HX adopted for analysis. Cooling effectiveness of

the hot ﬂuid for any three ﬂuid HX can be deﬁned based on its tem-

perature effectiveness or its ability to release thermal energy to the

other two streams [13]. Cooling temperature effectiveness m

h

may

be deﬁned as the ratio of the actual temperature difference be-

tween the hot ﬂuid inlet and outlet to the maximum possible tem-

perature difference that the hot ﬂuid stream can attain.

m

h

¼

T

h;in

À T

h;out

T

h;in

À T

c;in

ð19Þ

In the normal sense, cooling thermal effectiveness of the hot ﬂuid

may be deﬁned as the ratio of the actual heat transferred from

the hot ﬂuid to the maximum possible heat that can be transferred.

h

¼

Q

h;actual

Q

h;max

ð20Þ

Q

h;actual

¼ C

h

ðT

h;in

À T

h;out

Þ ð21Þ

When the thermal capacity of the hot ﬂuid is greater than the ther-

mal capacities of the other two ﬂuids and when the hot ﬂuid is ﬂow-

ing counter to the other two streams, the maximum heat transfer

from the hot ﬂuid is given by

Q

h;max

¼ C

c

ðT

h;in

À T

c;in

Þ þ C

i

ðT

h;in

À T

c;in

Þ ð22Þ

For all other possible combinations of thermal capacities of the three

ﬂuids, the maximum heat transfer from the hot ﬂuid is given by

Q

h;max

¼ C

h

ðT

h;in

À T

c;in

Þ ð23Þ

On the same lines it is possible to arrive at expressions for the effec-

tiveness of the cold and intermediate ﬂuids [13].

6. Degradation factor

Degradation factor, s, is deﬁned to evaluate the extent of dete-

rioration in the performance of the heat exchanger due to heat in

leak from the ambient to the cold ﬂuid. The degradation factor

for the hot ﬂuid is deﬁned as the ratio of the loss in thermal effec-

tiveness due to ambient heat in leak to the thermal effectiveness

under no loss conditions and given by

s

h

¼

e

h;no loss

À e

h;with loss

e

h;no loss

ð24Þ

7. Results and discussion

7.1. Validation of the present methodology

The model of the three ﬂuid HX proposed in this paper is a gen-

eral model and can be applied for all three ﬂuid, single pass, parallel

ﬂow heat exchangers considering all possible thermal interactions

and ﬂow arrangements. In the present paper, the governing equa-

tions have been solved for the ﬂow arrangement in Case (2) with

the objective of determining the deviation in the behaviour of the

hot ﬂuid due to the effect of ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid.

For the ﬂow arrangement in Case (2), the directional constants take

the values – i

h

= À1, i

c

= +1 and i

i

= +1. The equations have been

solved by both the analytical method and FEM. Both the methods

give matching results with no deviations. These have been shown

in Table 2. The results have been further validated by comparison

with similar models on heat exchangers reported previously. The

comparisons have been made by selecting appropriate values for

the non-dimensional parameters to simulate the conditions exist-

ing in the models chosen for comparison. The FEManalysis has been

made by increasing the number of elements while adopting the

Galerkin’s method. It has been observed that the results converged

Table 1

Boundary Conditions for different ﬂow arrangements.

Flow arrangement Case 1

X h

h

h

c

h

i

0 1 0 h

i,in

1 – – –

Flow arrangement Case 2

X h

h

h

c

h

i

0 – 0 h

i,in

1 1 – –

Flow arrangement Case 3

X h

h

h

c

h

i

0 – 0 –

1 1 – h

i,in

Flow arrangement Case 4

X h

h

h

c

h

i

0 1 0 –

1 – – h

i,in

Table 2

Comparison of FEM and Analytical values for temperature proﬁles of hot, cold and

intermediate ﬂuids for a three ﬂuid heat exchanger with ambient heat-in-leak.

(Values of non dimensional parameters: H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, H

3

= 0.1, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25,

NTU = 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1).

X h

h

h

c

h

i

FEM Analytical FEM Analytical FEM Analytical

0.0 0.4354 0.4354 0.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.5000

0.2 0.5104 0.5104 0.1861 0.1861 0.3809 0.3809

0.4 0.6138 0.6138 0.3067 0.3067 0.4188 0.4188

0.6 0.7314 0.7314 0.4120 0.4120 0.5060 0.5060

0.8 0.8601 0.8601 0.5170 0.5170 0.6120 0.6120

1.0 1.0000 1.0000 0.6268 0.6268 0.7303 0.7303

V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470 5463

for 128 elements. As such, all values presented have been obtained

with 128 elements along the length of the HX.

The present model was at the outset compared with a standard

two-ﬂuid single pass parallel, co-current and counter-current

model with no thermal interaction with the ambient. The results

obtained for effectiveness were compared with those obtained

from the standard 2 – NTU formulae provided in Eqs. (25) and

(26). Concurrent results were obtained with no deviations. For

two-ﬂuid parallel co-current ﬂow

¼

1 À e

ÀNTUð1ÀR

min

Þ

1 þ R

min

ð25Þ

For two-ﬂuid parallel counter-current ﬂow

¼

1 À e

ÀNTUð1ÀR

min

Þ

1 À R

min

Â e

ÀNTUð1ÀR

min

Þ

ð26Þ

Aulds and Barron [8] have presented predictions for a three ﬂuid HX

model involving three thermal communications. The ﬂow arrange-

ment they have chosen is the same as Case (2) presented in this

paper. They have assumed that the HX is completely insulated with

no thermal interaction with the ambient. The model presented in

this paper was compared with that presented by Aulds and Barron

[8], by neglecting the effect of the ambient, and closely matching re-

sults were obtained. Sekulic and Shah [1] have predicted the non-

dimensional outlet temperatures for various NTU values for the

ﬂow arrangement of Case (1), with no thermal interaction with

the ambient. The results obtained from the model presented in this

paper, have compared perfectly with those presented by Sekulic

and Shah [1] and have been shown in Table 3. Shrivastava and

Ameel [12,13] have presented results for a three-ﬂuid, single pass,

parallel ﬂow HX model with three thermal communications which

considers all possible thermal interactions and ﬂow arrangements.

They have presented results for the ﬂow arrangement of Case (2)

showing the effect of various non-dimensional design parameters

such as R

1

, R

2

, H

1

, H

2

, NTU and h

i,in

on the non-dimensional temper-

ature distributions of the three streams and the different effective-

nesses. They have also assumed that the HX is completely insulated

with no thermal interaction with the ambient. The present model

has been compared with that of Shrivastava and Ameel [12,13] by

neglecting the effect of the ambient. The comparisons have been

shown for non-dimensional temperature distribution of the hot

ﬂuid in Fig. 3 and they match perfectly. Gupta and Atrey [14] have

presented results for a two-ﬂuid counter-ﬂow, coiled, tube-in-tube

HX, considering the effect of heat in leak from the ambient and lon-

gitudinal heat conduction through the wall separating the two ﬂu-

ids, separately and together. Their results have been presented in

terms of the degradation factor, deﬁned earlier. One of their results

includes only ambient heat-in-leak while neglecting the effect of

longitudinal heat conduction through the wall. Degradation values,

obtained from the present model, have been compared with their

results, to account for ambient heat-in-leak, for two different values

of ambient temperature and presented in Fig. 4. The comparisons

show that for h

amb

= 4.67, a maximum deviation of 0.04% is

observed at a C

c

/C

h

value of 2.0, where s

h

= 0.32% from their meth-

odology while s

h

= 0.36% from our methodology. For h

amb

= 1.0, a

maximum deviation of 0.01% is observed at a C

c

/C

h

value of 1.6,

where s

h

= 0.09% from their methodology while s

h

= 0.10% from

our methodology. From the comparisons shown and the close

match of the present results with those published earlier, the pres-

ent methodology has been validated.

7.2. Effect of ambient heat in leak

The effect of ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid is to increase

the temperature of the cold ﬂuid. The ambient heat in leak is ac-

counted for by the parameter H

3

which is given by:

H

3

¼

U

4

P

4

U

1

P

1

¼

1

U

1

P

1

_ _

1

U

4

P

4

_ _

¼

Heat Transfer Resistance between hot and cold fluids

Heat Transfer Resistance between cold fluid and the ambient

ð27Þ

The values of H

3

taken in this paper are in the range 0–0.1. These

values are taken to show the effect of heat in leak. The actual values

of H

3

have to be deduced accurately through repeated and rigorous

experimentation under various operating conditions. Increased val-

ues of H

3

reﬂect a decreased value of heat transfer resistance be-

tween the cold ﬂuid and ambient and/or increased value of heat

transfer resistance between the hot and the cold ﬂuids. Thus an in-

crease in the value of H

3

results in greater ambient heat in leak and/

or decreased heat transfer between the hot and the cold ﬂuids. The

combined effect would be to increase the temperature of the hot

ﬂuid throughout the HX.

Table 3

Comparison of non-dimensional outlet temperatures between present values (Analytical & FEM values) and Sekulic and Shah’s values [1] for a three ﬂuid HX (Case 1) with no

ambient heat in leak. Values of other non dimensional parameters: H

1

= 0, H

2

= 0.3, H

3

= 0, C

c

/C

h

= 2, C

i

/C

h

= 0.8 and h

i,in

= 0.5.

NTU h

h,out

h

i,out

h

c,out

Sekulic & Shah’s values [1] Present Values Sekulic & Shah’s values [1] Present Values Sekulic & Shah’s values [1] Present Values

0 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0

1 0.377 0.377 0.501 0.501 0.311 0.311

2 0.365 0.365 0.43 0.43 0.346 0.346

3 0.367 0.367 0.396 0.396 0.358 0.358

4 0.368 0.368 0.381 0.381 0.364 0.364

5 0.368 0.368 0.374 0.374 0.366 0.366

Fig. 4. Effect of C

c

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a two ﬂuid HX with heat

in leak. Comparison of Present values (Analytical & FEM values) with Gupta and

Atrey’s values [14]. Values of other non dimensional parameters: H

1

= 0, H

2

= 0,

H

3

= 0.001, R

1

= 0, R

2

= 1, NTU = 5, h

h,in

= 1, h

c,in

= 0, h

i,in

= 0.

5464 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

The effect of H

1

and ambient heat in leak is shown in Figs. 5a–c.

An increase in the value of H

1

leads to decrease in the heat transfer

resistance between the intermediate and cold ﬂuids and/or increase

in the heat transfer resistance between the hot and cold ﬂuids. Due

to this an increase in H

1

results in increased heat transfer between

the intermediate and cold ﬂuids and/or decreased heat transfer

between the hot and the cold ﬂuids. It is observed from Fig. 5a that

the hot ﬂuid shows a marginal increase in the temperature differ-

ence between the inlet and exit with increasing values of H

1

. The

effect of ambient heat in leak is to again increase the hot ﬂuid tem-

perature throughout the HX in each case. The effect of H

1

and H

3

on

hot ﬂuid effectiveness is shown if Fig. 5b. An increase in H

1

leads to

lower values of hot ﬂuid exit temperature leading to an increase in

effectiveness – both temperature and thermal effectiveness. An in-

crease in ambient heat in leak (increase in the value of H

3

) leads to

increased hot ﬂuid temperatures leading to a decrease in the hot

ﬂuid effectiveness. The effect of H

1

and H

3

on degradation factor is

shown in Fig. 5c. At any value of H

3

, it is observed that there is a mar-

ginal increase in the degradation values with increasing values of H

1

.

Degradation values are almost constant for H

1

values beyond 3.

The effect of H

2

and ambient heat in leak is shown in Figs. 6a–c.

The effect of increase in H

2

may be explained on the same lines as

H

1

and an increase in H

2

results in increased heat transfer between

the hot and the intermediate ﬂuids and/or decreased heat transfer

between the hot and the cold ﬂuids. It is observed from Fig. 6a that

the hot ﬂuid will show an increasing temperature difference be-

tween the inlet and the exit with increasing values of H

2

. In each

case however the effect of heat in leak is to enhance the hot ﬂuid

temperatures throughout the HX as indicated. An increase in the

value of H

2

leads to increased values of hot ﬂuid effectiveness as

shown in Fig. 6b. This is due to increased heat transfer between

the hot and the intermediate ﬂuids. However an increase in the

value of H

3

leads to greater ambient heat in leak which results in

greater temperatures of the hot ﬂuid leading to a decrease in the

hot ﬂuid effectiveness – both temperature effectiveness and ther-

mal effectiveness as indicated. A decrease in effectiveness leads

to an increase in the value of degradation as observed in Fig. 6c.

It is observed that with increasing values of H

2

the degradation

tends to decrease for each value of H

3

and later becomes almost

a constant for H

2

values greater than 5.

Fig. 5a. Effect of H

1

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1, H

2

= 2,

R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 5b. Effect of H

1

on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with ambient

heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2,

R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 5c. Effect of H

1

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1, H

2

= 2,

R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h

,

in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c

,

in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 6a. Effect of H

2

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470 5465

From its deﬁnition it is clear that a change in NTU will affect the

thermal resistance between the hot and cold ﬂuids, and/or the

thermal capacity of the cold ﬂuid. If the values of H

1

and H

2

are

ﬁxed, an increase in NTU will not result in any change in the ther-

mal resistance between the hot and the cold ﬂuids. This will only

result in a decrease in the thermal capacity of the cold ﬂuid. If

the speciﬁc heat is assumed constant then this results in a decrease

in the mass ﬂow rate of the cold ﬂuid. Since R

1

and R

2

are also con-

stant, this results in the decrease in the ﬂow rates of the hot and

the intermediate ﬂuids as well. The effect of all this is steeper ther-

mal gradients for all three ﬂuids and increased differences between

the inlet and exit temperatures, with increasing values of NTU. The

effect of NTU and ambient heat in leak is shown in Figs. 7a–c. As

NTU is increased from 0.1 to 1, gradual changes in the temperature

distributions occur. As NTU is increased from 1–10, the decrease in

the mass ﬂow rates of all the three streams results in a sharp fall in

the hot ﬂuid temperature at the inlet and subsequent increase to-

wards the exit as seen in Fig. 7a. An increased difference between

the hot ﬂuid inlet and exit temperatures is also observed. For an

NTU value of 10 the ambient heat in leak is very pronounced and

this is evident by the manner in which the hot ﬂuid temperature

is enhanced across the length of the HX for the parameters chosen.

An increase in the value of NTU results in a decrease in the exit

temperature of the hot ﬂuid which leads to an increase in the effec-

tiveness – both temperature and thermal effectiveness as shown in

Fig. 7b. However, an increase in the value of H

3

leads to increased

hot ﬂuid temperatures throughout the length of the HX decreasing

effectiveness. With increasing values of NTU the size of the HX

would increase and more area is available for ambient heat in leak.

Further, an increase in the value of H

3

results in greater heat in leak

and hence higher values of degradation factor. Thus degradation

factor increases with NTU for each value of H

3

as shown in Fig. 7c.

When other parameters are ﬁxed, an increase in the value of

C

c

/C

h

leads to anincrease inthe thermal capacity of the coldﬂuidrel-

ative to that of the hot ﬂuid. If the speciﬁc heats of the two ﬂuids are

assumed to be constant, an increase in C

c

/C

h

would mean that the

mass ﬂow rate of the cold ﬂuid increases relative to that of the hot

ﬂuid. The effect of C

c

/C

h

and ambient heat in leak is shown in

Fig. 6b. Effect of H

2

on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with ambient

heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1, H

1

= 1.5, R

1

= 2,

R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 6c. Effect of H

2

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 7a. Effect of NTU on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2,

R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 7b. Effect of NTU on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2,

R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

5466 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

Figs. 8a–c. An increase in C

c

/C

h

leads to an increase in the tempera-

ture difference between the inlet and exit for the hot ﬂuid as indi-

cated by Fig. 8a. At high values of C

c

/C

h

, as observed by Shrivastava

and Ameel [13] and veriﬁed by our methodology as well, the cold

ﬂuid temperature is close to zero across the heat exchanger length.

This results in high temperature gradients for the hot ﬂuid at the

ends of the HX. It may also be observed that for C

c

/C

h

= 10, the hot

ﬂuid temperature proﬁle almost reduces to zero in the mid-section

of the HX indicating high levels of heat transfer for the hot ﬂuid.

An increase in the value of C

c

/C

h

results in a decrease in the hot ﬂuid

exit temperature leading to increased values of temperature effec-

tiveness of the hot ﬂuid. The effect of C

c

/C

h

and H

3

on hot ﬂuid effec-

tiveness is showninFig. 8b. Whenthevalues of C

c

/C

h

arelower than1

the thermal effectiveness of the hot ﬂuid is directly proportional to

(1Àh

h,out

) and inversely proportional to C

c

/C

h

[13]. For low values

of C

c

/C

h

, (1Àh

h,out

) grows faster than C

c

/C

h

and hence thermal effec-

tiveness increases initially and decreases subsequently. But from a

value of C

c

/C

h

= 1 onwards, higher values of C

c

/C

h

lead to lesser tem-

perature change inthe coldﬂuidandgreater changes inthe values of

hot ﬂuid temperature. Due to this hot ﬂuid exit temperature will

decrease leading to higher effectiveness. Ambient heat in leak de-

creases the effectiveness albeit marginally. The degradation factor

is highest for C

c

/C

h

= 1 and reduces with increasing values of C

c

/C

h

as shown if Fig. 8c. This is because the ambient heat in leak is maxi-

mum for the conditions chosen for a balanced ﬂow condition i.e.

C

c

= C

h

. Such trends have been reported earlier [14]. Higher values

of H

3

give rise to higher values of degradation due to increased heat

in leak.

The effect of heat-in-leak with varying values of C

i

/C

h

(R

1

À1

)

have been shown in Figs. 9a–c. The effect of a change in C

i

/C

h

may be explained on lines similar to that of C

c

/C

h

. An increase in

C

i

/C

h

would mean that the mass ﬂow rate of the intermediate ﬂuid

increases relative to that of the hot ﬂuid indicating greater heat

transfer from the hot ﬂuid and the temperature proﬁle undergoes

a marginal change as indicated in Fig. 9a. The temperature proﬁle

is almost linear for C

i

/C

h

= 0.1 and for higher values of C

i

/C

h

, the

proﬁles show slightly increasing temperature gradients at the hot

end with a subsequent increase in exit temperature at higher val-

ues of C

i

/C

h

. The effect of heat-in-leak is observed to be slightly

higher at lower values of C

i

/C

h

. The effect of C

i

/C

h

on effectiveness

Fig. 7c. Effect of NTU on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2,

R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h

,

in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 8a. Effect of C

c

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 8b. Effect of C

c

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 8c. Effect of C

c

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470 5467

follows on the same lines as C

c

/C

h

as shown in Fig. 9b with a shift in

the effectiveness at values close to C

i

/C

h

= 1, since C

i

starts playing a

dominant role. This results in a steep increase in hot ﬂuid effective-

ness. But an increase in the value of C

i

/C

h

beyond 1 does not have

any signiﬁcant effect on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness. Ambient heat in

leak decreases the effectiveness as indicated. The degradation fac-

tor reduces with increasing values of C

i

/C

h

, due to reduced heat-in-

leak, as shown in Fig. 9c. As seen the degradation factor becomes

almost constant for values of C

i

/C

h

values more than 5.

The effect of heat-in-leak with varying values of h

i,in

have been

showninFigs. 10a–c. Anincreaseinthevalueof h

i,in

leads tomoreheat

transfer to the cold ﬂuid and as such the temperature difference be-

tween inlet and exit for both the hot and cold ﬂuids will get reduced.

This manifests in the increasing exit temperatures for the hot ﬂuid

with increasing values of h

i,in

as shown in Fig. 10a. The ambient heat

in leak is marginal enhancement of temperature for all values of h

i,in

.

Increasing values of h

i,in

lead to decreasing values of hot ﬂuid

effectiveness. The effect of ambient heat-in-leak is to further decrease

the effectiveness as shown inFig. 10b. The decrease ineffectiveness is

around 2% for all values of h

i,in

. This is crucial in heat exchangers

Fig. 9a. Effect of C

i

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

2

= 1.25, h

h,in

= 1, h

i,,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 9b. Effect of C

i

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, Values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 9c. Effect of C

i

/C

h

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

i,in

= 0.5, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 10a. Effect of h

i,in

on the hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

Fig. 10b. Effect of h

i,in

on the hot ﬂuid effectiveness for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

5468 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

operating in the cryogenic temperature ranges. A decrease in effec-

tiveness leads to a higher value of degradation factor. Thus, with

increasing values of h

i,in

degradation factor gets enhanced as shown

in Fig. 10c. The effect of greater ambient heat in leak is to further in-

crease the degradation factor as observed. For a H

3

value of 0.1, the

degradation factor increases by almost 1% as h

i,in

is increased from

0–1.

8. Conclusions

The effect of ambient heat in leak to the cold ﬂuid in a three-

ﬂuid HX, for a cryogenic application, involving heat interaction be-

tween all three ﬂuids, has been investigated using the analytical

method and FEM. Cooling of the hot ﬂuid has been identiﬁed as

the objective of the three ﬂuid HX. Seven non-dimensional param-

eters – NTU, H

1

, H

2

, H

3

, R

1

, R

2

and h

i,in

– have been used to present

the results on three counts (i) hot ﬂuid temperature proﬁle (ii) hot

ﬂuid effectiveness – both temperature and thermal effectiveness

(iii) degradation factor. The effect of ambient heat in leak to the

cold ﬂuid is to increase the hot ﬂuid temperature in all cases. While

degradation factor increases with increase in the value of H

1

, there

is a reduction in the degradation factor with increasing values of H

2

and NTU. In general, degradation factor increases for all cases, with

increase in H

3

due to greater heat in leak. The effect of the ratio of

speciﬁc heat capacities C

c

/C

h

on the performance indicates that

maximum degradation factor is for the balanced ﬂow condition

C

c

= C

h

, i.e., C

c

/C

h

= 1. There is a pronounced effect of ambient heat

in leak at NTU values of 10 and above. This clearly indicates that

larger the HX, more pronouned is the effect of ambient heat in leak.

For the conditions chosen, the ambient heat in leak is maximumfor

low values of C

i

and goes on decreasing with increasing values of C

i

.

An increase in the value of h

i,in

leads to greater exit temperatures of

the hot ﬂuid, consequent drop in effectiveness and greater values

of degradation factor. In most cryogenic applications, heat in leak

from the ambient is a signiﬁcant factor for the degradation in the

performance of heat exchangers. The present analysis has taken

this factor into account. The validation of the ﬁnite element meth-

odology, by comparison with the analytical solution presented, and

also with the previously published results, establishes the versatil-

ity of this methodology, which can account for most real time sit-

uations with relative ease and arrive at accurate results. The results

presented give valuable inputs towards better understanding of

the behaviour of the hot ﬂuid in this class of heat exchangers.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Prof. D. Jawahar, C.E.O., P.E.S. Institu-

tions, Dr. K.N.B. Murthy, Principal and Director, P.E.S. Institute of

Technology, Bangalore, the Head and the faculty of the Department

of Mechanical Engineering, P.E.S.I.T., Bangalore, for the support ex-

tended for this work. The ﬁrst author wishes to thank the Manage-

ment and the Principal, P.E.S. Institute of Technology, Bangalore,

for providing study leave, which was utilized for this study, leading

to this publication. The authors also wish to thank Miss Spoorthi S.

and Prof. Babu Reddy, Department of Mechanical Engineering and

Prof. N. Narahari, Department of Science and Humanities, P.E.S.

Institute of Technology, for their assistance.

Appendix A

A.1. Details of the matrices in Eq. (18) for the Galerkin’s Method, for

the ﬂow arrangement Case (2) are as follows

References

[1] D.P. Sekulic, R.K. Shah, Thermal design theory of three-ﬂuid heat exchangers,

Adv. Heat Transfer 26 (1995) 219–329.

[2] J. Wolf, General solution of the equations of parallel-ﬂow multichannel heat

exchangers, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 7 (1964) 901–919.

Fig. 10c. Effect of h

i,in

on the hot ﬂuid degradation factor for a three ﬂuid HX with

ambient heat in leak, values of other non-dimensional parameters: NTU = 1,

H

1

= 1.5, H

2

= 2, R

1

= 2, R

2

= 1.25. h

h,in

= 1, h

c,in

= 0, h

1

= 1.

½K ¼

À

1

2

À

NTU

6ÃR

2

À

NTUÃH

2

6ÃR

2

_ _

NTUÃH

2

6ÃR

2

_ _

NTU

6ÃR

2

_ _

1

2

À

NTU

3ÃR

2

À

NTUÃH

2

3ÃR

2

_ _

NTUÃH

2

3ÃR

2

_ _

NTU

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

1

2

þ

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

þ

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

1

2

þ

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

þ

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTU

6

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

6

_ _

À

1

2

þ

NTU

6

þ

NTUÃH

1

6

þ

NTUÃH

3

6

_ _

À

NTU

3

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

3

_ _

1

2

þ

NTU

3

þ

NTUÃH

1

3

þ

NTUÃH

3

3

_ _

À

1

2

À

NTU

3ÃR

2

À

NTUÃH

2

3ÃR

2

_ _

NTUÃH

2

3ÃR

2

_ _

NTU

3ÃR

2

_ _

1

2

À

NTU

6ÃR

2

À

NTUÃH

2

6ÃR

2

_ _

NTUÃH

2

6ÃR

2

_ _

NTU

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

1

2

þ

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

þ

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

3ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

1

2

þ

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

þ

NTUÃH

2

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

ÃR

1

6ÃR

2

_ _

À

NTU

3

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

3

_ _

À

1

2

þ

NTU

3

þ

NTUÃH

1

3

þ

NTUÃH

3

3

_ _

À

NTU

6

_ _

À

NTUÃH

1

6

_ _

1

2

þ

NTU

6

þ

NTUÃH

1

6

þ

NTUÃH

3

6

_ _

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

fhg ¼

h

h;out

h

i;in

h

c;in

h

h;in

h

i;out

h

c;out

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

ff g ¼

0

0

NTU Â H

3

Â h

1

h

i;in

h

c;in

h

h;in

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470 5469

[3] X. Luo, M. Li, W. Roetzel, A general solution for one-dimensional multi-stream

heat exchangers and their networks, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 2695–

2705.

[4] W. Okolo-Kulak, Trojczynnikowewymiennikiciepla (Three agent heat

exchangers), in polish, Zesz. Nauk. Politech. Slask.: Mech. 1 (1954) pp. 7–78.

[5] V.V.G. Krishnamurty, C.V. Rao, Heat transfer in three-ﬂuid heat exchangers,

Indian J. Technol. 2 (1964) 325–327.

[6] V.V.G. Krishnamurty, Heat transfer in multi-ﬂuid heat exchangers, Indian J.

Technol. 4 (1966) 167–169.

[7] H.V. Rao, Three channel heat exchanger, Indian J. Cryog. 2 (4) (1977) 278–281.

[8] D.D. Aulds, R.F. Barron, Three-ﬂuid heat exchanger effectiveness, Int. J. Heat

Mass Transfer 10 (1967) 1457–1462.

[9] T.A. Ameel, L. Hewavitharana, Counter-current heat exchangers with both

ﬂuids subjected to external heating, Heat Transfer Eng. 20 (3) (1999) 37–44.

[10] T.A. Ameel, Parallel-ﬂow heat exchangers with ambient thermal interaction,

Heat Transfer Eng. 21 (2000) 1–8.

[11] R.F. Barron, Effect of heat transfer from ambient on cryogenic heat transfer

performance, Adv. Cryog. Eng. 29 (1984) 265–272.

[12] D. Shrivastava, T.A. Ameel, Three-ﬂuid heat exchangers with three thermal

communications Part A: General mathematical model, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer 47 (2004) 3855–3865.

[13] D. Shrivastava, T.A. Ameel, Three-ﬂuid heat exchangers with three thermal

communications Part B: Effectiveness evaluation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 47

(2004) 3867–3875.

[14] Prabhat. Gupta, M.D. Atrey, Performance evaluation of counter ﬂow heat

exchangers considering the effect of heat in leak and longitudinal conduction

for low temperature applications, Cryogenics 40 (2000) 469–474.

[15] N.H. Saeid, K.N. Seetharamu, Finite element analysis for co-current and

counter-current parallel ﬂow three-ﬂuid heat exchanger, Int. J. Numer.

Methods Heat Fluid Flow 16 (3) (2006) 324–337.

[16] V.Krishna, Pradeep G. Hegde, K.N.Seetharamu, T.R.Seetharam, Performance

evaluation of heat leak to the evaporator and the effect of longitudinal heat

conduction for a counter-ﬂow cryogenic heat exchanger using ﬁnite element

method, paper presented in: THERMACOMP 2011, 2nd International

Conference on Computational Methods for Thermal Problems, Dalian, China.

[17] ‘Fundamentals of Finite Element Method for Heat and Fluid Flow’ Roland W.

Lewis, PerumalNithiarasu, Kankanhalli N. Seetharamu, John Wiley and Sons,

2004.

[18] D.D. Aulds, An analytical method for the design of a three-channel heat

exchanger for cryogenic applications, MS thesis, Louisiana Polytechnic

Institute, Ruston, La, 1966.

5470 V. Krishna et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 5459–5470

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