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and out-out-step conditions illustrated by considering the following system:

(a) Schematic diagram

(b) Equivalent circuit

Fig. 13.36 Two machine system

The current I is given by

The voltage at bus C is

T

B A

Z

E E

I

0 ~

=

I Z E E

A A C

~ ~ ~

=

The apparent impedance seen by an

impedance relay at C looking towards the

line is given by

0 E E

E

Z Z

I

~

I

~

Z E

~

I

~

E

~

Z

B A

A

T A

A A C

C

+ ++ + = == =

= == = = == =

+ ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + = == =

1 0 1

1 0 1

Z

Z Z

T

A C

If E

A

=E

B

=1.0 pu

( (( ( ) )) )( (( ( ) )) )

| || |

| || |

\ \\ \

| || |

| || |

| || |

\ \\ \

| || |

= == =

( (( (

( (( (

| || |

| || |

\ \\ \

| || | + ++ +

+ ++ + = == =

+ ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + = == =

+ ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + = == =

2

cot

2

Z

j Z

2

Z

sin 2

cos 1

j

2

1

Z Z

sin j 2

sin j cos 1

Z Z

1 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 1

Z Z

T

A

T

T A

T A

T A

During a swing, the angle changes.

Fig. 13.37 shows the locus of Z

C

as a

function of on an R-X diagram, when

E

A

=E

B

Fig. 13.37 Locus of Z

C

as a function of , with E

A

=E

B

When E

A

and E

B

are equal, the locus of Z

C

is seen to be a straight line which is the

perpendicular bisector of the total system impedance between A and B, i.e., of the

impedance Z

T

the angle formed by lines from A and B to

any point on the locus is equal to the

corresponding angle

When =0, the current I is zero and Z

C

is infinite

When =180, the voltage at the electrical centre is zero When =180, the voltage at the electrical centre is zero

the relay at C in effect will see a 3-phase

fault at the electrical centre. The electrical

centre and impedance centre coincide in

this case.

If E

A

is not equal to E

B

, the apparent impedance loci are circles, with their centres on

extensions of the impedance line A

B

When E

A

>E

B

, the electrical centre will be above the impedance centre; when E

A

<E

B

,

the electrical centre will be below the impedance centre. Fig. 13.38 illustrates the

shape of the apparent impedance loci for three different values of the ratio E

A

/ E

B

.

Fig. 13.38 Loci of Z

C

with different values of E

A

/E

B

For generators connected to the main system through a weak transmission system

(high external impedance), the electrical centre may appear on the transmission line

When a generator is connected to the main system through a strong transmission

system, the electrical centre will be in the step up transformer or possibly within the

generator itself

Electrical centres in effect are not fixed points: effective machine reactance and the

magnitudes of internal voltages vary during dynamic conditions.

Voltage at the electrical centre drops to zero as increases to 180and then

increases in magnitude as increases further until it reaches 360

when reaches 180, the generator will when reaches 180, the generator will

have slipped a pole; when reaches the

initial value where the swing started, one

slip cycle will have been completed.

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