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144-149

144

KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR IRON
ORE PELLET USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE
Manoj Mathew
1
, L P Koushik
2
,

Department Mechanical Engineering
Christian College of Engineering and Technology
Kailash Nagar P.O. Industrial Estate, Bhilai Distt. Durg, (CG) India
manoj-mathew@live.com
1
, lilesh_45575@yahoo.co.in
2

ABSTRACT
Cold Compression Strength (CCS) of iron ore pellets plays a vital role for the production of DRI from shaft
furnace. During the pellet production CCS is one of the important control parameters and it is supposed to be
closely monitored, to control the process. A knowledge driven intelligent decision support system was
developed to predict the cold compressive strength of the iron ore pallet. Non traditional Artificial
intelligence (AI) techniques like artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic were used for the
prediction. Different models were compared for their quality and for the simplicity of application.
In this paper the ANN and Rule based Fuzzy model was created in the MATLAB®toolbox. To obtain the
model having lowest Mean Absolute Percentage error (MAPE), different learning algorithms, training
function and architectures in combinations were tested. It was found that MAPE of 1.34% was found in the
ANN model with architecture 3x10x1, the training function, transfer function used in hidden and output layer
are TRAINLM, TANSIG, PURELIN respectively. The rule based fuzzy model was created in MATLAB®
toolbox, and it was found that the MAPE of fuzzy model is 0.576%. The simulated value is found close to
the actual value. Thus the model acts as a guide (DSS) for the operator and thereby helps to attain the desired
objective in iron ore pellet process.
Keywords: Artificial Neural network; pelletization; rule based fuzzy model; Decision Support System
1 INTRODUCTION
Decision-making process is an intelligent activities performed by human beings. The termintelligence in
Decision Support System (DSS) itself is the ability of DSS to use refined information, knowledge, and
inference in order to achieve the desired objectives. Simulation of a system, modelling and prediction of the
output can be done with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) in which neural network and fuzzy logic has
an important place. Thus artificial intelligence can be implemented to make a knowledge driven intelligent
decision support systemused for the prediction of cold compressive strength of iron ore pellet. Pelletizing is
a process used for agglomeration of the raw iron-ore fines, which consist of two steps: balling of powdered
fine using rotating disk/drumand induration (thermal hardening) of green pellet on a moving straight grate
[1].Input parameters like percentage bentonite by weight, Blaine number and green pellet moisture content
directly affect the CCS of iron ore pellet. Attempts have been made by the researchers to make models to
predict the quality of iron ore pellet. Srinivas Dwarapudi [2] has presented the artificial neural network
model for predicting the Strength of iron ore pellet in straight grate indurating machine from12 input
variables. The model was compared with the regression model and it was found that feed Forward back
propagation error correction technique predicted the CCS of iron ore with a result less than 3% error. J un-
xiao Feng [3] has made a mathematical model of drying and preheating processes and also studied the effects
of pellet diameter, moisture, grate velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the pellet bed temperature. S.K.
Sadrnezhaad [4] has made a mathematical model for the induration processsof the iron-ore pelletst based on
the laws of heat, mass and momentum transfer. In the present work computerised AI models have been
created so as to predict the CCS of pellet.
2 DESIGN METHODOLOGIES
The selection of process parameters that affect the cold compressive strength is an important step in carrying
out the analysis. A survey was conducted in the iron ore plant and based on the heuristic knowledge provided
by the plant expert, a total of 3 input process parameters were taken. Quality control data fromplant were
used in the modelling studies. The data were randomly separated into two parts of which the first one
contained 83 data’s for training and the second part had 25 data’s used for testing the models created using
artificial intelligence. Table 1. Show the Quality Variables chosen for the analysis of iron ore Pellet. The
standard deviation measures how spread out a data set is. The mean of a data set ẋ with n values is calculated
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with equation 1. The Standard deviation of x describes the mean distance from the points in the data set to ẋ
which is given by equation 2, where s is the standard deviation.

ẋ =
∑ x
i
n
i=0
n
(1)
s =
_
∑ (x
i
-ẋ)
2
n
i=0
n-1
(2)

Table 1: Quality Variables of iron ore Pellet.
Variable Bentonite,%
Blaine Number
(cm2/gram)
Green Pallet
Moisture, %
CCS
Mean 0.79 2137.27 9.199 203.164
Median 0.8 2120 9.2 203.1
Mode 0.8 2040 9.3 202.8
Standard
Deviation
0.0922 192.985 0.224 2.108

CCS was found to be more sensitive to variation in Bentonite, Blaine Number and Green pellet moisture,
thus these attributes were used as input variable to control the CCS. Srinivas Dwarapudi [5] has also written
paper regarding the influence of Pellet Size on Quality of Iron Ore Pellets. He came to the conclusion that to
improve the pellets quality, pelletising plants should tune their balling and screening circuits. S.P.E.
Forsmo[6] showed the behaviour of wet iron ore pellet with variation in bentonite binder.
2.1 NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND LEARNING MECHANISM
Artificial neural network have interested researches from quite a long time. The various researches done
within the field of computer added manufacturing, describing the use of artificial neural networks has evolved
for a diverse range of engineering applications [7-11]. McCulloch and Pitts created a simplified neuron model
in 1943 [12]. An ANN consists of a group of processing unit which communicate with each other by number
of weighted connection.
Working in neural network data manager-
Step1: Data transfer to command window- The data is transferred from excel to the command window and
there the data is made in matrix type. All the data are automatically stored in the Workspace
Input data: the input data have 3 parameters (bentonite, green pellet moisture, Blaine number) and 83 sets of
data are taken, so it is stored as a matrix of size (3 x 83). Target data: Similarly the target data have single
parameters i.e. CCS of iron ore pellet and 83 sets of data are taken, so it gets stored as a matrix of (1 x 83).
Step2: Opening data manager -The Data Manager appears with nntool as the command.
Step3: Import of data- The import is made feasible using the appropriate command button on the data manager
Step4: Creating new network- After import of data the most important step is designing a network by selecting
appropriate number of layers and appropriate number of neurons in each layer with the best suited processing
mathematical transfer function interlinking each layer. Neural networks are generally composed of three
layers i.e. input layer, hidden layer, and output layer. In each layer there are number of neurons which are
interconnected to each other such that each node in one layer have connections to the next layer.
Step5: Initialization- Initialization is done to make fresh selection of randomnumbers as weights and biases.
Step6: Train the network- Once the network is created and initialization is done the network is now ready for
training. For the training various combination of input and output neurons are taken (see Table 2) and as a part
of training information inputs and targets are selected, optional information is also given like number of
epochs, goal for MSE, maximum failures and minimumgradient etc, an example of MSE performance graph
obtained during the training is shown in Fig. 1. The mean square error obtained during the training was
1.7989.
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Fig. 1 MSE Performance graph
A generalized feed forward network with back propagation error correction technique has been adopted to
train the network. Training function such as Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm), Conjugate gradient (traincgf)
and Quasi-Newton (trainoss) were used. There were in total 40 network model with different learning
algorithms, training function and architectures in combination made so as to obtain the best MSE
performance graph. Table 2 shows some of the trial network taken for the training. The training function
used for creating the network was TRAINLM.

Table 2. Some trials network taken for the training using TRAINLM Training Function

Network
Hidden Layer


MSE
Layer1 layer2 Output Layer
Neurons Transfer
function
Neurons Transfer
function
Network1 10 LOGSIG PURELIN 2.1008
Network2 15 LOGSIG PURELIN 6.1464
Network3 10 TANSIG PURELIN 1.7989
Network4 15 TANSIG PURELIN 4.7683
Network5 10 TANSIG 10 LOGSIG PURELIN 6.8743
Network6 10 TANSIG 5 LOGSIG PURELIN 5.4873
Network7 10 TANSIG 3 LOGSIG PURELIN 4.0064
Network8 5 TANSIG 3 LOGSIG PURELIN 2.3839
Network9 10 TANSIG TANSIG 2.1142
Network10 15 TANSIG TANSIG 4.1616

2.2 FUZZY LOGIC ARCHITECTURE
The fuzzy logic model was created in MATLAB using the five basic GUI tool i.e. FIS Editor, Rule Editor,
Membership function editor, surface viewer, rule viewer. Fig. 2 shows the fuzzy interference systemof the
iron ore pellet in which bentonite, Blaine Number and Green pellet Moisture are input and CCS is in output.
The fuzzy output engine is governed by the Fuzzy rule base.
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Fig. 2 Fuzzy Model of iron ore pellet
Working in mamdani type fuzzy inference system(FIS) Editor
Step 1: Opening FIS Editor- The FIS Editor appears with fuzzy as the command. The required number of
input and output variables is added in the FIS editor. Fig. 3 shows the FIS Editor in MATLAB®
Step 2: Fuzzification- The input and output variables are fuzzified using the membership function editor. The
membership function editor can be opened by double clicking on the input variable icon. The output is fuzzy
degree of membership which is always in the interval between 0 and 1. The membership function can be
added and the type can also be selected.
Step 3: Creating Rules- The rules are created in the rule editor by interconnecting the inputs and output by If-
Then rule.Rules created in the rule editor defines the behaviour of the model. The rule editor can be opened
by clicking on the rule base fromthe view menu.
Step 4: Defuzzification- The fuzzy output is converted to crisp data using various defuzzification methods.
The surface and rules can be viewed in the surface viewer and rule viewer.


Fig. 3 FIS Editor

Both input and output variable of the iron ore pellet plant were fuzzified, and fuzzy membership functions
were employed. In the Mamdani fuzzy editor, total 18 rules with IF-Then format were created in the rule
editor. Various defuzzification methods like centre of gravity (COG), Bisector, MOM, SOM, LOM etc were
employed. The mean average percentage error in the fuzzy model was 0.576%.
The 25 data’s for testing purpose was used for comparison between the two models created in the
MATLAB®. Both ANN and fuzzy model can be compared using Mean Absolute percentage error which is
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given by the equation 3
Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) =[
1
n

|ActuaI CCS-PrcdIctcd CCS|
ActuaI CCS
¸ ∗ 100 (3)
Where n =number of observation
Graph.1 Actual vs. predicted CCS from ANN and fuzzy logic


3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The developed neural network model and rule based fuzzy model aims to predict the cold compressive
strength of the iron ore pellet by selecting the right amount of bentonide , Blaine number, and green pellet
moisture. It can be used as an effectual tool with large range of industrial data’s available for training of
network. A Mean Absolute percentage error of 1.34% was obtained in the neural network with architecture
3x10x1, training function used was TRAINLM. The fuzzy model created to have a mean absolute percentage
error of 0.576% with centroid as defuzification method trimf as membership function. Thus it can be
concluded that fuzzy model created was more appropriate and can be more useful tool in decision support
systemfor decision maker Graph 1 depicts the actual and predicted value of CCS obtained fromthe artificial
neural network and fuzzy logic.

Graph 2.a) Residual for ANN model b) Residual for Fuzzy model







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The residual was calulated for both ANN and fuzzy model and and it was found that fuzzy model gave more
close result to the actual value. Graph.2 a,b shows the residual for both the model. There is always scope of
further reduction of Error and further reduction from this level would be a commendable achievement by the
future researchers. Depending upon the number of data and the architecture used for training the network can
be fine tuned to obtain more accurate results.
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2009, pp1141–1152.
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