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ANALYSIS AND ECONOMICAL DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION

LINE TOWERS OF DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS

A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
For the Award of the Degree of

Master of Engineering
In
Civil Engineering (Structure)
By

AMAN GUPTA
(Roll. No.: 3506)
Under the Guidance of
Dr. (Mrs.) P.R. Bose,
Professor & Head of Department,

Shri G.P. Awadhiya,
Assistant Professor,

Civil Engineering Department,
Delhi College of Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering
DELHI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
University of Delhi, Delhi
2003 - 2005

0

CERTIFICATE

This is to declare that the Major Project on the topic “Analysis and
Economical Design of Transmission Line Towers of Different Configurations”
is a bonafied research work done by Aman Gupta in partial fulfillment for the
requirement of the degree of Master of Structural Engineering (Civil Engineering)
from the Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi.
This project has been carried out under the supervision of
Dr. (Mrs.) P.R. Bose and Shri G.P. Awadhiya.
I do hereby state that I have not submitted the matter embodied in this
direction for the award of any other degree.

Name: Aman Gupta
Roll. No.: 07 / Str. / 03
Uni. Roll. No.: 3506

CERTIFICATE:
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to
the best of my knowledge.

Dr. (Mrs.) P.R. Bose
Professor & Head of Department,
Civil Engineering Department,
Delhi College of Engineering,
Delhi- 110042.

Shri G.P. Awadhiya,
Assistant Professor,
Civil Engineering Department,
Delhi College of Engineering,
Delhi- 110042.
1

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It is matter of great pleasure to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to
Dr. (Mrs.) P.R. Bose (Professor & H.O.D.) and Shri G.P. Awadhiya (Assistant Professor),
Department of Civil Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering, Delhi for their invaluable
guidance and generous assistance. Their help, coordination and patience with which they
attended my problems and solved them have lead to the completion of the project.

I sincerely express my gratefulness to Mr. M. Krishna Kumar (AGM, Engg.-T.L.)
and Mr. Nitesh Kumar Sinha. I also thanks Mr. G.K. Sharma,
Mr. Patel and Mr. Brijesh and to all the other staff members of The Power Grid
Corporation of India Limited, Gurgaon without whom completion of this project would
have remained just a dream.

I pay my respect to Miss Saloni Priyadarshni (Sr. Dn. Engg., S.D. Engineering
Consultants, Delhi) for her extended help in STAAD and AUTO CADD during the
execution of the project.
I am also thankful for the corporation extended by the faculty members of the Civil
Engineering Department and to all the other staff members of our college.
In the end, I would like to thank all my friends for their cooperation.

(Aman Gupta)

2

ABSTRACT

Transmission Line Towers constitute about 28 to 42 percent of the cost of the
Transmission Line. The increasing demand for Electrical Energy can be met more
economically by developing different light weight configurations of Transmission Line
Towers.

In this thesis, an attempt has been made to make the transmission line more cost
effective by changing the geometry (shape) and behavior (type) of transmission line
structure. This objective of the research is met by choosing a 220 KV Single Circuit
Transmission Line carrying Square Base Self Supporting Towers. With a view to optimize
the existing geometry, one of these suspension towers is replaced by Triangular Base Self
Supporting Tower. Then, the structural behavior of existing tower is looked upon by
developing Square Base Guyed Mast.
Thus, a number of easy to understand excel programs are developed along with
AutoCAD for configuring Towers and calculating Loading. Using STAAD, Analysis of each
of these three towers has been carried out as a three dimensional structure. Then, the
tower members are Design as an Angle Sections.
For optimizing any member section, the entire wind load computations have to be
repeated, simultaneously the analysis and again the design. Thus, three successive
iterations have been carried out before arriving at the economical designs of square base
and triangular base self supporting towers and the square shape guyed mast. Then all
these three towers are compared and analyzed.

3

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1.

TITLE

PAGE No.

INTRODUCTION

1-8

1.1

Brief of Present Status

1-2

1.2

Objectives

2-8

1.3

Organization of chapter

8

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

9-10

3.

TRANSMISSION LINE

11-18

3.1

Selection of Transmission Line and Its Components

11

3.2

Sag Tension Calculation

12

3.3

Configuration of Tower

14

3.4

Loading Calculations

15-18

4.

TOWERS

19-21

4.1

Wind Loading

19

4.2

Analysis of Tower

20

4.3

Design of Tower

21

5.

NUMERICAL STUDY

22-44

5.1

Exercise -1

22-35

5.2

Exercise -2

36-42

5.3

Discussion of the Results

43-44

6. CONCLUSION

45-46

7. SCOPE OF FUTURE STUDY

47

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

48-55

Appendix A– Excel Programs

56-75

Appendix B- STAAD Pro Analysis

76-94

Appendix C- Design Results

95-102

4

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. No.

TITLE

PAGE No.

1

Transmission Line with Different Configurations of Towers

4

2

Isometric View of Square Base Tower

5

3

Isometric View of Triangular Base Tower

6

4

Isometric View of Square Base Guyed Mast

7

5

Peak Clearance

29

6

Mid Span Clearance

30

7

Electrical Clearance

31

8

Load Tree
ƒ

Reliability

ƒ

Security

ƒ

Safety

33 -35

9

Wind Face of Triangular Base Tower

67

10

Top View of Triangular Base Tower

76

11

Transverse View of Triangular Base Tower

95

5

1.0 INTRODUCTION 6 .

14] Transmission line is an integrated system consisting of conductor subsystem. hydro potential. sizes. ground wire subsystem and one subsystem for each category of support structure. pole and guyed. again adding to the transmission requirements. [Ref. thus. [Ref. coal. [Ref. types. [Ref. and member and joint details.. configurations and materials. 15] The selection of an optimum outline together with right type of bracing system contributes to a large extent in developing an economical design of transmission line tower.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1.1 BRIEF OF PRESENT STATUS: India has a large population residing all over the country and the electricity supply need of this population creates requirement of a large transmission and distribution system. the disposition of the primary resources for electrical power generation viz. They are designed and constructed in wide variety of shapes. is quite uneven. 12] The height of tower is fixed by the user and the structural designer has the task of designing the general configuration. Mechanical supports of transmission line represent a significant portion of the cost of the line and they play an important role in the reliable power transmission. The supporting structure types used in transmission lines generally fall into one of the three categories: lattice. The cost of towers constitutes about 28 to 42 percent of the cost of transmission line and hence optimum tower design will bring in substantial savings. 21] 7 . Also. [Ref. 36] The supports of EHV transmission lines are normally steel lattice towers.

Bundle conductor studies. Height of the Tower 8 . 7. a process that has worked well. 6. Power Grid Corporations of India Limited has prescribed the following steps to Optimized the Design of Power Transmission Lines: 1. 5. Insulator and insulator string design. below mentioned basic parameters are constrained on the basis for electrical requirements: 1. Base Width 2. because of the practical restrictions this has been achieved through intuition. Tower configuration analysis. Economic evaluation of line. 1. 8.The tower behaves like a single cantilever freely self supporting structure fixed at its base while guyed mast is a structure pin connected to its foundation and braced with guys or other elements. 9. But. Review of existing system and practices. 4. 36] As a goal of every designer is to design the best (optimum) systems. Foundation volumes estimation.2 OBJECTIVES: In design of tower for weight optimization. Line cost analysis and span optimization. Tower weight estimation. [Ref. experience and repeated trials. Selection of clearances. 3. 20] It is seen that guyed towers are cost effective when there is sufficient corridor right of way available and the land value is not at premium. [Ref. 2.

2. one of these suspension towers is replaced by Triangular Base Self Supporting Tower.e. Finally. for optimizing the existing geometry. worked is done in the direction to find out the most economical configuration or geometry. The isometric view of Square Base Tower (Fig. 1. 1.4) are shown in detail.1). Literature survey and the on going research work have been studied. Triangular Base Tower (Fig.3) and Square Base Guyed Mast (Fig. Different behaviors of the towers are studied i. 1. 1. The perception of top view of the towers of different configurations in the transmission line is sketched with the help of AutoCAD (Fig. These objectives of the research are met by choosing a 220 KV Single Circuit Transmission Line with Suspension Towers. Methodology for analysis and design of transmission line towers is studied. 9 . 4. 3. the structural behavior (type) of existing tower is looked upon by developing Square Base Guyed Mast. the self supporting tower and the guyed mast. All the towers are Square Base Self Supporting Type. 5. Outline of the Tower Keeping in mind the above restrictions. Further.3. an attempt has been made to make the transmission line more cost effective by optimizing the geometry (shape) and behavior (type) of transmission line structure.2). This has been carried out as per the guidelines of Power Grid Corporation of India limited by following the IS Codes and CBIP Manuals with the latest ongoing world wide research. Following research has been carried out for meeting these objectives: 1. Terminology of transmission line and its components have been understood. Thus.

10 .

SQUARE BASE TOWER Y X Z ISOMETRIC VIEW 11 .

TRIANGULAR BASE TOWER Y Z X ISOMETRIC VIEW 12 .

GUYED MAST TOWER Y X Z 3 ISOMETRIC VIEW 13 .

security and safety pattern is evaluated. followed by there analysis and design. very precisely the work done in this direction is tried to capture. going towards the configuration of towers through meeting the other requirements. 14 . In this. 6. Towers include the wind loading on each tower followed by there three dimensional space analysis using some powerful computer tool and finally the economical design of member section.To meet these objectives. the following work has been done: 1. Now all the towers are modeled using STAAD. The member sections are required in the wind load calculations. Towers are configured with keeping in mind all the electrical and structural constrains on Microsoft Excel and Auto CAD. the towers are analyzed as a three dimensional structure using STAAD. so with every successive design iteration. Loading format including reliability. 1. Finally. security and safety. wind loading on towers is changing. Transmission Line starts from the study of basics of the transmission line and the components involve in it. Then. total of three iterations are carried out.3 ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTER: Literature Review consists of research work from the articles of various journals. tower members are designed as an angle sections. 4. The wind loading is calculated on the longitudinal face of the towers. To get the optimum member sections. like sag tension calculations and finally leading to the loading calculations including the standard format of reliability. Then. 5. The sag tension calculation for conductor and ground wire is calculated using parabolic equation. 2. 3.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 15 .

galvanized steel or a combination of the two. 37] The increase in the demand for electrical energy can be met more economically by increasing the power transmission capacity of the transmission lines. [Ref. [Ref. utilizing saving in the cost of transmission lines. the former decides the general shape of the tower in respect of its height and the length of its cross arms that carry electrical conductors. the insulator strings and hardware and the suspension and dead end structures.2. The response of a line section to cable rupture depends on the interaction between all these components. The increased demand in the power supply and 16 . 40] Transmission line towers are a vital component and there reliability and the safety should be checked to minimize the risk of disruption to power supply that may result from in-service tower failure. Lattice transmission towers are constructed using angle section members which are eccentrically connected. [Ref. The conductors are the stranded cables composed of aluminum. Conductors are attached to suspension structures via insulators strings that are vertical under the normal operation conditions and are free to swing along the line whenever there is longitudinal unbalanced load.0 LITERATURE REVIEW Overhead transmission line plays an important role in the operation of a reliable electrical power system. Alternatively. The main structural components of transmission line are the conductors. 40] Many older transmission towers are designed based on tension only bracing systems with slender diagonal members. Shield wires are grounded steel wires placed above the conductors for lightning protection. 36 & Ref. [Ref. 34] A high voltage transmission line structure is a complex structure in that its design is characterized by the special requirements to be met from both electrical and structural points of view. the shield wires. In this connection minimizing the cost of transmission line structures is an obvious need.

36] Static analysis forms the basis of calculations in structural design of overhead power lines. still there is a scope for the weight minimization and optimum geometry shaping of a transmission line tower. speeding up construction activities and early completion of transmission projects. 17 . The failure of single tower can rapidly propagate along the line and result in severe damage that can costs in millions.changing global weather patterns mean that these towers require upgrading to carry the resultant heavier loading. 40] As the base width. 40] In spite. They provide a good estimate of the extreme forces that a transmission line is subjected to during its service life. single standardized sizes and designs are being used because of valid requirements of a fast developing country i. viz. the main objective function. [Ref. The environmental loads considered in design can be assumed static (icing) or quasi-static (idealized steady wind).e. 37] Optimization of transmission structures in weight and shape through mathematical programming methods has attracted wide attention in the past. the nodal coordinates and the member lengths get changed. height and outline of the tower is constrained as per the requirement of Indian standards so. 32] In India. geometry (shape) of the tower and its structural behavior are looked upon for the optimization. [Ref. In combined shape and weight optimization problems. is a highly nonlinear function of the design variables because at every stage of iteration. [Ref. being the restriction of fixed base width. [Ref. even at a higher cost due to use of non optimized sizes. This is apart from the optimum sizing of the members. The joint coordinates are included as decision variables in the case of shape optimization. the weight of the structure. [Ref. Member sectional areas are usually treated as design variables for weight optimization.

0 TRANSMISSION LINE 18 .3.

[Ref. the components are angle member. insulators and ground wire and design of towers with there spotting and erection can bring the cost effectiveness of the transmission line. Tower spotting along the line further depend on the angle of line deviation. bolts. for a particular lattice structure. Tower spotting is itself a function of tower type.e. • One subsystem for each category of support structure i.0 3. The overall performance of an overhead transmission line is a function of the performance of various components constituting the transmission line.1 TRANSMISSION LINE SELECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINE AND ITS COMPONENTS: The transmission line is a function of the line voltage. 3. foundations. The selection of conductor and ground wire is dependent on the sag characteristics of both and also dependent on the span of the transmission line which in turns relates to the spotting of the towers along the line. • Ground wire subsystem consisting of ground wire and its holding clamps. The judicious selection in the conductors. The span of transmission line and angle of line deviation can further be optimize for getting the best results. 14] The transmission line is considered as an integrated system consisting of following subsystems (along with there components): • Conductor subsystem consisting of conductor and its holding clamps.3. 9] The right selection of above mentioned components are highly interrelated to each other. Even the footing type is also a function of these two parameters.2 SAG TENSION CALCULATION: 19 . [Ref.

Sag tension calculations fix up the conductor and insulator sub system. The spacing required between the ground wires and conductors at null points to ensure that a lightning stroke which hits the ground wire does not flashover to the conductor is called as mid span clearance. so that the lines may give long and trouble free service. the sags and tensions to be allowed for various spans under the ambient conditions will also have to be properly evaluated. have been devised to determine the sags and tensions. Various methods. from the protection point of view. analytical and graphical. indirectly also decides the tower subsystem. During erection of the overhead lines. • Every day temperature (320) and design wind pressure (100%. • Minimum temperature (00) with design wind pressure (0% & 36%). Sag Tension are required in the decision for fixing up ruling span and in fixing up the outline of the tower. 3. 17] Indian standard codes of Practice for Use of Structural Steel in Over Head Transmission Line Towers have prescribed following conditions for the sag tension calculations for the conductor and the ground wire: • Maximum temperature (750 C for ASCR and 530 C for ground wire) with design wind pressure (0% & 36%).3 CONFIGURATION OF TOWER: 20 . IS 802: part 1:sec 1: 1995 states that Conductor / ground wire tension at every day temperature and without external load should not exceed 25 % (up to 220 KV) for conductors and 20% for ground wires of there ultimate tensile strength. thus.Proper evaluation of sags and tensions are necessary at the design stage for fixing up the ruling span and structural requirements of line supports. 75% & 0%). the ground wire is strung with a lesser sag (10 to 15%) than the conductor so as to give a mid span separation greater than the supports. [Ref. Thus.

either through insulators or directly. like any other exposed structure. dimensioned and designed to sustain the external loads acting on the strung cables (conductors and ground wires) and the super structure itself. • The minimum clearances to be maintained between conductors and between conductor and tower. • The minimum clearance of the lowest conductor above ground level. 21 .S. a tower is very much like a tall tree.C.E manual “Guidelines for Electrical Transmission Line Structural Loading” has distinguished the overall configuration of a transmission line structure on the basis of following requirements: • Ground clearance requirements • Electric air gap clearance requirements • Electric and magnetic field limits • Insulation requirements • Structural loading • Number of circuits • Right of way requirements • Aesthetic design criteria IS 802: Part 1: Sec: 1:1995 states that the configuration of a transmission line tower is dependant on the following parameters: • The length of the insulator assembly. • The location of ground wire or wires with respect to the outermost conductor. Suffice it to say.A transmission line tower. The super structure has a trunk and a hamper (cage) to which cables are attached. • The mid span clearance required from considerations of the dynamic behavior of conductors and lightning protection of the line. [Ref. 15] A. has a super structure suitably shaped.

Vertical spacing between conductors It is the minimum permissible spacing maintained between two conductors on the basis of electrical requirements. climatic conditions (wind temp.. It is dependent on the size and type of conductor. Minimum permissible ground clearance It is the minimum distance from the ground to the lowest point of the bottom conductor. which in turn decides the length of cross arms. Vertical clearance between ground wire and top conductor 22 . It is a function of insulation level. 5. humidity). power frequency voltage and service conditions (pollution. It is fixed as per the requirement of electric air gap clearance and the electric and magnetic field limitations. 2. snow) and span length. 3. altitude. Length of suspension insulator string It is an important parameter in deciding the phase to minimum ground metal Clearance. Maximum sag The sag of the conductor is defined as the distance between the point of attachment of the cable to the insulator/ tower and the null point in the cable (earth wire and conductor).CBIP in its “Transmission Line Manual” has summed up the total height of a transmission line tower as summation of the following: 1. 4.

e. Further concurrence of earthquake and maximum wind condition is unlikely to place together and seismic stresses are considerably diminished by the flexibility and freedom for vibration of the structure. Mid span clearance is the spacing required at the null points between the ground wire and the conductor to safe guard the conductor from flashover during lightning. 3. equipments used during construction and maintenance. Self weight of tower members.4 LOADING CALCULATIONS: CBIP manual “Transmission Line Manual” states that Tower loading is most important part of tower design. line man. Dead Load i.2 (b) of IS-1893-1984. conductor. 23 . conductor and insulator strings.This vertical clearance is decided by the requirement of the peak clearance and the mid span clearance. 2. The loadings which are considered during the project are as follows: 1. No. Peak clearance is dependant on the angle of shielding made by the ground wire to protect the power conductors against the direct lightning stroke and to conduct the lightning current to the nearest earthed point when contacted by a lightning stroke. Wind load on tower exposed members. 6. This assumption is also in the line with the recommendation given in cl. ground wire. insulator. The transmission line tower is a pin jointed light structure for which the maximum wind pressure is the chief criterion for design. ground wire.

Transverse loads: This type of load covers – o Wind load on tower structure. 24 . conductor.The Loading Criteria for the transmission line as given by CBIP in “Transmission Line Manual” is as follows: i. o Component of mechanical tension of conductor and ground wire. Thus. Thus. Reliability ii. Safety Reliability of a transmission system is the probability that the system would perform its function/ task under the designed load criteria for a specified period. this covers loads imposed on tower during the construction of transmission line and loads imposed on tower during the maintenance of transmission line. this covers climatic loads such as wind loads and/or ice loads. Security of a transmission system is the capacity of the system to protect itself from any major failure arising out of the failure of its components. Security iii. this covers unbalanced longitudinal loads and torsional loads due to broken wires Safety of a transmission system is the ability of the system to provide protection against any injuries or loss of lives to human beings out of the failure of any of its components. Nature of Loads as given by CBIP in “Transmission Line Manual” is as follows: 1. Thus. ground wire and insulator strings.

Vertical loads: This type of load covers o Loads due to weight of each conductor. angle towers are checked for anti cascading loads for all conductors and g. wires broken in the same span.2. 4. ground wire based on appropriate weight span. Reliability Condition (Normal Condition): • Transverse loads • Vertical loads • Longitudinal loads 25 . Loading Combinations given by the IS 802: Part 1: Sec: 1:1995 are as follows: 1. Anti Cascading checks: o In order to prevent the cascading failure in line. o Loads during construction and maintenance. Longitudinal loads: This type of load covers – o Unbalanced horizontal loads in longitudinal direction due to mechanical tension of conductor and/or ground wire during broken wire condition. o Self weight of the structure. 3. weight of insulator strings and fittings.

2. Safety Condition (Construction and Maintenance): Normal Condition: • Transverse loads • Vertical loads • Longitudinal loads Broken Wire Condition: • Transverse loads • Vertical loads • Longitudinal loads 4. Security Condition (Broken Wire Condition) • Transverse loads • Vertical loads • Longitudinal loads 3. Anti Cascading loads: Broken Wire Condition: • Transverse loads • Vertical loads • Longitudinal loads 26 .

4.0 TOWERS 27 .

tower and the insulator. [Ref. ground wire.4. Gust response factor for tower depends upon the terrain categories and the height above the ground. 54] Gust response factor is the multiplier used for the wind loading to obtain the peak load effect and accounts for the additional loading effects due to wind turbulence and dynamic amplification of flexible structures and cables. 12] 28 .0 4. Most latticed towers are particularly susceptible to mean wind effects. In order to determine the wind load on tower. Gust response factor for insulator depends on the ground roughness and height of insulator attachment above ground. [Ref. wind is considered normal to the face of tower acting at the center of gravity of the panel. It has been recognized that gusts do not envelope the entire span between transmission structures. height above the ground and the span.1 TOWERS WIND LOADING: CBIP in “Transmission Line Manual” has elaborated that the wind plays a vital role in the load calculation on tower. 12] Drag coefficients under the wind effect are considered for the conductor. [Ref. [Ref. 9] Gust response factor for conductor and ground wire depends on the terrain categories. These panels should normally be taken between the intersections of the legs and bracings. For lattice tower. In the design of lattice towers normally a quasi static approach is adopted with gust response factor included to take into account the dynamic nature of the wind for evaluating the peak stresses in members. the tower is divided into different panels having a height “h”.

the highly sophisticated software have been developed to automate calculation of member forces based on three dimensional finite element analysis / stiffness matrix analysis.4. [Ref.2 ANALYSIS OF TOWER: Earlier. Availability of such software have done great help to designers to understand force distribution and afford to them ample time to concentrate on fine tuning design aspects and at the same time undertake the repetitive calculation and optimization. STAAD Pro 2004 is simple to use and user friendly. [Ref. The entire input data may be generated either graphically or by typing simple English language based commands. Towers are statically indeterminate structure. The designer has the limitations to try out several permutation and combinations of tower geometry. 14] 29 . 14] Latter on. STAAD uses analysis command as Perform Analysis. For this. the towers are idealized as a 3 dimensional pin jointed space truss consisting of nodes and members. giving very accurate results. 16 & Ref. 16 & Ref. 16] STAAD Pro 2004 is the next generation of the structural analysis and design software from research engineers. thus appropriate powerful computer software is essential. To ascertain the margin of safety available on the towers. transmission towers were designed by performing manual calculations based on two dimensional stress analysis / stress diagram method which was time consuming and laborious. towers are analyzed with the powerful computer software. The STAAD engine provides general purpose structural analysis and integrates steel/ concrete/ timber. [Ref. Such software finds out critical member force for a number of loading conditions and a variety of possible tower combinations.

hence these members are to be designed for both compression and tension. G.3 DESIGN OF TOWER: Transmission line towers are designed according to the provisions of Indian national standard codes. But reversal of loads may also induce alternate nature of forces. Adoption of these probabilistic methods of design has not only made us at par with the latest techniques developed in the world but have also lead to optimum and reliable economic designs. The total force acting on any individual member under the normal condition and also under the broken wire condition is multiplied by the corresponding factor of safety and it is ensured that the values are within the permissible ultimate strength of the particular steel used.W. The stringent design criterion leads to the obvious increased level of performance. the member has to be designed for either compression or tension. [Ref. which could be decided by considering minimum level of safety of people and conformance to the national regulations. Tower designed according to these codes have proved reliable. X arm lower member <120 Bracings <200 Redundant / Nominal stress carrying members <250 Tension members <400 30 . 19] IS 802: Part 2: Sec: 1:1995 has restricted the Slenderness Ratio as following: Leg members. the optimum level is a matter of economics. The design criteria of transmission lines shall be such that it should facilitate the transmission lines to fulfill the function to an accepted level of performance. 13] Since axial force is the only force for a truss element. Peak.[Ref. However.4.

0 NUMERICAL STUDY 31 .5.

Terrain Type considered: Plain 5. Transmission Line Voltage: 220 KV (A.5. Transmission Line Components: As per the guidelines of PGCIL.0 NUMERICAL STUDY 5. Loading Calculations for the Transmission Line. 802: Part 1: Sec: 1:1995. Angle of Line Deviation: 00 to 20 4. This exercise is detailed in the following steps: A. Configuration of Towers D. the following parameters for transmission line and its components are assumed from I. “268”: 1. Terrain Category: 2 (Normal cross country lines with very few obstacles) 32 .1 EXERCISE 1: This exercise consists of those solved parameters which are going to remain same for the complete transmission line that is for all towers.S. 5613: Part 2: Sec: 1: 1989 and CBIP Manual No. A. 000 mm 3. Sag Tension for Conductor and Ground Wire C. Right of Way (Recommended): 35. / C. Transmission Line Components B.) 2. I.S.

6. Return Period:

50 yrs.

7. Wind Zone:

4

8. Basic Wind Speed:

47 m/s

9. Basic Wind Pressure:

71.45 kg/ sqm

10. Tower Type:

Self Supporting Tower
Suspension Type Tower
Tower Type “A”

11. Tower Geometry:

Square Base Tower

12. No. of Circuit:

Single Circuit

13. Tower Configuration:

Vertical Conductor Configuration

14. Tower Shape:

Barrel Shaped

15. Bracing Pattern:

Warren Type (Double Web System)
Portal System (K Type)

16. Cross Arm:

Pointed

17. Body Extension:

Not Considered

18. Steel Used:

Mild Steel (IS-2062)

19. Slope of Tower Leg:

40 to 90 (Permissible)

20. Conductor Material:

ACSR
(Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced)

21. Conductor Configuration:

Zebra

22. Maximum Temperature:

750 C (ACSR)

23. Number of Ground Wire:

Single

24. Peak Type:

Triangular
33

25. G.W. Type:

Earth wire – 7 / 3.66

26. Shielding Angle:

300

27. Maximum Temperature:

530 C (7 / 3.66)

28. Insulator Type:

I String

29. Number of Insulator Disc:

14

30. Size of Insulator Disc:

255 * 145 mm (Skirt Diameter)

31. Length of Insulator String:

2,340 mm

32. Minimum Ground Clearance:

7,000 mm

33. Sag Error Considered:

160 mm

34. Creep Effect:

Not Considered

35. Mid Span Clearance:

8,500 mm

36. Minimum Height above G.L.:

28,555 mm

37. Width at Hamper Level:

1,500 mm (Square Tower)

38. Width at Base:

4,500 mm (Square Tower)

39. Phase to Phase Clearance:

Vertical Spacing between Conductors (Minim):

5,200 mm

Horizontal Spacing between Conductors (Minim):

8,500 mm

40. Lightning Impulse Level (Air Clearance):

1700 mm

41. Minimum Phase to Earth (Air Clearance):

1970 mm

42. Phase to Ground Metal Clearance:
-Swing Angle:



00
150
300
450

-

2130 mm
1980 mm
1830 mm
1675 mm

43. Tower Weight (Minim):

2,570 kg

44. Base Width (C.L.) / Height above G.L. =

1: 6.3

34

45. Minimum Thickness of Member:
- Leg Member, G.W. Peak & Lower Memb. of C.A.:

5 mm

- Others:

4 mm

46. Permissible Weight Span:

B.

Normal Condition:
Maximum:

525 mm

Minimum:

200 mm

Maximum:

315 mm

Minimum:

100 mm

Broken Wire Condition:

47. Normal Span:

320 mm to 380 mm

48. -Design Span:

350 mm

49. -Wind Span = Normal Span:

350 mm

50. -Weight Span:

1.5 * 350 mm

51. Concrete Level to Ground Level:

225 mm

Sag Tension for Conductor and Ground Wire:

Sag tensions are calculated by using the parabolic equations as discussed in the
I.S. 5613: Part 2: Sec: 1: 1989 by developing integrated program on Microsoft Excel for
both the conductor and ground wire.
Parabolic Equation:

F22. (F2 – (K – α.t.E)) = L2.∂2.q22.E / 24
Take K=

F1 – (L2.∂2.qo2.E / 24.F12)

35

307 3.648 9.114 5.471 4.Sag Tension for Conductor (ASCR) Temperature Variation (ºC): Wind Variation(%) 32 75 0 0.L2 / 8T) (m) We have considered the sag of ground wire as 90% the sag of conductor at 00 C and 0% wind condition.725 3.284 (F*A) (Kg) Sag (m) 32 53 Discussion: The Sag Tension calculation for the conductor and ground wire has been successfully calculated by using Parabolic Equation at different combinations of the temperature and the percentages of wind as per the Indian standards.239 Tension (F*A) 0 (Kg) Sag (w.462 6.395 2.0 0 Tension 1520 2001 1327 2629 3127 1226 5.75 1.088 7. 36 .36 0 0.36 0 0.855 7.874 4.0 0 4060 4879 3322 5763 6804 2687 6. Sag Tension for Ground Wire Temperature Variation (ºC): 0 Wind Variation(%) 0 0.75 1.

C. A. level 24100 mm 24100 mm 24100 mm 37 . 4. The bracing angle for all the towers is kept in between 400 to 500.C. This is achieved using excel program with auto cad drawings.C. 4.1 for the design of angle members. PGCIL guidelines have been considered as follows: 1.C.A) 1500 mm 2000 mm 1000 mm Hamper width (U. level 18900 mm 18900 mm 18900 mm Height till U. The minimum factor of safety is kept as 1. Configuration of Towers Square Tower Triangular Tower Guyed Mast Base Width: 4500 mm 6000 mm 1000 mm Hamper width (L.C. The base width of Triangular Tower is restricted as (4/3) * Base width of Square Tower and Guyed Mast as simply 1000 mm. The members for all the towers are so chosen that the effective length is kept between 1200 mm to 1500 mm. Configuration of Towers: Configurations of all three towers are done by first fixing the outline of all the towers as per the Indian standard requirements. 2. The width at the hamper level for both the Square Tower and the Triangular Tower is reduced to (1/3) of the base width but the width of the Guyed Mast is kept constant thought the height of the tower. 3.A) 1500 mm 2000 mm 1000 mm Height till L. For the configuration of towers. A.

Gr. Thus. Horizontal clearance between the phases is maximum for the Triangular Tower and the least for Guyed Mast. All the towers are having straight legs above the hamper level (cage). all the towers are having same height. Horizontal grounded metal clearance for all the towers is coming same.4) 29100 mm 29600 mm 28700 mm Mid Span Clear. Final height of each of the tower is taken as the maximum of both conditions that is 29900 mm. 38 . 6) 8700 mm 9200 mm 8200 mm Discussion: 1. (Except for the minor change in the slope of tower leg). Spacing betw. Cross Arm Tip Minimum 8500 mm 8500 mm 8500 mm Actual (Fig.Total Tower Height: (From G. The Square and Triangular Towers are having there legs inclined till hamper level (for tower body) while Guyed Mast is having straight legs. 5. This is because of there width at the hamper level. 4.) Minimum 28555 mm 28555 mm 28555 mm Peak Clearance (Fig. Metal Clear. 2. 3600 mm 3600 mm 3600 mm Horz. 3. 5) 29900 mm 29900 mm 29900 mm Horz.L. (Fig.

39 .

40 .

41 .

D.

Loading Calculations for Transmission Line:

Loading combinations on the ground wire, conductor and all the towers are found
using Indian standards.
In present Indian Standards, the security conditions for suspension towers
correspond to nil wind condition where as for tension towers this requirement is stipulated
for 100% full wind condition. But, with the operational experience of towers designed on
this basis the power utilities (PGCIL) have initiated amendment through BIS stipulating
security conditions of suspension and tension tower corresponding to 75% of full wind load
at every day temperature.
Tower being a space truss, loadings are synchronized as the point loadings at the
tip of peak and at the three tips of the cross arms. These are shown in the form of Load
Tree (Fig. 7) with the aid of AutoCAD. This Load tree consists of:
1. Reliability Condition – Normal Condition
2. Security Condition – Normal Condition
Ground Wire Broken Condition
Top Conductor Broken Condition
Bottom Left Conductor Broken Condition
Bottom Right Conductor Broken Condition
3. Safety Condition -

Normal Condition
Ground Wire Broken Condition
Top Conductor Broken Condition
Bottom Left Conductor Broken Condition
Bottom Right Conductor Broken Condition

42

43

44

45 .

91 10. Design of Towers A. Wind Loading on Towers: Wind loading all the towers are calculated separately by developing excel programs by following Indian Standards.5.9 Square Tower 292 475 243 Triangular Tower 306 461 210 Guyed Mast 129 279 195 46 . Analysis of Towers C.2 EXERCISE 2: This exercise consists of the remaining parameters for the economical design of all the towers. Wind Loading on Towers Height (m) / Wind (kg) (From G.) 0 8. Wind loading on Towers B.14 18. For finding the drag coefficients for the members triangular towers. This exercise is detailed in the following steps: A.L.5 12. the solidity ratio is derived from table 30 –IS-875 (part 3)-1987 in the similar fashion as prescribed in the IS826 (part-1/sec 1)-1995.

118 127 107 122 5571 180 111 119 101 118 5353 195 101 108 89 103 3708 174 Discussion: 1. 2. 3. This implies that the member sectional area exposed to wind is maximum in the Square Tower. 47 .2 24. This might be because of the fact that the panel height of the Triangular Tower is comparatively higher as the number of panels are reduced in the trunk of the tower.20.1 25. The maximum number of tower members exposed to the wind are in the Triangular Tower followed by Square Tower and then the Guyed Mast. The Square Tower is facing the maximum total wind load followed by the Triangular and then the Guyed Mast.4 29. This might be because of the fact that the loading is same (other than wind) thus Triangular Tower is handling same forces (almost) by three legs so the member sections have increased. The lowest panel of Triangular Tower is having the highest wind load followed by the Square and then the Guyed mast.1 Total No.of Exposed Memb.

Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 3981 2492 2661 2839 3013 3188 3362 3535 3708 3884 4608 5335 6063 6792 7522 8255 8990 9736 10463 11302 8498 9013 7853 6556 6638 4008 5256 1160 977 1292 1610 1927 2244 2560 2876 3191 3503 3308 3055 2799 2674 3924 4172 4916 5655 6381 7148 12350 1178 8864 7116 5412 3359 4955 31175 28469 24726 21430 18355 13826 9999 7455 6206 6935 4660 4641 28247 25907 22324 19246 16182 11874 8343 6799 4982 4606 2684 3537 22945 22033 20560 18306 16536 14242 12892 10604 7950 6755 5509 5090 3322 3553 20716 20028 18698 16723 15028 12936 11542 9490 5454 6231 4979 3348 2628 3459 Guyed 48 .B. Analysis of Towers: All the three towers are analyzed in STAAD Pro2004 and the following results are obtained: Maximum Force in the Leg Member Mast Triangular Tower Square Tower Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile Panel No.

1 25. (m) 0 18. Guyed Mast is having the least deflection at the lower cross arm level as 49 . followed by Triangular Tower and then the Guyed Mast.4 29.Maximum Force in the Cross Arm Mast Triangular Tower Square Tower Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile Compressive Tensile Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) Load (Kg) LOWER MEMBER Lower 6268 4307 4969 3645 4651 2912 Upper 6767 4478 5463 2312 5111 2675 UPPER MEMBER Lower 1320 4801 1037 5418 669 4410 Upper 631 4064 825 5729 276 4150 Guyed Panel Deflection of Towers Ht.5 60 76 144 Discussion: 1. Square Tower is found to have the maximum node deflection throughout the tower height.9 Square Tower (mm) 0 85 98 142 157 216 Triangular Tower (mm) 0 71 90 129 142 192 Guyed Mast (mm) 0 8 14. 2.2 24.9 20.

5 1.8 (└100*100*08) (└100*100*08) (└ 90*90*08) (└ 90*90*08) (└ 90*90*06) (└ 75*75*06) - 129 127 107 130 110 105 - 1. Tower Square F.3 - (└ 90*90*08) (└ 90*90*08) (└ 90*90*08) (└ 90*90*06) (└ 90*90*06) (└75*75*06) (└75*75*06) (└75*75*06) - 110 155 140 125 135 110 95 160 - 1. 5. This is because of the guy ropes which themselves transfers the load to the ground.3 1.2 1. 3.1 3. Guyed Mast is having the least forces for the leg members.3 1.2 1.4 1. Angle Section 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) Triangular Tower Effective F.2 1.6 3.1 4. Length (cm) 87 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 3.3 1.O.those are the connection point of the guy ropes.5 4.1 5.S. C. 4.8 3.5 3.S.O.3 2.1 1.3 1. Design of Towers: The tower is designed using limit load concept by utilizing probabilistic method of approach and hence summed as: Design of the Leg Member Guyed Mast Panel No.4 1.3 - 50 . Triangular Tower is having the maximum forces in the legs members.3 4.O. F.4 5.3 1. The probable reason behind this can be the reduced numbers of legs.S. Guyed Mast is having the maximum forces for the lower cross arm members.

6 1.3 1.2 1.9 1.2 (└50*50*04) 146 1.6 2.2 2.5 Design of Cross Arm Mast Guyed Effective Panel Angle Section Triangular Tower F.3 1.3 1.1 1.9 (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) 130 137 127 127 132 152 1.0 2.6 1.7 1.5 2.0 2. Length Tower F.2 (└75*75*06) 164 2.3 6.O.S.4 2.6 (└65*65*05) 120 4.1 3.6 2.O. Square Angle Sect.4 1.4 (└50*50*04) 143 1.S.7 1.1 UPPER MEMBER Lower (MS└50*50*04) 143 1.3 (└75*75*06) 123 3.O.4 2.4 1.7 1.4 (└50*50*04) 128 1.2 (└50*50*04) 130 1.1 1.11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 130 97 98 98 98 131 151 2.4 1.7 (└75*75*06) 164 2.0 2. Angle Sect.6 51 . F.4 (└65*65*05) 120 4. (cm) LOWER MEMBER Lower Upper (MS└75*75*06) (MS└75*75*06) 136 136 2.5 Upper (MS└50*50*04) 154 1.7 (└75*75*06) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) (└ 65*65*05) 130 130 130 130 133 153 1.4 (└75*75*06) 123 3.S.

The lower cross arm members for Triangular Tower is having different lengths. 3. This could be because of the unsymmetrical geometry of the tower. 5. 52 . Also. making the member sections comparatively heavy. 2. As the forces (other than wind) are almost same. This behavior might be because of the minimum length of the members.Discussion: 1. Triangular Tower is having the heaviest member section for the legs. 4. because of which the base panel height has increased. Upper cross arm member sections are found to be same for all the towers. the reduced number of panels can be one of the probable reasons. This may be because these members are designed as the tension members and steel already have good margin of safety in tension. Guyed Mast is having the least member sections with the maximum factor of safety. Square Tower is having the maximum factor of safety for the upper cross arm member. This might be because of the guy ropes which themselves transfers the load to the ground. so the probable reason behind this can be the reduced numbers of legs. Thus increasing the forces in the leg sections and thus.

4. The lowest panel of Triangular Tower is having the highest wind load followed by the Square and then the Guyed mast. 53 . The Square Tower is facing the maximum total wind load followed by the Triangular and then the Guyed Mast. 2. This implies that the Triangular Tower is behaving more rigidly than the Square Tower. Triangular Tower is found to have the lesser amount of node deflection throughout the height of the tower as compared with the Square Tower. The self weight of different towers obtained is as follows: Tower Type Weight (Kg) Square Tower 2775 Triangular Tower 2519 Guyed Mast 1666 Triangular Tower is compared with the Square Tower in the following aspects: 1. 3. Hence.5. This implies that the member sectional area exposed to wind is maximum in the Square Tower. Triangular Tower is more economical than the Square Tower (self supporting tower).3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS: As already we have seen that all the towers are designed with the enough factor of safety.23% less than the Square Tower. The self weight for the Triangular Tower is found to be 9.

Even the self weight of tower. The different structural behavior of Guyed Mast and its right of way requirement needs to be checked before its use.This might be because of the fact that the panel height of the Triangular Tower is comparatively higher as the number of panels are reduced in the trunk of the tower. 5. 54 . Guyed Mast is coming all the way economical than the Triangular Tower and the Square Tower. The saving in the cost of transmission line by using Guyed Mast can be nullified by the premium value of land. This might because the forces are being transferred by three legs instead of the Four. The above noted weight of Guyed Mast is excluding the self weight of guy ropes. all are coming comparatively lesser. wind loading on tower. The value of land is one of the major factors to be taken into considerations in case of Guyed Mast. axial forces in the members (except the lower cross arm members) and the node deflection. Triangular Tower is found to have little higher amount of axial forces in the leg member in comparison with Square Tower.

6.0 CONCLUSION 55 .

Wind loading is calculated for each tower and has lead to following results: Tower Type Total Wind Load (Kg) Square Tower 5571 Triangular Tower 5353 Guyed Mast 3708 (Note: Above developed programs are in Microsoft Excel using AutoCaD2002) 4. Analysis of Towers as a 3-D space structure with STAADPRO 2004 is showing : • Maximum Axial Compressive Force In Leg Member of the Lowest Panel (Panel one) : Tower Type Maximum Force (Kg) Square Tower 22945 Triangular Tower 31175 Guyed Mast 11302 56 . Loading including reliability.Our research work has guided us to the following conclusions: 1. security and safety conditions have been kept same for all the three towers.0 CONCLUSION Least weight of the tower implies greatest economy in the transmission line costs. Configuration of towers has reveled that all the three towers are having the same height but different base width.6. 3. 2.

• Deflection of Tower : 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 Square Tower Note: 20 30 Triangular Tower 40 Guyed Mast * Height – “m” (X Axis) and Deflection – “mm” (Y Axis). Design has been done with super most thought of conserving every Kg of steel possible within the limitations of the specifications by developing excel programs. the economic design of towers has lead to the following conclusion: Tower Type Tower Self Weight (Kg) Square Tower 2775 Triangular Tower 2519 Guyed Mast 1666 Thus. 5. which is directly the cost saving in each tower or the structural optimization of transmission line. After performing three iterations.23% in the weight of structural steel and using Square Base Guyed Mast will lead to saving of 39.96% in the structural steel (excluding guy ropes). 57 . * Deflection is at the Reliability Condition (Minimum Weight Span). using Triangular Base Self Supporting Tower will bring a saving of 9.

0 SCOPE OF FUTURE STUDY 58 .7.

Developing pole type structures in an elaborative way can bring a tremendous change in the market. 4. the following are the ways of improvement: 1. 2. as it reduce electrical clearances. 9. 3. allowing the tower to somewhat more slender and hence bringing cost saving of the line as a whole. Attempt in changing the shape of cross arm can lead to wonderful results. erection ease.7. and simple foundation design of guyed mast can be extended to pole type structures. 7. Instead of considering wind as the prominent force seismic force can be considered and the snow load can be checked with different combinations. The towers leg members can be changed from angle section to pipe / rod section and there detailed behavior can be analyzed. 5. an effort of trying different structural material like aluminum should go on till some wonderful results would be achieved. conductor and ground wire can be replaced with the actual dynamic loading and the results can be compared for all the three towers. Looking into India’s theft condition efforts can be make to develop components like guy ropes to be of no scrap value. Even the general advantage of lightweight.0 SCOPE OF FUTURE STUDY The need for electric power is increasing every second and simultaneously the available right of way is becoming more critical. thus. pre assembly. Use of insulated cross arms should be studied in detail. 8. 6. 59 . Still. As much of the transmission line structural optimization is already worked out that is by reconsidering the behavior of tower and geometry of tower. Different shapes like cat head tower can be further developed with keeping in mind the harmony of the surrounding scenery. Also. Effective static loading on transmission line structure.

8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 .

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APPENDIX A 69 .

L2 / 8.04E+05 2.T1 ∂ ∂ Weight of Conductor in kg / m / sqcm W/A 0.0 0.02862 4.25 kg T1 / A 685.Sag Using Tension Parabolic Calculation Equation Units 350 (m) 71.00 0.45 146.621 13289 1.202 Parameters: kg/m/sqcm kg / m 70 .93E-05 7. of Linear Expansion (α) : Modulus of Elasticity (E): Gust Factor : Drag Factor : Creep : ACSR 0.335 p p Wind Load on Conductor in kg /m length of conductor P*D 4.81 (kg / sqm) (kg / sqm) DATA: Basic Basic Wind Wind Span (L): Pressure : Pressure (P ): CONDUCTOR DETAILS: Type: Overall Diameter (D) Cross Sectional Area (A): Unit weight of Conductor (w): Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) Coeff.47 m S1 w.845 1.0547 1 0 ZEBRA (m) (sqcm) (kg / m) (kg) (/ deg C) (kg/sqcm) (%) BASIC CONDITIONS: Temperature: Wind Factor: Ice Thickness: Initial Sag-Tension Calculations: Initial T1 Tension: Initial F1 Stress: Initial Sag: 32.0 deg C 25% OF UTS 3322.71 kg/sqcm 7.

69E+02 -1.∂2.E Wind Variation: 0 F1 – (L2.02E+08 7.69E+02 (Kα.69E+02 -169.778 F K t Parabolic Formula: Working Tensile Strength of Conductor in kg / sqcm Constant (computed from initial temperature & wind pressure conditions) Change in temperature F22.75 (√ ((p*0.52E+08 4.E)) = L2.02E+08 1.69E+02 -1.36 0 75 583.F12) l2.3 -1.3 Kg 71 .95 685.02E+08 K -1.088 7.( F2 – ( K – α.E / 24 As K= keep Temperature Variation(ºC): α.54 0 0.00 (√ ((p*1.0)2 + w2)) / w 2 1 2 q0.E) 2.75)2 + w2)) / w 2.471 4.t.92E+09 3.36 (√ ((p*0.q22.92 0.10E+09 4.L /8T) 4060 4879 3322 5763 6804 2687 6.65E+02 265.69E+02 -1.∂2.4 1404.q q0.27 -7.36) + w )) / w 1.0)2 + w2)) / w 2.69E+02 -1.239 Maximum Allowed Tension is 70% of UTS 9302.t.69E+02 -1.89 1006.368 q0.3 554.q22.75 1.69E+02 -1.49 F T Tension (F*A) (Kg) S Sag 2 (m) (w.114 5.53E+02 837.E / 24 = Z 0 32 -434.qo2.307 3.705 1189.648 9.t.0 Loading Factors (√ ((p*0.0 0 Z 4.186 q1.∂2.E / 24.

45 181.115 1.61 kg/sqcm 6.00 0.L2 / 8S) F1 T1 / A S1 0.94E+06 2.19 (% OF UTS) Parameters: kg/m/sqcm 72 .72 m (%) BASIC CONDITIONS: Temperature: Wind Factor: Ice Thickness: Initial Sag-Tension Calculations: Initial Tension: Initial Stress: Initial Sag: T1 (w.0 deg C 1327.34 (kg / sqm) (kg / sqm) DATA: Basic Basic Wind Wind Span (L) Pressure (P ): Pressure (P ): CONDUCTOR DETAILS: Type: Overall Diameter (D) : Cross Sectional Area (A): Unit weight (w): Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) : Coeff.0 0.01098 0.Sag Using Tension Parabolic Calculation Equation Units 350 (m) 71.62 kg 1802.7365 0.0 1.Wire 0. of Linear Expansion (α) : Modulus of Elasticity (E): Gust Factor : Drag Factor : Creep : E .2 0 (kg) (/ deg C) (kg/sqcm) 32.583 (m) (sqcm) (kg / m) 6972.47= ∂ ∂ Weight of Conductor in kg / m / sqcm W/A 0.15E-05 1.9 * 7.7916 p Wind Load on Conductor in kg /m length of conductor 0.

68E+10 7.03E+02 -1.p P*D q Loading Factors q0.57 0.15 F T Tension (F*A) (Kg) S Sag 2 (w.19E+09 K -1.0)2 + w2)) / w F K t Parabolic Formula: kg / m W 3.585 q0.0 0 Z 6.03E+02 -1.19E+09 1.725 3.03E+02 -103.( F2 – ( K – α.E / 24.0)2 + w2)) / w 2 1 2 q0.t.∂2.56E+10 6.9911 (√ ((p*0.qo2.02 103.462 6.E Wind Variation: 0 F1 – (L2.19E+09 4.5 -1.874 4.t.75)2 + w2)) / 2.E) 6.71E+02 2063.03E+02 -103.395 2.q22.4 3569.559 Working Tensile Strength of Conductor in kg / sqcm Constant (computed from initial temperature & wind pressure conditions) Change in temperature F22.38 2716.84E+10 6.48 0 467.4 Kg 73 .36) + w )) / w 1.q22.03E+02 (Kα.02 -1.03E+02 -1.09E+02 609.855 7.750 q1.F12) l2.t.∂2.E)) = L2.E / 24 As K= keep Temperature Variation(ºC): α.E / 24 = Z 0 32 53 -712.01873 -5.∂2.L /8T) 1520 2001 1327 2629 3127 1226 5.0 1.75 (√ ((p*0.284 (m) Maximum Allowed Tension is 70% of UTS = 4880.75 1.36 0 0.8 1802.00 (√ ((p*1.36 (√ ((p*0.8 4246 1664.

CONFIGURING A. Minim. Sag of Conductor 9240 mm Length of Insulator: 2340 mm Height Till Lower Cross Arm: C. TTA .0) = 5874 mm SAG OF CONDUCTOR (00 +0. Vertical Spacing Between Conductor: 5200 mm Provided Vertical Spacing Between Cross Arm: 5200 mm Height Till Upper Cross Arm: 24100 mm D.220 KV 160 mm 18900 mm Vertical Spacing Between Cross Arms.0) = 6114 mm LENTGH OF INSULATOR = 2340 mm LENTGH OF HANGER = 160 mm SAG DIFFERENCE: 240 mm 8500 mm MINIMUM MIDSPAN CLEARENCE ALLOWED: 74 . Vertical Clearance Between Ground Wire And Top Conductor: 1- MIDSPAN CLEARANCE CHECK : SAG OF GROUND WIRE (00 +0.): Minimum Ground Clearance 160 mm Max. 7000 mm Sag Error Considered: Length of hanger: B. TOWER: Height Till Waist Level (From G.L.

CLAMP) TOTAL TOWER HEIGHT : 2- 24100 + 5800 = 5760 5800 mm 29900 mm PEAK CLEARANCE CHECK : TOWER TYPE SQUARE BASE HEIGHT FROM G. Total Tower Height: ( This includes 150 mm for G.C. 18900 LOWER CROSS ARM TRIANGULAR BASE GUYED MAST 18900 18900 mm 5200 5200 5200 mm 5000 5500 4600 mm 29100 29600 28700 mm (BOTTOM) UPPER CROSS ARM (BOTTOM) AS PER SHIELDING ANGLE REQUIREMENT: TOWER TOTAL HEIGHT : MINIMUM SPECIFIED HEIGHT OF TOWER: E. INCLUDES THE 150 mm FOR G. Horizontal Spacing Between Conductor: 28555 mm 29900 mm 8500 mm ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE CHECK : TOWER TYPE SQUARE BASE TRIANGULAR BASE GUYED MAST Electrical Clearance : 1500 3600 2000 3600 1000 3600 mm mm Total Horz. Spacing: 8700 8700 9200 9200 8200 8500 mm mm Width At Waist Level: 75 .L.W.A (BOTTOM) : (THIS HT. Horizontal Spacing Beween Cross Arm Tip : Minim..W.HEIGHT BETWEEN TOWER TOP AND U.Clamp) F.

34 (m) Broken Wire Condition Normal Condition (N.W. Ground Wire: A.W.02862 Insulator - 0. -- 2.255 G.2 G.2 2. -- 1.Loading Calculations: Design Data: Pd (kg/m) l (m) Diameter : d (m) 71.01098 Conductor 0. d .C. of Sub-Conductors/ Phase 1 For Suspension towers -1 & Tension Towers .W.) Deviation Angle:(ºC) Wind Span: (m) Weight Span (Max.W.89 Due to Deviation: 76 .0 100 Φ1 0 2 Φ2 Reliability Condition:Normal Condition I.0 Insulator - 1. -- 0.0 315 Weight Span (Min.2 Conductor 1.621 Gust Response Factor: GC / Gi Drag Coefficient: CdC / Cdi Tension: T (kg) T1(0.W. -- 0.45 Design Wind pressure 350 Normal Span G. GC .) L 350 0. CdC 2 696. L .) Factor (B.25 G.W.C.583 Conductor 1. -- 1328 Conductor 3322 G. -- 3127 Conductor 6804 G.115 Conductor 2. -- 2629 Conductor 5762 G.W.0) (kg) T(0.6 210 L1 525 1.055 Insulator - 2. Transverse Load: 1 Wind on Wire: FWC = Pd .75) (kg) w (kg/m) n m Length of InsulatorUnits: Kg & m 1 For No.) L2 200 1.W.

GC . Pd .2 474 kg Longitudinal Load: 77 .08 311 121. d . Ai .2 200 150 1.7936 Wind on Insulator: FWi = n . Conductor: A. Gi .051 806 kg Vertical Load: 1 Weight of Wire: VR = w . (L1 or L2) 2 Weight of G. CdC 2 1470.765.075 116.6 5 5 311. 306. n .490 Total: B.051.FWd = 2 .16096 Total: B. T . sin(Φ2 / 2) 237. m .W. 1. Pd .766 851. n .840 1. Cdi 3 57. cos(Φ1/2) 0 kg Normal Condition II. T . Clamp: VR = 50 N = 5 Kg Total: C.556 Due to Deviation: FWd = 2 .025 1.6 122 kg Longitudinal Load: LR = 0 * T . Total: C. kg Vertical Load: 1 Weight of Wire: VR = w .025 324. L . (L1 or L2) 2 Weight of Insulator: VR = n *m *indiviual wt. sin(Φ2 / 2) 109. Transverse Load: 1 Wind on Wire: FWC = n .051 474. 806.

L . Transverse Load: 1 Wind on Wire: FWC = n . cos(Φ1/2) kg 0 Security Condition: Broken Wire Condition Normal Condition I. L . GC .075 116.08 311 121.75) . Transverse Load: 1 Wind on Wire: FWC = Pd(0.66 0 kg 1328 Broken Wire Condition Normal Condition II. cos(Φ1/2) 0 1327.75) .3 5 188. Pd(0.782 FWd = T(0.6 Due to Deviation: FWd = 2 .6 662 78 . (L1 or L2) 2 Weight of G.LR = 0 *n* T . 306.095 0.49 359 kg kg Vertical Load: 1 Weight of Wire: VR = w .645 189 kg 63. GC .75) . sin(Φ2 / 2) 1.3 63 kg Longitudinal Load: LS = 0*T1 . kg Conductor: A. CdC 1103. Ground Wire: A.0 Total: B.6 122 58.75) .89 359.645 5 5 5 311. Clamp: VR = 50 N = 5 Kg Total: C. cos(Φ1/2) LS = T1 . 314 614.6 183.449 614 45. d . d .W. sin(Φ2 / 2) 91. CdC 2 523 0. T(0.

(L1 or L2) 612.615 200 150 200 1.051. w .025 324.2 367. cos(Φ1/2) 1661. m . n .824 1.75) . sin(Φ2 / 2) Total: B.15 233. Pd(0.2 510.342 TM = T1 . sin(Φ2 / 2) 23. (L1 or L2) 2 Weight of Insulator: VR = n *m *indiviual wt.62 711 312.246.025 1. Cdi 3 43.over load factor) 10 10 10 10 79 .2 474 kg 162. Broken Wire Condition Ground Wire: A. cos(Φ1/2) 0 LR = 0 . sin(Φ2 / 2) 100.75) .29 116.561 FWd = 0.5* n . 43. 1 kg 23 kg Vertical Load: Weight of Wire: VM = 2 .125 1661 kg 0 kg Safety Condition: Normal Condition I. Total: C.W.6 (2.2 Wind on Insulator: FWi = n . Transverse Load: Due to Deviation: TM = 2 .247 755.281 1. Gi .051 474. Clamp: VM = 2* 50 N = 2* 5 Kg (2. T1 .75) . T(0. sin(Φ2 / 2) 46. T(0.17 50.5*n* T1 .1 150 710.30 755 kg kg Vertical Load: 1 Weight of Wire: VR = w .10 312 kg Longitudinal Load: LR = 0 *n* T1 .171 46 B.over load factor) 2 Weight of G. Ai .167 1.0 Due to Deviation: FWd = n . 851.

400 300 400 Weight of Man with Tool: VM = 1500 N= 153 kg 153 153 153 153 356.612 kg 300 Longitudinal Load: Normal LM = 0 *n * 0. kg 510 Conductor: A.5 * T1 0 509.83 2.29 530 279.98 1.15 775 396.458.7788 356.963 TM = 1 .368 kg 1019 kg 80 .2 (2. w .458 1.991 115.over load factor) 2 3 4 Weight of Insulator: VR = 2 * n *m *indiviual wt. N . (0.7788 Total: c.5 * T1 0 0 1019. Transverse Load: Due to Deviation: TM = 2 .7788 1.23 324.5*T1) .2 1. 2. T1 .611. n. sin(Φ2 / 2) 116 B.931 1.2 396 153 kg 153 530.931.133. N . sin(Φ2 / 2) 28.05 648. (L1 or L2) 1702. 153 775.4 1021.009 1. kg 29 kg Vertical Load: 1 Weight of Wire: VM = 2.134 kg Weight at Arm Tip 356.7788 356.3 Weight of Man with Tool: VM = 1500 N= 153 kg 153 Total: C.684 kg 0 II.6 280 kg Longitudinal Load: LM = 0 * 0.

____________________________TRIANGULAR BASE TOWER_________________ Y X Z WIND FACE 81 .

045 0.05 0.045 0.1602 0.93 1.13 1.045 0.3024 0.23 1.3200 13 14 15 16 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 2 2 1.045 0.10 1.1710 0. 1 Panel Bound 2 3 No.WIND AREA CALCULATION Panel N0.045 0. Length (m) Breadth (m) Area (m*m) 1 Main Legs : (MS└ 100*100*08) 8 1.1107 0.1 1.37 0.6133 Panel Bound Member By By ABCD CDEF 10 Main Legs : (MS└ 100*100*08) 6 1.35 0.045 0.045 0.2034 0.27 0.045 0.3699 4 5 6 7 8 9 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.29 0.90 1.2430 82 .37 0.5778 18 19 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 4 4 1.05 0.78 2.045 0.09 0.045 0. Member No.045 0.06 2.68 1.1008 0.0320 2 3 Lattices : (MS └ 45*45*04) (MS └ 45*45*04) 4 6 1.1674 TOTAL 2.12 1.34 1.07 0.1233 0.045 0.1854 0.045 0.1890 0.1 0.2680 0.762 11 12 Lattices : (MS └ 50*50*04) (MS └ 50*50*04) 4 4 1.78 0.045 0.8927 Panel Bound By EFGH 17 Main Legs : (MS└ 90*90*08) 6 1.86 0.1602 TOTAL 1.0837 0.6 0.

79 0.11 0.0846 0.59 0.045 0.468 25 26 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 4 4 0.1422 0.1692 1.045 0.05 0.045 0.0846 0.9837 Panel Bound By KLMN 36 Main Legs : (MS └ 75*75*06) 4 1.0711 TOTAL 0.69 0.0999 0.3 0.09 0.045 0.94 1.045 0.045 0.045 0.396 31 32 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 4 4 0.94 1.05 0.1692 33 34 35 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) 2 2 2 1.045 0.09 0.1431 TOTAL 1.79 0.5048 4 5 6 Panel Bound By GHIJ 24 Main Legs : (MS └ 90*90*08) 4 1.03 1.1341 0.1 0.045 0.20 21 22 23 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 2 2 0.138 83 .94 0.94 0.11 0.1206 0.1646 Panel Bound By IJKL 30 Main Legs : (MS └ 90*90*06) 4 1.1998 27 28 29 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 2 1.045 0.94 1.045 0.045 0.49 1.075 0.045 0.88 0.0927 0.045 0.34 0.315 37 Lattices : (MS└ 50*50*04) 4 0.1692 0.0846 0.

045 0.1071 46 Horizontals : (MS└ 45*30*04) 2 1 0.045 0.075 0.1950 44 45 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 1.1071 84 .3 0.1690 51 52 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 1.045 0.19 0.05 0.045 0.0900 TOTAL 0.1071 TOTAL 0.3 0.1690 48 49 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 1.0756 0.045 0.0999 0.045 0.19 0.19 1.19 0.69 0.3 0.065 0.168 39 40 41 Redundants : (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) 2 2 2 1.11 0.19 1.84 0.045 0.7 8 9 38 (MS└ 50*50*04) 4 0.045 0.1071 0.045 0.0621 42 Horizontals : (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 1 0.1071 0.045 0.84 0.9486 Panel Bound By MNOP 43 Main Legs : (MS└ 75*75*06) 2 1.045 0.0900 TOTAL 0.065 0.1071 0.3832 Panel Bound By QRST 50 Main Legs : (MS└ 65*65*05) 2 1.4992 Panel Bound By OPQR 47 Main Legs : (MS└ 65*65*05) 2 1.19 1.

045 0.065 0.1690 54 55 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 1.0900 TOTAL 0.55 0.1071 56 Horizontals : (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 1 0.1989 0.4732 Panel Bound By UVWX 57 Main Legs : (MS└ 65*65*05) 2 1.045 0.53 1.19 1.1989 0.0864 0.065 0.19 0.03 0.4407 Panel Bound By WXY 61 62 63 Main Legs : (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) (MS└ 65*65*05) 2 2 2 1.98 1.045 0.33 0.04635 0.045 0.9977 Panel Bound By MZN Horizontals : 85 .1116 60 Horizontals : (MS└ 45*45*04) 1 1.52 0.045 0.53 1.153 0.0698 TOTAL 0.065 0.7 1.065 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.3832 STUV 53 Main Legs : (MS└ 65*65*05) 2 1.0234 TOTAL 0.24 0.1989 64 65 66 67 Redundants: (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) 2 2 1 1 1.96 1.1071 0.53 0.3 0.1782 0.1729 58 59 Lattices : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 2 2 0.10 11 12 13 Panel Bound By TOTAL 0.065 0.045 0.

11 0.87 15 Panel Bound 77 16 Panel Bound By 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.045 0.80 0.67 1.045 0. OF MEMBER IN WIND FACE : 0.0300 0.05 0.33 0.4156 TOTAL NO.0300 0.385 1.1500 TOTAL 0.4187 0.0401 0.44 1 2 UaVWX 78 79 Main Legs : (MS└ 50*50*04) (MS└ 50*50*04) 1 1 2.0403 0.35 50 74 7 64 195 86 .0494 0.1500 0. OF REDUNDANT : TOTAL NO.045 0.045 0. OF HORIZONTAL MEMBER: TOTAL NO.045 0.33 0.68 14 Panel Bound (MS└ 75*75*06) By 1 2 0. OF LATTICE MEMBER: TOTAL NO.87 0.0600 TOTAL 0.45 0.045 0.045 0.1500 0.67 1.0392 0.67 UaV Horizontals : (MS└ 75*75*06) By 0.1027 0.045 0.33 0.10 0. OF LEG MEMBER: TOTAL NO.05 0.1500 TOTAL 0.075 0.23 1.44 0.045 0.05 0.0600 TOTAL 0.055 1.0199 0.0556 0.075 0.1193 0.0360 0.045 0.05 0.05 0.0650 MZNOP 69 70 Main Legs : (MS└ 50*50*04) (MS└ 50*50*04) 71 72 73 74 75 76 Redundants : (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) 1 1 2.05 0.81 0.0665 80 81 82 83 84 85 Redundants : (MS└ 50*50*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) (MS└ 45*30*04) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.89 0.0203 0.30 0.

18 5.9 29.30 OK 8 2 2 1.15 - - 34.12 3.15 - - 28.04 1.2 5.54 GO 2.65 0.5*b*h A=0.50 0.99 OK 2 4.33 36.62 0.04 1.8 Total Panel Height: Total Height of Tower: 18.26 OK 6 2.WIND LOAD CALCULATION Panel No.58 8.50 30.6 0.9 2.82 GO 2.35 OK 12 1.69 GO 2.54 GO 2.08 4.49 23.92 5.65 0.44 2.6 0." "C.89 GO 2.49 25.50 29.23 OK 5 2.9 2.9 m m 87 ." (m) (m) (m) (m*m) (m) (m) A=b*h // A= 0.82 1.3 2.3 2.85 2.G.71 GO 2.84 GO 2.49 1. Response for Factor Gt Gt h / 3 // h / 2 α (Height & ((2a+b)/(a+b))*(h/3) (+10 m) Terrain 2) 1 6 4.49 16.30 GO 2.71 GO 2.48 27.30 OK 15 2 - 0.65 0.65 0.3 2.18 12.35 OK 5.37 OK 13 2 - 0.G.33 OK 11 2 1.01 0.06 0.5 29.5 32.83 0.62 0.075 0.47 GO 1.11 OK 3 4.5 33. Bottom Width Top Width Height of Panel Area of C.3 2.6 0.34 OK 16 2 1.12 3. C.1 27.55 - 4.55 1.55 1.3 2.47 0.31 0.93 GO 2.48 34.25 0.20 OK 4 3.32 OK 10 2 2 1.48 12.G.6 0.62 1.G.28 OK 7 2 2 1.92 4.45 2.29 OK 14 2 2 1.44 2 2.48 34.54 0. of Panel Panel From Its Base C.44 GO 2.31 OK 9 2 2 1.5*h*(a +b) check Gust check for Gt : C.09 GO 2.45 3.G.14 GO 2.49 20.65 0.3 2.31 0.3 2.41 GO 2.6 0. from BY Tower Base HEIGHT "b" "a" "h" "Ap" "c.89 GO 2.77 17.5 3.075 0.g.19 1.

29 GO 2.60 0.44 OK 2.00 GO 1.42 OK 2.31 0.04 0.82 0.60 OK 2.11 584 779 3 1.62 0.49 OK 2.16 8.45 OK 2.35 OK 2.75 Factor: 1.15 0.35 128 171 4015 5353 Pd - & W-Zone 4) Kg / (m*m) check: 88 .38 2.32 123 164 10 0.09 GO 2.34 27 36 16 0.16 GO 2.35 133 178 12 1.31 122 163 9 0.18 GO 2.23 363 483 5 0.30 147 197 8 0.60 0.58 OK 2.21 GO 2.04 0.67 OK 2.15 GO 2.41 OK 2.19 0.45 α( R.89 17.61 27.42 OK 2. (Ae/Ap) α (Φ) Wind Load on Tower Wt=Pd*Gt*Cd*Ae (kg) (kg) Factor: 0.00 α (Height & or Triang.47 2.WIND LOADING Panel Area of Area of Solidity Check Drag Check Gust No.98 5.38 2.29 26 35 14 0.85 0.37 265 354 13 0.53 OK 2.50 12.14 GO 2.15 1.31 0. Terrain 2) Design Wind Pressure: 71.50 2.11 GO 2.15 GO 2.33 145 193 11 0.00 GO 1.15 1.15 0.58 OK 2.18 GO 2.73 OK 2.44 2.28 272 363 7 0.19 GO 2.79 OK 1.60 0.95 4.42 2.49 0. Members Panel Ratio for Cd : Φ Coefficient for Response Cd Factor Ae Ap (m*m) Φ Cd Gt (m*m) Trap.09 OK 2.Level 1 & Terrain 2 1 2.42 2.60 0.19 GO 2.30 130 173 15 0.60 0.26 297 396 6 0.99 777 1037 2 1.40 OK 2.00 3.17 GO 2.20 475 633 4 1.13 GO 2. & Rec.

50 Bottom 0. Factor: 0.51 Top 0.APPLICATION Panel Wind Load on Tower Panel No.52 Top 0.48 Bottom 0.52 Top 0.50 Top 0.00 354 11 133 178 15 27 36 16 10 9 8 7 128 145 123 122 147 171 193 164 163 197 13 26 35 14 130 173 6 272 363 5 297 396 4 3 2 1 Check: 363 475 584 777 4015 Load Distr.52 Final Applied Load Distributed Load Factor: 0.49 Bottom 0.75 88 177 118 236 88 177 118 236 88 - 118 - 88 118 - - 64 69 0 27 61 67 85 93 0 36 82 89 125 163 - 167 217 - 302 358 - 403 477 - 76 101 89 119 - - - - - - - - 72 72 62 62 61 61 96 96 82 82 82 82 195 195 260 260 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 74 74 0 26 65 65 98 98 0 35 87 87 139 165 - 185 220 - 334 631 - 445 841 - 132 141 144 153 176 186 176 188 192 203 235 249 466 466 621 621 - 230 244 284 301 376 402 307 326 378 401 501 535 918 918 1224 1224 4015 5353 4015 Factor: 1.50 Top 0.49 Bottom 0.75 Factor: 1.51 Top 0.49 Bottom 0.75 12 265 Factor: 1.0 Top 0.67 Top 0.51 Top 0.50 Bottom 0.49 Bottom 0.50 Bottom 0.48 Bottom 0.0 Bottom 1.48 Bottom 0.00 83 111 158 210 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1384 918 1845 1224 346 461 - - - - - - - - 230 306 4015 5353 4015 5353 5353 Check: 89 . Distr.00 Factor: 0.48 Bottom 0.50 Top 0.50 Top 0.0 Top 0.51 Top 0. Factor 483 633 779 1037 5353 Top 0.50 Top 0 Bottom 1.50 Bottom 0.52 Top 0.33 Bottom 0.50 Bottom 0.

( APPENDIX B 90 .

TRIANGULAR BASE TOWER Y X Z Y X Z TOP VIEW 91 .

143 1.C.15497 31.7667 1.8156 3.15497.15497.99947 18. 4 3 0 5.311822.46684 19.15497 9.15497.E.87858 7.0511 3.051 0.9 1. 20 2.73065 28. 1 0 0 0.49973 18. 109 0.882.15497 12. 123 0.1 2.9 1. 120 6.46684 18.9 2.0663135 18.9 1.39947 24. 148 3 7.99947 20.00053 20.15497.15497 29.10942. 118 6.1 1.27557 12.02759.09128. 114 6. 145 3 2. 3.2 2.542323 20.STD 1.1552 0.72053.8578 3. 2005 * * Time= 15:50:11 * * * * USER ID: AMAN (D.15497.59947 24.37852. JOINT COORDINATES 8. 116 6. 62 3 21.77989 16.15497 14.7667 2.80053 19.45989 5.3333 1.1 1.9 1.9 1. 92 0. 113 4.9 2.9 1.46684 24. Intl.9 2.80408 2.882. 125 1. 32 7. 6. 2 6 0 0.35179 2.06631 19.80406 2.30632. * * Date= JUL 5.64847 2. 124 -0.53316 18.882.10302 4.6319 3.39947 18. 66 3.8 1.15497.30632 24.8155 1.1 1. 128 -0. 93 3 16. 34 3 20.39947 18.53316 19.73065.311822 18.8 1.171334.00053 21.00053 22. 126 -0. 96 3 8.22011 16.1 1. 85 4.01849.15497. 150 1.80053 24.2 1.736429. 119 5.9 1.39947 19. 107 1. 147 1.8577 1.10979 17. 2.736429 17.15555 2.99947 21.87486 4.89414. 81 3.9 1. 97 3 5.54874 14. 91 0.051 0.59947 18.Pro * * Version 2004 Bld 1001.59947 18.73065 26.9 1. 146 4.0096 32.80053 18. 63 2. 36 3.15497. 19 3 18.8746 0.15497.0663135 19. 33 -1. 24 3. 89 1.3333 1.51199 33.1 1.9 1. 83 4.72443 12.196. 65 3.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV **************************************************** * * * STAAD.06631 18.7667 2.1 1.37865 92 .437251 34.45126 14.6318 0.882 13.8577 1. 80 3 18.5 1.15497.19947 18.99947 22.02759 16.9 2. 23 2.00053 18. 127 0.80372 0.15497 11. STAAD SPACE TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 18-MAY-05 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KG 7. 94 3 14.7667 1.) * **************************************************** INPUT FILE: Structure2-Suspension. 149 4. 21 3. 108 -0. 84 4.51184.30632.1 2.39947 19.30632.882.3333 1. 90 1.8155 1.15497 27.15497.10267 0. 121 1.15497.542323.6318 0.15497.93936 8. 122 -0. 117 4.8 2. 61 3 22. 144 3 17.89021 17. 64 2. 142 4. 82 2.13721.15497. 5.12119 7.73065 30.57122 22.09128.15554 2. 86 5.15497.5 1.73065 23.01849 15.15497 25. 87 5.40456 21.00053 24.99947 24. 31 -1. 22 3 24. 95 3 12. 115 5.50027 18. 35 2.540108 5.5 2.3333 1.INDIA * * Proprietary Program of * * Research Engineers. 110 -0.15497 10.10267 0.9 2.89414 19.19947 19. 4.9 1.2 1.0663135 24. 88 1.30632.06064 8.8746 0.

60592 14. 221 0. 230 2.67589 3.6042 2. 253 2.54153 48. 162 3. 234 4.8184 2. 202 1 0.997115. 255 1.934693 4.88361 59.647997 36. 218 3 2. 220 0.53055 11. 212 5.465489 60.405081 3.779248 79.3274 0.607025 69.49973 23.40763 76. 213 5.41216 13. 272 4. 191 2.0152 3.4526 2.374537 64. 239 4.114223. 242 3 10.33705 15.05143 9.4526 2.388656.56255 45.47487.05699 15.795 77. 155 3 13.74371 12.50468.32681 6. 201 2 1.9616 2.15 2. 262 3. 165 3.4506 0. 195 3.50023 9.86937 3.12911 1.934693 0.60592 12.3169 1. 216 0.73925 0. 152 3.01507 1.4524 0.85 1.7519 2. 241 1.54949 0.155911 58.12928 3. 163 3 20.671727.30133.155911.858104.85 2.15497. 169 3.75873.3275 1.49974 20. 236 3. 168 3 22. 177 4.3886 2. 245 4. 237 3. 259 2.7518 1.01848.96968 9.72524 17.0422 1. 219 3 1.815284 46.241578.35998 0.7518 1.934687 0.82727 4.49965 9. 229 1. 224 5.12928 3.673192 6. 215 0.94142 16.53979. 258 2.46099.5416. 159 3.72742.8184 2.1196 14. 203 1. 267 4. 226 1.61758 4.86222 11.93866 10.15 1.86915 0.6039 0. 274 2.46093 82. 264 1. 223 3 6.114223 51.135027 1.27567 0.61729 0. 227 1.97979.01849.72995 2.55 2.59091 8.3415 3.27437 14.49974 22.806276 7. 244 3. 232 4.01848.45 1.95337 1.8365 10. 196 4.88029 14.692213 73.41191 49.15497.66852 16.04735.45048 17.50027 20.12893 0.01849 41.46933 9.59516.39397 14.59492 3. 247 1.2251 1.3603 4.0571113.93361 3.27576 5.3169 1.9614 1.0422 1.86939 3.19111.50026 23.827 0.79054 6.9532 0.27567 0.55 2. 261 2. 277 2.03032 8.25618 12.26335.09761 40.7517 0.95304 78. 178 3 13.21184 13. 175 1.0779555 57.34517.7236 0.86937 1.858104.997115.0422 2.40756 72.78793 13.90584 3.489787.77005 6.66833 11.233866. 252 2. 198 1.53985 81. 266 4.11302 38.40666 54.960865 44. 275 2.317 2.41729 61.01508 1. 167 3.55 1.7236 0.5606 6. 257 3. 270 3.38995 16.33154 11.73935 1.86497 1.90119 1.50358 87.43929 8.66273 15.934573 0.55134 0. 192 3.01849.75879.0571113.40656 53. 166 2.86222 12.59516.67456 52.2252 2.7519 2. 251 3. 208 3.5606 8. 164 2.2251 1. 222 3 7. 233 4.73948 3.270054 2.46049.01849 43.09898 1.72563 14. 179 4.95354 3.45 2. 206 2.77005 3. 248 2.2252 2. 280 2. 279 2.04719.827 0.822068 37.934573 0.49974 19. 176 3 15.85 2. 268 3. 193 1.83728. 161 3 17.99667 74.8181 0.9334 0.58784 13.67466 55.7517 0.13778 11.24403.95298.47494 65.0422 2.55151 4.0611 10. 235 4.0149 0.66852 15.15497.374537 66. 170 3 23.90119 1.05847 16.03032 9.3414 0.96968 8.30128. 271 3.50461.19118.3274 0.50352 85.01849 42.53055 9.27088.2249 0.9616 2. 238 4.3168 0.59228 93 .46042 67.22995 6. 211 5.93039 86. 207 3.22995 3.40897 8.6041 2. 240 1.86939 1.489787.27294.50027 22. 157 2.54949 0. 199 4 1.465489.12893 0. 256 3. 154 3.50026 19.95355 3.94289 15.19372 7.7394 1.1635 10.57025 84. 260 2. 249 4.7237 3.2249 0.0779555. 180 1.9924 3.09429 3. 265 1.0421 0. 209 4. 156 2.55134 0. 243 3 9. 231 2.83733. 254 1. 246 4.15 2.15497.01848 47.46933 11.3277 2.61729 0.9532 0. 217 3 3.45 2.35998 0. 153 3 10. 225 5.95338 1.73953 3.32423 3.34524 63.13778 12. 194 2. 250 3.0149 0.27437 15.33137 15.9334 0.33568 15. 214 0. 190 3 19.241578 50.24397 68.12911 1.93039.61005 16.9922 0.62511 88.5703.3276 2. 205 2.607025 70.779248 80.3414 0.3276 1.233866 56.73925 0.3168 0.18543. 151 2.2728.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 35. 160 2.33137 16. 197 4.99674 75.4506 0.66431 15.0398.692213 71. 158 3 15. 204 0.966639. 200 5 0.671727.0421 0.1129 39. 228 1.317 2.41183.39397 12.01521 3.9922 0. 269 3. 278 2. 273 3. 210 5.815284.79506.94857 9.960865.18556. 276 1.62505 83. 171 2.54926 17.20934 6.388656 62.86915 0.934687 4.43929 6. 263 3.85016.09898 1.72563 15.

1091 207 218.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 89. 1034 195 146.98231 98. 1084 194 218. 286 3.46459. 1100 210 200. 2068 237 236. 1037 198 145.871868 24. 318 -0.22455 25. 3000 85 238. 319 -0. 1101 209 199. 2080 232 235.4 2. 1078 197 212 115.43666 24. MEMBER INCIDENCES 104.27463 18.77436 18. 299 3 29. 1050 207 208. 1076 197 199.9 2. 2022 91 228. 2066 237 222 128. 2072 237 230. 1077 199 212. 1094 196 209. 311 2. 1024 97 194. 313 3 28. 1105 194 195.19675. 1048 209 210 111. 1070 215 204. 2065 230 222. 2076 226 220 130. 2085 231 222.56334 24.1 2. 3008 243 96. 2005 222 223. 3006 241 91 134. 1075 215 202.832 1. 1033 194 147. 2029 149 236 124. 1000 87 211. 1041 202 1 110.53747 90. 1062 215 198. 1038 199 200.50027 20.4308 2. 1020 87 196. 2004 221 92. 2037 231 97. 321 3 24. 2036 230 150. 1067 203 215. 2008 225 87. 309 2. 1008 216 1.50027 24. 292 3 20. 2073 236 231. 3020 95 250.46467.4 2. 2083 232 233. 2063 230 231. 2077 232 224.4308 1. 289 3.4 1. 3005 240 241.5922 94. 2088 220 229. 2002 96 222 121. 1040 201 202. 3004 239 86.5201 1.2 2. 1021 97 195. 2001 91 220. 1039 200 2.3885 1. 1066 193 203. 2035 229 92. 1032 193 147.09435 101. 316 0. 2078 233 225. 291 3.0626 91.2255 18. 1069 193 214.58259. 2070 235 224. 2034 228 150 125.3885 1. 1003 211 212.61005 17. 2089 220 227.01849 95.60116. 2043 237 149. 1080 212 200. 3003 238 239.4 1. 1073 201 203 114. 2082 229 227. 1049 210 2.15497.27463 17. 1011 219 4 106. 1079 197 211. 2030 150 231.4307 1. 1023 87 197. 1031 147 205. 320 3.0626.38995 17.43344. 2031 150 227.9312 2. 282 2. 1090 208 219. 2023 96 230. 1047 208 4. 1044 205 206.48303 26. 304 2.4307 1. 281 2. 1103 207 205 120. 305 3 25.4 1. 1061 198 201. 1072 202 204. 315 3.832 1. 2084 222 236. 1002 97 217. 1082 194 205. 2071 234 225 129.62421.23853. 2026 148 229.11519 17.12629. 1074 198 193. 2007 224 225 122. 2062 228 220. 3021 85 249. 2042 236 97. 1001 92 214. 310 2. 1064 216 202.72524 18. 288 3. 2087 224 234. 1006 214 215. 1065 198 214. 2025 86 235.32672 99.2 2. 1042 203 204. 1086 218 206.77545 25.129078 24.01849. 1104 208 206. 2000 86 224. 308 3. 1005 213 2 105.5156 1. 283 2.4308 1. 290 3. 1095 212 210. 317 1. 1088 195 207 117.01849 103. 1028 146 207. 1092 195 218. 1087 206 219.3413 24. 2041 235 149. 1093 195 217 118. 2064 231 223. 1102 196 197. 1026 145 199. 2020 86 232.3885 1. 1045 206 4. 1071 204 216.4308 2. 306 3.28428 96. 2074 226 229.60108.74152 28. 1085 217 194. 2075 229 221.02924. 312 3 26. 1022 92 198. 3022 90 255. 1007 215 216.49973 20. 2027 148 233. 1063 215 201 112.62467 102. 2079 233 234.73175. 1099 196 211.2 1.25848 28.9 1. 1098 196 212 119. 2028 149 234.3885 1. 2006 223 97. 3007 242 243. 2039 233 87. 2033 227 92.9401 1. 1036 197 145. 1004 212 213. 2061 227 221 127.15497. 1068 193 215 113. 2060 228 227. 1027 145 201. 2086 224 233 132.50027 18. 2032 226 148. 314 3.1 2. 1035 196 146 109. 1010 218 219. 1096 210 213.58258 100. 2021 91 226. 287 2. 1029 146 209.9823. 3001 90 240 133.3886 2. 1083 205 218 116. 307 3 24.49973 24.28425. 285 3.49973 18. 1025 92 193 107. 1081 200 213.43342.9 1.9 1. 3002 95 242.22777 97.12629 92. 1030 147 203 108. 2040 234 87 126. 3023 95 252 94 . 1043 204 1.88469 17. 2067 236 223.01849. 2003 220 221. 284 2. 2069 235 234.832 1.53739 93. 1089 218 208.1 1. 322 2.51697 26. 2081 226 228 131. 2038 232 148. 293 3. 1097 209 212.363801 24. 294 2. 2024 96 237 123.4 1. 1009 217 218.

159. 6031 162 290. 6027 160 6028 6033 6038 6043 6055 6064 6069 6074 6079 6085 7020 161 284.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 135. 3027 151 254. 6001 19 144 21 142. 5073 176 268. 6029 161 285. 4075 179 266. 278 157. 137. 3069 251 243 153 240. 6035 283 160. 5023 93 4020 84 263. 6004 143 88. 6061 162 142. 158 160. 89 3024 3029 3034 3039 3060 3065 3070 3075 3080 3085 4000 85 244. 5027 157 276. 4073 267 179. 3042 254 91. 6081 283 289. 6039 287 161. 5074 177 269. 144. 7029 191 20. 169. 6024 19 289. 7001 35 20. 5003 175 5024 93 268. 6078 282 284 144 280. 3068 152 242. 4061 156 178 179. 3037 249 152. 4025 84 4026 4031 4036 4041 4062 4067 4072 4077 4082 154 156 260 265 154 180 263 266 256 266. 4004 179 85. 4032 256 154. 4034 258 95. 6065 160 144. 4065 156 180. 154. 6052 20 82. 3035 247 91. 5078 272 271. 6003 142 83. 174. 6053 80 21. 4030 156 258 265. 5031 159 273. 3086 240 247. 4028 155 260. 5039 275 5040 5061 5066 5071 5076 5081 6002 276 89. 5083 277 275. 6050 20 80. 5038 274 89. 3074 238 245 238 246. 6063 161 143 160 143. 3077 239 246. 6020 21 286. 5068 175 276. 4063 155 179. 4071 265 260 179. 6026 160 280. 5060 159 176 157 176. 5002 93 176. 6030 162 288. 5064 157 175. 6066 283 144. 5043 279 94. 3082 255 248. 3067 252 250. 153. 4081 178 259 259. 267 147. 7023 34 191. 4066 180 261 264. 6067 290 144. 3040 252 151. 7027 190 21. 3076 246 245. 5026 157 279. 5042 278 157. 3028 152 246 152 251. 4024 94 256. 148. 4042 266 85. 166. 4078 256 178. 3032 244 153. 6000 20 143. 6086 81 80. 175. 3083 240 255. 5077 177 272. 5063 158 177. 3064 242 250 242 251. 5065 159 177 175 277. 5000 83 177. 6062 161 142. 7030 192 21. 7031 192 95 . 4043 267 154. 5005 177 84. 162. 3081 249 244. 150. 90 146. 6023 19 283. 6060 162 144. 149. 172. 5036 272 84. 6075 142 291. 6076 291 286. 7022 19 191. 5072 176 278. 3071 152 238. 4003 178 95. 3026 151 253. 6072 142 286. 6040 288 83. 178. 3072 153 238. 4035 259 156 90. 4083 258 257. 7021 36 192. 151. 6036 284 88. 142. 5080 273 279 268 278. 6054 81 19 82 19. 3088 241 254. 6051 21 81. 5079 276 274. 3033 245 86 246 86. 6077 288 285. 6068 143 282 143 281. 4074 267 263. 143. 177. 5021 88 275. 138. 6041 289 162. 5035 271 84. 7000 34 19. 5001 88 175. 6080 289 144. 5067 175 275. 5037 273 94. 282 168. 5030 159 272. 5028 158 274 5029 158 271. 140. 4064 155 180. 19 5004 176 94. 4038 262 85. 4040 264 156 90. 3089 241 247 84 179. 4027 154 257. 3061 151 242. 6021 20 6022 20 281. 3038 250 152 251 96. 6082 280 290. 6070 143 287. 165. 190 179. 7025 35 7026 190 20. 3043 255 151 252 242. 4037 261 155. 6083 281 287 82 81. 136. 5082 270 269. 4002 94 178. 4076 179 262 262. 171. 6042 290 93 291 162. 164. 3087 247 254. 4069 180 260. 7002 36 21 34 192. 3031 153 245. 176. 6005 144 93. 6032 280 93 281 160. 3063 253 243. 3078 239 245. 3036 248 153. 4029 155 262. 5070 176 279 176 273. 6025 21 291. 152. 4022 89 264. 4005 180 156. 3025 90 248. 139. 6073 142 285 142 288. 163. 141. 3041 253 96. 5020 83 269. 5032 268 159. 5041 277 157. 3084 240 248 240 254. 4070 180 265. 3030 153 247. 4021 89 261. 173. 3066 253 251. 4060 154 178. 4079 178 258. 7024 36 190. 3062 242 253. 287 167. 3079 238 249 238 244. 6087 80 82. 3073 151 240. 5062 158 175. 6071 143 284. 170. 5025 83 270. 4068 264 261. 5033 269 158 5034 270 159. 155. 158. 4033 257 95. 4001 89 180. 161. 5069 175 274. 4039 263 155. 6034 282 88. 145. 4080 178 257. 7028 191 35. 4023 94 259. 6037 285 83 286 161. 5022 88 277. 5075 177 270 177 271.

12003 310 311. 10028 170 23. *50-59: *60-99: 219. 226.. 8028 164 64. 11001 305 22. 194. 8024 36 165.03 END DEFINE MATERIAL 7060 292 293. 11000 24 306. 199. 13082 125 19. 12071 312 315 21 115.. 7050 35 292.. 13029 126 33. 14005 110 31. 13006 115 116. 9021 61 167. 8029 164 35. 9031 168 64. 196. 11025 304 307 307 306. 7062 292 294. 11030 309 304 309 23. 60-99:REDUNDANT-C. 13020 36 119. 8001 64 35. 13064 120 118. 13027 120 32 125 126. 9001 63 64. 217.. 11051 304 305. 34 181. 9026 166 63. 7054 293 34. 209. 7053 292 36. 34 184. 13070 19 117 21 119. 11028 308 305. 12005 312 313 313 299. 14070 319 107 318 109. 8025 66 8026 163 64. 198. 13001 19 113. 12068 305 310. 12064 313 311.3 DENSITY 7850 ALPHA 1. 7055 294 215. 224. DEFINE MATERIAL START ISOTROPIC STEEL E 2. 8030 165 62. 8022 34 164. 10060 321 320. 13067 116 114. 13030 127 128. 214. 13083 127 20. 8021 66 163. 12060 312 314. . 10055 321 23. 213. 14024 319 317. 14067 318 110. 14063 110 108.. 14021 31 318 316 304. 11002 304 23. 13074 121 123. 10051 22 322. 14073 316 23 LEG 59: BRACING HORIZONTAL REDUNDANT . 12007 314 315. 10031 171 61. 20-39:UPPER MEMBER-C. 12069 310 313. 14072 317 22. 10000 24 65. 190. 11024 23 307. 13022 34 125 34 117. 10027 169 65. 11052 305 306. 8023 62 164. 9025 61 166. 13063 119 115. 11050 306 304. 14020 31 319. 12070 306 312. 14000 109 23. 10050 24 321. 193. 13021 35 127. 11022 24 308. 200. 189. 205. 14025 317 305. 13075 123 127 122 124. 7052 36 293. 9027 166 64. 13080 126 121 128 123. 13079 126 122. 13084 20 121. 61 187. 13008 121 122. 00-19:LOWER MEMBER-C. 202. 197. 13077 124 128. 10061 321 322 322 320. 12004 311 299. 10023 24 170. 14023 318 316. 216. . 9028 167 9029 167 66. 12061 312 310 314 310. 14001 107 22. 218. 165 183. 11027 307 24. 201. 13078 128 126. 208. 221. 96 . 12008 315 299. 211. 13085 123 122 21 113.. 9022 66 168 9023 65 168. 207. 220. 9020 65 167.A. 185. 14060 107 317 109 316. 212. 12066 304 314 314 311. 36 182. 11020 22 309 305 309. 13004 113 114 114 32. 192. 13072 127 125. 10026 169 61.A. 13003 19 121. 8000 62 34. 13087 115 114. 13069 115 120. 62 186. 204. 14068 318 319.. 13062 113 115. 9030 168 63. 14069 23 107. 13065 118 114 120 116. 13024 117 118. 13060 117 113 119 117. 9002 65 66. 14002 107 108 108 31. 13031 128 33..2E-005 DAMP 0. 13073 125 121. 10029 170 63 171 63. 9024 62 166.. 13068 113 118. 195. 13011 124 33.05E+010 POISSON 0. 10024 22 171 23 171. 8002 66 8020 36 163. 10022 65 170.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 180. 225. 13026 119 120. 14064 108 319. 14004 109 110. 12063 313 315. 12065 315 311. *00-19: *20-39. 191. 11029 308 22. 206. 10054 320 22. 10001 23 63. 7061 294 293. 203.. 7051 35 294. 10002 22 10020 10025 10030 10053 10062 11021 11026 11031 12001 12006 12062 12067 13000 13005 13010 13023 13028 13061 13066 13071 13076 13081 13086 14003 14022 14061 14066 14071 24 169. 223. 13025 118 32. 13007 116 32.. 13002 20 123. 222. 10021 22 169. 14062 109 107. 210. 12000 304 310 305 312. 13009 122 33 123 124. 11023 306 308.A. 8027 163 35. 188. 8031 165 9000 61 62. 12002 306 314. . 14065 109 108 317 316.. 10052 24 320 322 23.

3000 TO 3008 4000 TO 4005 TABLE ST ISA90X90X8 231. *BRACING: 236. 12000 TO 12008 12060 TO 12071 13000 TO 13011 13020 TO 13031 13060 TO 13087 - 97 . *REDUNDANT 243. 14073 TABLE ST ISA45X30X4 262. 13001 13003 TO 13005 13008 13009 14001 TO 14003 TABLE ST ISA75X75X6 256. 3079 TO 3087 4066 TO 4083 5066 TO 5083 6066 TO 6083 6085 TO 6087 246. 10021 TO 10031 10050 TO 10055 11000 TO 11002 11020 TO 11031 11050 TO 11052 271. 7050 TO 7055 10050 TO 10055 TABLE ST ISA45X45X4 241. 7060 TO 7062 10060 TO 10062 12063 TO 12065 TABLE ST ISA45X30X4 247. 1064 1071 1072 1074 1081 1087 1090 1096 1100 1102 1104 1105 2062 2065 2066 244. 1089 1091 1092 1094 1095 1097 1098 1101 1103 2060 2063 2068 2069 2074 2083 249. 1065 1069 1079 1085 1093 1099 2061 2064 2067 2071 2075 2078 251. 13068 13070 13080 13082 14070 14072 TABLE ST ISA45X45X4 263. 2084 TO 2089 5060 TO 5065 6060 TO 6065 12060 TO 12062 12066 TO 12071 250. 9020 TO 9031 10020 TO 10031 11020 TO 11031 3020 TO 3043 TABLE ST ISA45X45X4 238. 6085 TO 6087 7000 TO 7002 7020 TO 7031 7050 TO 7055 7060 TO 7062 269. 2070 2072 2073 2076 2077 2079 TO 2082 3060 3062 3064 TO 3067 3074 TO 3076 245. *HORIZONTAL 240. 5000 TO 5005 TABLE ST ISA90X90X6 232. 2020 TO 2043 6020 TO 6043 TABLE ST ISA50X50X4 239. 4000 TO 4005 4020 TO 4043 4060 TO 4083 5000 TO 5005 5020 TO 5043 267. 3063 3069 3077 3078 3088 3089 TABLE ST ISA45X45X4 252. 1061 TO 1063 1066 TO 1068 1070 1073 1075 TO 1078 1080 1082 TO 1084 1086 1088 248. MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1000 TO 1011 1020 TO 1045 1047 TO 1050 1061 TO 1105 2000 265. MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN 228. 13060 TO 13067 13069 13071 TO 13079 13081 13083 TO 13087 14060 TO 14069 14071261. 8000 TO 8002 8020 TO 8031 9000 TO 9002 9020 TO 9031 10000 TO 10002 10020 270. 12008 TABLE ST ISA65X65X5 235. *LOWER MEMBER 255. CONSTANTS 264. 13020 TO 13031 14020 TO 14025 TABLE ST ISA50X50X4 259. *REDUNDANT 260. 2001 TO 2008 2020 TO 2043 2060 TO 2089 3000 TO 3008 3020 TO 3043 3060 TO 3089266. 8000 TO 8002 9000 TO 9002 10000 TO 10002 11000 TO 11002 12000 TO 12007 234. 13000 13002 13006 13007 13010 13011 14000 14004 14005 TABLE ST ISA65X65X5 257. 6000 TO 6005 7000 TO 7002 TABLE ST ISA75X75X6 233. *CROSSARM: 254. *UPPER MEMBER 258. 3061 3068 3070 TO 3073 4060 TO 4065 TABLE ST ISA55X55X5 253. 1000 TO 1011 2000 TO 2008 TABLE ST ISA100X100X8 230. 1020 TO 1045 1047 TO 1050 4020 TO 4043 5020 TO 5043 7020 TO 7031 8020 TO 8031237. 5060 TO 5083 6000 TO 6005 6020 TO 6043 6050 TO 6055 6060 TO 6083 268. *LEG: 229.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 227. 6050 TO 6055 11050 TO 11052 TABLE ST ISA50X50X4 242.

LOAD 1 RELIABILITY CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 806 FY -311 31 FX 1766 FY -1051 32 FX 1766 FY -1051 33 FX 1766 FY -1051 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 2 SECURITY. 322. 281. 1 2 4 FIXED 275. 304. 301. 300. 323. 296. 295. 313. 282. 311. 290.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 272. 309. 320. 310. 287. 288. 302.GROUND WIRE BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 359 FY -189 FZ 1328 31 FX 1247 FY -1051 32 FX 1247 FY -1051 33 FX 1247 FY -1051 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 4 SECURITY. 289. 317. 276. 291. 277. 308. 318. 297. 321. 316. 312. 299. 280. 319. 298. 292. 14000 TO 14005 14020 TO 14025 14060 TO 14073 10060 TO 10062 273. SUPPORTS 274. 279. 306.TOP CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -311 32 FX 1247 FY -1051 31 FX 755 FY -711 FZ 1661 33 FX 1247 FY -1051 98 . 315. 294. 278. 285. 305. 303. 283. 293.NORMAL CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -311 32 FX 1247 FY -1051 31 FX 1247 FY -1051 33 FX 1247 FY -1051 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 3 SECURITY. 307. 284. 286. 314.

337. 329. 332. 378. 374. 365. 328. 330. 373. 353. 360. 325. 344. 349. 341. 351. 364. 354. 362. 334. 361. 357. 338. 371. 359. 343. 375. 331. 367. 339. 345. 358. 377. 327. 368. 348.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 324. 336. 335. 355. 366. 356.GROUND WIRE BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 23 FY -530 FZ 510 31 FX 116 FY -2611 32 FX 116 FY -2611 99 . 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 5 SECURITY. 372. 363.BOTTOM LEFT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -311 31 FX 1247 FY -1051 32 FX 755 FY -711 FZ 1661 33 FX 1247 FY -1051 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 6 SECURITY. 352.BOTTOM RIGHT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -311 31 FX 1247 FY -1051 33 FX 755 FY -711 FZ 1661 32 FX 1247 FY -1051 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 7 SAFETY. 333. 350. 370. 376. 340. 347. 369. 342.NORMAL CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -775 31 FX 116 FY -2611 32 FX 116 FY -2611 33 FX 116 FY -2611 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 8 SAFETY. 346. 326.

392. 431. 402. 420. 418. 427. 389. 419. 404. 432. 426. 411. 381. 401. 417. 395. 429. 400. 385.TOP CONDUCTOR BROKEN SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -775 31 FX 29 FY -1930 FZ 1020 32 FX 116 FY -2611 33 FX 116 FY -2611 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 10 SAFETY. 383.BOTTOM LEFT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -775 32 FX 29 FY -1930 FZ 1020 31 FX 116 FY -2611 33 FX 116 FY -2611 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 11 SAFETY. 387. 424. 396. 390. 384. 430. 382. 428. 33 FX 116 FY -2611 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 9 SAFETY. 406. 412. 397. 403. 413. 388. 398. 415. 410. 409. 407. 425.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 379. 416. 386. 393. 421. 408. 423. 422. 394. 433. 414. 380. 399.BOTTOM RIGHT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -775 33 FX 29 FY -1930 FZ 1020 32 FX 116 FY -2611 31 FX 116 FY -2611 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 12 RELIABILITY CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 806 FY -122 31 FX 1766 FY -474 100 . 391. 405.

463. 449. 468. 459. 452. 457. 453. 451. 477. 460.NORMAL CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -122 33 FX 1247 FY -474 31 FX 1247 FY -474 32 FX 1247 FY -474 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 14 SECURITY. 440. 485.TOP CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -122 33 FX 1247 FY -474 31 FX 755 FY -312 FZ 1661 32 FX 1247 FY -474 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 16 SECURITY. 438.GROUND WIRE BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 359 FY -63 FZ 1328 31 FX 1247 FY -474 32 FX 1247 FY -474 33 FX 1247 FY -474 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 15 SECURITY. 458. 473. 465. 436. 476. 467. 474. 464. 462. 445. 441. 448. 469. 471. 444. 466. 481. 447. 456. 435. 454. 475. 455. 32 FX 1766 FY -474 33 FX 1766 FY -474 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 13 SECURITY. 450. 437.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 434. 472.BOTTOM LEFT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -122 101 . 484. 470. 483. 439. 486. 487. 443. 488. 446. 480. 479. 461. 442. 482. 478.

TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 489. 511. 535. 499. 506. 510. 514. 498. 533. 527. 517. 507. 534. 513.NORMAL CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -396 31 FX 116 FY -1101 32 FX 116 FY -1101 33 FX 116 FY -1101 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 19 SAFETY. 494. 515. 522. 492. 512. 516. 497. 528. 493. 530. 525. 529. 541. 495. 524. 539. 518. 31 FX 1247 FY -474 32 FX 755 FY -312 FZ 1661 33 FX 1247 FY -474 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 17 SECURITY.TOP CONDUCTOR BROKEN SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 102 . 508.BOTTOM RIGHT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 614 FY -122 31 FX 1247 FY -474 33 FX 755 FY -312 FZ 1661 32 FX 1247 FY -474 299 FX 88 304 TO 306 FX 76 22 TO 24 FX 89 34 TO 36 FX 83 19 TO 21 FX 158 85 90 95 FX 346 1 2 4 FX 230 LOAD 18 SAFETY. 505. 519. 504. 540.GROUND WIRE BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 23 FY -280 FZ 510 31 FX 116 FY -1101 32 FX 116 FY -1101 33 FX 116 FY -1101 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 20 SAFETY. 521. 496. 509. 523. 502. 520. 538. 501. 526. 536. 542. 531. 491. 500. 543. 532. 490. 537. 503.

578. 566. 551. 564. 550.BOTTOM LEFT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -396 32 FX 29 FY -1133 FZ 1020 33 FX 116 FY -1101 31 FX 116 FY -1101 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 22 SAFETY. 581. 570. 582. 560. 546.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 544. 574. 299 FX 46 FY -396 31 FX 29 FY -1133 FZ 1020 32 FX 116 FY -1101 33 FX 116 FY -1101 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 LOAD 21 SAFETY. 545. 547. 573. 559. TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 3 126 DOF 1302 103 . 556. 576. 555. 548. 552. 565. 563. 572. 571. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S ----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 20/ 220/ 579/ ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH= 213/ TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 22. 580. 569. 575. 557. 554. 579. 561. 562. 568.BOTTOM RIGHT CONDUCTOR BROKEN CONDITION SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 299 FX 46 FY -396 33 FX 29 FY -1133 FZ 1020 32 FX 116 FY -1101 31 FX 116 FY -1101 299 FX 118 304 TO 306 FX 101 22 TO 24 FX 119 34 TO 36 FX 111 19 TO 21 FX 210 85 90 95 FX 461 1 2 4 FX 306 583. 567. 549. 577. 558. 553.

43 5.99 -22.12 13.03 9.59 -2274.5/ 17768.88 1935.80 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 -4720.22 1435.60 -3.15 -9.96 -7465.13 -9.53 -44.96 -382.05 1415.77 -2349.59 2299.51 -6785.73 -2.54 -10.70 9.87 -1291.88 -1511.13 -4416.84 -31.44 -36.28 -72.33 -164.7 MB 584.77 -7.04 969.74 1247.22 -14.57 434.50 -28.71 -20.88 40. PRINT SUPPORT REACTION LIST 1 2 4 SUPPORT REACTIONS -UNIT KG ----------------JOINT LOAD FORCE-X METE STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE FORCE-Y FORCE-Z MOM-X MOM-Y MOM Z 92.84 22.97 141.06 -9445.15 -2271.65 -5112.48 -22392.97 65.19 24140.64 -2314.13 -19799.22 -2063.57 22.65 -1581.94 -22070.99 41.44 2320.32 -3660.52 -2.52 -21664.87 -681.86 -10.15 -3.36 -73.50 -10.38 -23551.34 23847.50 -2371.42 -9058.53 -2775.03 -20979.42 -3975.89 32456.93 -3226.95 -7.39 -809.63 7.59 -6.92 -10.08 7.54 -3511.09 -13.63 15.19 -30.50 -27.12 14. DISK SPACE = 165 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS 15.54 19002.94 -1638.67 -6.87 -1277.55 7.81 -1770.64 -23.36 -3906.30 32749.84 -3729.49 -9.81 -7221.67 -64.48 -9009.13 -75.59 -76.70 -1.21 -39.87 12707.27 73.55 1.50 -101.04 -7.17 23.85 9.78 -4791.75 -3163.72 -63.27 -22.42 -1630.25 143.02 -1594.59 -28.74 -1836.40 -29588.18 -17.99 104 .60 -5738.64 -3225.81 -1080.70 6. EXMEM = 690.52 1697.22 -1745.72 -10.89 -1028.32 -1924.23 65.89 -3203.00 -21141.43 -35.24 -23.23 -2307.17 -78.90 67.54 -2.34 -18.37 -18.20 -3366.91 -2113.99 18437.97 -1789.03 -28408.50 11042.38 8.01 -519.47 -65.01 -22637.92 -39.16 18.48 26.33 1259.8 MB.14 -35.84 -23043.89 20.11 -75.86 -5.44 -607.72 -1745.87 -7.49 -1587.91 6.77 1957.27 -2649.50 -9.50 -2.46 -2188.28 26.15 18077.96 -36.92 -61.29 -1194.32 -3255.16 -2207.80 -9.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = REQRD/AVAIL.03 -29.22 10249.84 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -5167.48 9789.34 -16.33 71.74 -3758.10 -1460.68 -36.58 1058.22 -31.69 1718.36 -36.48 -2699.71 -36.31 -92.49 -1784.87 19176.31 -6.58 -61.74 -34.28 -103.25 -8858.99 10836.69 18731.97 -1177.98 -2034.00 -5851.51 1946.94 -3287.38 32.46 8.04 -6.20 4.85 31.90 6.19 6.17 -3813.84 -22389.09 69.04 17.72 -3437.85 23.25 19698.72 666.01 94.82 -738.

53 -12. 3000 TO 3008 4000 TO 4005 5000 TO 5005 6000 TO 6005 7000 TO 7002 8000 TO 8002588.95 -32.95 9887.06 1193.31 -2723.84 30.91 2.64 26.72 1923.28 -1300.01 -477.63 25.50 13.14 13.40 -915.44 11979.96 -896.48 -1233.20 5.36 -2.27 1187.75 18.50 14.98 -36.48 2.10 -2055.98 918.72 2.96 7416.25 16.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 4 JOINT 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 -3465.77 19.02 16.23 -946.31 21.87 5689.58 -1182. *PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST ALL 586. 1047 TO 1050 2020 TO 2043 3020 TO 3043 4020 TO 4043 5020 TO 5043 6020 TO 6043590.46 -35.64 7606.24 -1707.15 -450.37 1.03 6442.63 2833. 13000 TO 13011 14000 TO 14005 13020 TO 13031 14020 TO 14025 595.32 9273.93 36.53 -7.17 -797.84 5419.20 -88.51 17.40 -915.24 5419.42 -12.07 40.41 415.39 26.78 -960.61 -3.34 17.28 -958.01 -2169.60 9838.16 15.80 15.10 1640.67 19089. 7020 TO 7031 8020 TO 8031 9020 TO 9031 10020 TO 10031 11020 TO 11031 591.83 -266.95 1 2 3 4 -258.06 8823.36 -217. 6050 TO 6055 7050 TO 7055 10050 TO 10055 11050 TO 11052 1061 TO 1105 592.61 -1072.96 -1234.67 LOAD 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 FORCE-X 521.92 MOM Z -84.37 -1101.37 16.15 17.57 -241.25 -1281.94 4601.63 -1346.35 653.01 15.45 -1072.76 7198.28 544.73 118.47 -162.52 -11.32 -478.40 9250.48 19338.89 94.15 -1668.27 20.64 1004.08 -920.88 1193.41 -2233.97 98.60 -619.29 13.60 585.54 -192.82 27.33 5.10 4. 13060 TO 13087 14060 TO 14073 105 .31 1640.50 -257.73 36.24 -917.90 7198.27 4.62 26.28 4.49 17.21 13. PRINT MAXFORCE ENVELOPE NSECTION 12 LIST 1000 TO 1011 2000 TO 2008 587.31 4.64 -1113.68 10357.26 2.43 -40.12 -4. 2060 TO 2089 3060 TO 3089 4060 TO 4083 5060 TO 5083 6060 TO 6083 593.33 29.65 -185.27 28.89 94.80 4.13 -64.60 13.69 -185.35 -896.24 FORCE-Z -1299.31 9249.90 1201.78 -432.87 6.34 5.89 6392.89 -2.50 6392.40 -21.60 -257.16 -23.27 -200.06 8865.57 16.18 5.31 FORCE-Y 7606.70 -27.89 1701.59 -433.55 2.02 -30.17 18.31 -87.64 MOM-X 18.50 13.16 8.89 97.17 21.97 121.19 17. 9000 TO 9002 10000 TO 10002 11000 TO 11002 12000 TO 12007 12008 1020 TO 1045 589.49 MOM-Y -11.65 120.13 30.63 -209. 6085 6086 TO 6087 7060 TO 7062 10060 TO 10062 12060 TO 12071 594.91 15.68 119.87 -972.79 16.04 -944.72 5.84 5.

29 7 17 12 5 58.74 9.00 3 16 4 12 -19.93 T 0.29 12 17 12 5 92.39 25.51 C 0.08 -84.74 -21.68 1.29 1.29 1.82 T 0.44 -40.00 -83.29 1.29 0.47 1.68 -54.00 12 3400.36 -56.51 LD LD MZ/ MY DIST DIST LD LD 1 10 20 15 69.38 C 0.50 T 0.29 7 10 12 1 52.13 8.00 0.29 12 1 12 6 33.29 1 8385.50 -68.34 0.00 1 5 1 5 71.00 0.29 0.00 1.95 -37.00 1.00 0.37 136.00 1.29 1.00 0.21 -161.29 12 6 7 5 53.17 0.00 20 31094.42 0.29 1 8443.09 0.29 13 9 3 16 10.29 1.00 20 3477.24 -23.29 1.75 0.29 0.07 -21.52 1.92 13.57 -72.30 C 1.06 0.00 12 31113.60 C 0.00 20 3500.92 T 1.46 C 1.00 0.29 12 5 7 17 58.93 T 1.00 1.32 167.29 1.81 21.63 5.29 0.29 20 15 1 5 38.39 -58.77 -25.47 23.00 0.00 0.53 0.00 1.29 1.92 C 0.00 0.00 12 9116.00 1.00 1.00 12 106 .25 -22.29 1.29 1 15 1 5 -23.60 0.00 20 31174.93 -65.29 1 8476.79 29.32 -76.00 12 5 12 6 -2.77 25.00 0.00 0.29 3 1025.29 20 5 1 15 68.29 1.00 0.00 1.29 1.00 0.00 1 5 1 15 84.41 23.29 3 12 13 9 24.52 -1.29 1 14 1 15 0.38 32.25 32.66 34.63 10.00 1.29 1.19 -21.41 87.63 C 1.00 0.29 1 8393.00 1.61 -33.00 3 16 4 9 FX DIST LD 31134.48 -73.24 10.00 1.89 -55.00 0.29 12 5 12 17 -0.29 7 28189.48 T 1.51 160.24 -17.00 0.78 21.52 -34.59 C 0.00 12 9124.31 C 1.29 0.74 -54.76 1.29 1.74 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.55 0.38 -22.29 -0.00 1.00 1.29 7 28246.17 -58.29 1.04 2.82 -29.04 0.11 -66.21 C 1.29 1 15 20 5 40.00 0.29 1.74 0.03 C 0.79 -59.29 3 1043.29 1.36 135.78 -59.29 1.44 -37.00 0.29 0.92 -16.75 T 0.55 -47.29 1.54 C 1.24 T 1.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV MAX AND MIN FORCE VALUES AMONGST ALL SECTION LOCATIONS MEMB 1000 MAX MIN 1001 MAX MIN 1002 MAX MIN 1003 MAX MIN 1004 MAX MIN 1005 MAX MIN 1006 MAX MIN 1007 MAX MIN 1008 MAX MIN 1009 MAX MIN FY/ FZ DIST DIST 101.00 12 3415.00 1.18 83.66 143.29 1.60 -105.45 0.00 0.53 33.29 0.29 7 28087.00 0.29 7 28049.

00 20 1978.00 1.40 21.60 1.00 0.00 0.00 12 1919.57 94.20 T 0.08 0.27 1.27 1 6974.24 0.00 1.55 -44.63 -0.38 -22.00 0.26 23.16 C 1.00 12 1 12 5 14.20 -35.84 -120.29 3 1125.29 3 4 12 16 13.15 C 1.59 3.88 C 1.09 38.00 0.27 7 25906.40 C 1.27 12 16 12 4 -2.00 20 28467.00 1.31 -16.27 7 25793.89 -55.29 0.27 0.27 1.00 1 14 1 5 9156.00 1.96 1.00 1.27 3 941.39 C 0.97 -157.04 C 0.00 1.00 0.43 0.06 0.27 12 16 9 9 20.27 1 9 20 5 -0.94 88.78 -22.00 0.27 1.00 20 107 .83 12.80 C 0.27 3 880.78 -67.00 12 9081.92 -37.18 -3.00 1.00 1.00 68.00 1.00 1.27 1.44 -10.27 1 7022.86 117.00 0.00 0.22 -12.07 1.53 -8.72 -18.00 1.00 1.29 1.27 12 1 7 20 39.00 13 9121.10 -19.00 0.36 1.00 12 9194.00 1.29 12 16 3 4 25.27 20 16 1 11 65.63 0.29 1.00 13 28436.27 1.35 0.00 0.64 T 0.00 1.82 0.06 -26.36 C 0.78 18.39 -21.70 -43.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 1010 MAX MIN 1011 MAX MIN 2000 MAX MIN 2001 MAX MIN 2002 MAX MIN 2003 MAX MIN 2004 MAX MIN 2005 MAX MIN 2006 MAX MIN 2007 MAX MIN 2008 MAX MIN 28.55 1.82 30.34 0.27 1.00 1.00 1.27 1.27 0.89 -1.50 T 1.00 1.26 34.27 3 4 13 16 1.01 C 0.27 1.00 0.82 C 0.79 -160.27 7 17 12 5 37.00 13 1937.72 T 0.27 1.67 4.56 0.27 1.27 14 21 7 17 8.27 1.89 -17.97 6.00 1.29 1.04 -68.76 14.27 1.27 13 10 3 12 22.86 T 1.29 3 16 3 4 23.09 -2.00 0.19 0.00 12 28468.76 -80.73 2.02 -15.27 1.14 T 1.27 1.39 C 1.27 14 16 17 4 5.27 1.00 1.27 9 5 1 5 -21.27 1.27 3 4 3 12 32.19 C 1.67 0.47 -21.77 -18.35 -26.94 0.27 1 7000.27 7 25786.00 0.74 4.00 7 4 3 4 -3.05 C 0.00 1.29 3 1105.29 1.20 0.41 C 0.11 -30.54 -50.09 -87.88 29.27 1 5 12 17 8.47 25.12 84.27 1.77 86.27 3 922.58 35.50 -63.29 1.27 12 5 7 5 75.40 -51.80 C 1.27 1.74 0.97 -26.00 0.27 1.99 -124.27 0.00 12 9098.27 10 5 12 17 7.29 3 4 3 16 -3.27 0.27 0.89 0.59 C 1.27 60.27 0.44 -7.38 0.15 60.00 1.33 0.55 98.00 1.59 -15.15 -3.

68 12 12 10 4 1.37 -4.09 -1.08 -0.68 0.71 -4.31 T 0.04 1.45 0.18 1.10 -2.65 C 1.68 12 12 7 7 2.00 16 2270.83 -5.18 -0.57 0.67 1.43 0.68 20 20 1 1 2.53 T 0.00 0.31 0.02 -4.00 1.00 1.68 1.50 -0.82 T 0.00 16 467.37 1.00 0.68 5 0.76 -4.37 0.56 1.99 C 1.84 0.68 21 1 1 20 2.00 15 15 12 12 1.37 11 5 16 17 1.91 1.87 1.06 -0.14 1.37 1.50 -2.68 1.30 -0.68 16 854.68 6 913.80 0.00 1.11 -1.12 T 0.41 1.33 0.10 0.68 1 1 1 1 1.36 -1.14 0.08 -0.00 1 4 16 16 1.47 -1.00 4 20 15 16 1.90 -0.00 20 99.37 11 16 12 6 0.75 1.00 -2.99 T 0.00 6 1325.62 0.48 -1.37 17 2393.00 20 134.68 1.37 10 5 15 17 0.61 T 1.08 C 1.91 4.00 0.68 12 15 12 12 1.37 16 1703.68 4 800.23 0.99 -1.14 -2.00 4 1414.89 -1.42 0.00 0.32 0.68 0.40 1.68 1.68 1.00 1.17 4.03 -0.68 1.28 0.44 -2.13 -1.51 C 1.00 5 1424.37 4 881.00 5 1 15 5 1.00 0.37 4 5 21 15 0.37 5 38.68 0.37 1.68 12 4 10 5 4.00 1.25 -1.68 16 1798.00 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.00 1.00 1.30 -0.01 C 1.00 1.29 -1.68 18 3 4 13 1.21 -0.00 0.13 3.68 22 2430.00 0.00 0.54 0.44 0.68 1.46 -4.68 0.00 0.73 0.00 4 1503.00 1.46 T 0.85 4.43 0.36 T 0.00 0.07 T 0.68 0.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 1020 MAX MIN 1021 MAX MIN 1022 MAX MIN 1023 MAX MIN 1024 MAX MIN 1025 MAX MIN 1026 MAX MIN 1027 MAX MIN 1028 MAX MIN 1029 MAX MIN 1030 MAX MIN 0.20 0.98 -4.07 0.27 0.68 1.00 1.00 16 2314.90 0.41 C 1.00 1.37 16 944.37 1.37 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.81 -0.00 0.51 -0.19 C 1.00 1.20 -1.43 0.22 2.37 1.54 1.68 1.20 -1.87 -3.33 2.36 -4.00 15 12 16 5 1.00 16 11 12 16 1509.00 0.55 -0.00 5 375.32 -0.73 1.74 0.63 3.37 0.00 0.68 1.00 3 4 4 5 3.13 T 1.90 0.91 0.17 3.00 1.00 6 108 .00 0.37 1.91 0.00 0.92 C 0.00 0.14 0.37 1.86 -0.68 0.16 -2.44 T 0.00 1 1 1 1 2.35 C 1.68 12 7 7 12 3.49 C 1.75 -0.37 5 16 20 4 0.00 0.80 C 0.

37 7 10 12 17 2.00 0.06 -1.03 C 0.39 -6.59 C 1.58 C 1.00 17 11 12 16 1.29 -0.34 C 1.65 0.98 -2.28 -0.21 1.99 1.75 0.68 7 6 15 16 0.69 -0.13 -1.37 12 17 12 12 5.37 17 2335.00 16 1417.00 1.00 20 119.24 0.70 -2.68 11 15 12 5 3.84 0.37 1.54 T 0.82 0.68 4 887.00 20 2244.37 6 816.63 -1.68 0.00 1.57 0.68 0.37 1.37 0.22 T 1.27 0.87 -1.68 5 33.92 1.37 22 2255.00 0.37 1.14 0.96 -4.37 C 0.17 -0.64 7.62 -0.26 T 1.74 0.26 -2.98 1.00 1.21 -0.90 0.68 4 11 12 16 1.17 0.24 6.02 T 0.37 1 10 20 1 0.29 0.68 17 2399.75 -0.71 0.37 1 4 1 1 0.00 6 1408.08 0.51 0.00 0.50 -1.34 -1.35 0.00 1.72 T 0.43 -0.00 5 2309.70 1.98 1.68 6 821.00 1.47 C 1.37 12 12 10 11 2.42 -0.00 0.51 -1.06 C 1.00 12 12 15 12 1422.02 0.00 0.37 0.23 -1.68 12 4 10 16 1.08 -0.12 0.80 0.68 5 15 22 16 2.37 1.79 -0.22 C 0.00 1.37 1.90 0.12 1.68 16 1709.01 -0.00 0.00 1.00 16 1418.00 16 462.02 0.00 1.50 -0.02 -0.15 1.37 10 16 17 11 1.48 0.00 4 105.57 T 0.00 1 1 1 1 0.00 5 109 .35 0.86 -0.69 -2.00 1.00 0.20 -0.08 -1.00 0.37 5 117.60 T 0.68 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.90 0.14 -0.25 -3.37 0.37 5 50.37 10 1 1 20 3.57 -2.68 1.21 -2.37 0.00 0.00 0.68 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.10 T 0.07 C 1.00 1.99 4.68 16 950.48 -3.37 1.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 1031 MAX MIN 1032 MAX MIN 1033 MAX MIN 1034 MAX MIN 1035 MAX MIN 1036 MAX MIN 1037 MAX MIN 1038 MAX MIN 1039 MAX MIN 1040 MAX MIN 1041 MAX MIN 1.00 1.28 0.00 5 191.68 12 17 9 1 1.02 0.37 1.23 0.44 0.98 1.40 C 1.00 0.61 -0.68 1.68 0.00 20 2147.24 -1.00 0.71 -0.41 -4.25 -0.68 22 11 1 5 0.80 -1.19 C 1.68 1 20 21 16 2.53 1.68 10 20 1 5 0.29 0.52 -0.00 0.68 12 17 15 5 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.38 0.04 0.00 1.00 1.00 10 11 17 16 2.00 1.72 0.21 0.75 0.00 0.70 T 1.37 1.32 -2.45 5.23 0.68 15 11 7 16 1.27 T 0.68 0.01 1.37 0.80 T 0.

37 0.00 12 12 12 16 6.64 1.00 0.28 0.13 -1.03 -7.00 1.38 -3.82 -3.04 C 1.00 0.37 12 10 11 17 3.43 0.64 C 1.67 -3.46 3.00 0.44 -1.80 0.77 -1.84 -1.00 0.00 0.37 1.35 0.37 5 4 5 4 0.37 1 1 20 20 0.99 0.04 C 1.37 6 807.28 3.12 -3.33 Z = 1.78 3.73 2519.17 2.99 -0.00 0.06 T 0.87 -1.37 1.86 3.71 T 0.00 1.83 C 1.32 -0.00 6 1353.37 1.56 1.70 1.00 1.92 0.00 16 1266.14 -3.00 1.00 1.28 0.69 1.27 -2.06 C 1.00 1.37 20 10 1 1 4.37 16 860.37 1.46 0.31 -5.62 2.00 -5.00 0.20 1.48 1.293 (KG UNIT) 597.00 16 1361.44 -3.03 -1.19 -1.37 1 1 1 12 1.13 1.22 -3. PRINT CG CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE STRUCTURE IS LOCATED AT: (METE UNIT) X = 2.37 7 12 12 11 2.00 16 1431.43 0.08 T 0.32 0.00 4 16 4 5 2.32 -0.37 16 1689.37 T 0.27 -2.00 6 216.37 16 715.37 1.17 1.37 1.00 0.43 -0.37 0.37 1.54 -0.00 1.00 0.37 6 695.37 1.37 12 17 12 17 1.52 1.00 16 1428.87 -0.37 12 4 4 4 405.01 T 0.96 3.00 4 1429.34 C 1.37 0.37 4 580.37 16 1676.37 0.36 -1.37 0.00 1.00 0.37 3 5 18 22 0.44 -1.48 T 0.21 2.37 0.83 -1.37 18 16 5 4 1.TOWER-TYPE-"A"-TRIANGULAR BASE-220KV 1042 MAX MIN 1043 MAX MIN 1044 MAX MIN 1045 MAX MIN 1047 MAX MIN 1048 MAX MIN 1049 MAX MIN 1050 MAX MIN 0.92 -2.37 1.79 C 1.37 3 12 12 4 0.37 13 5 4 22 2.00 1.65 0.37 1.00 0.90 Y = TOTAL SELF WEIGHT = 13.00 1.49 T 0.36 -0.00 1.78 2.49 0.00 1 1 1 5 0.87 0.37 1.37 0.55 -3.94 1.00 0.37 1.00 0.44 -0. FINISH 110 .37 4 789.65 C 1.00 1.68 T 0.00 0.77 0.37 1.15 0.00 18 3 3 16 1.00 5 596.

APPENDIX C 111 .

TRIANGULAR BASE TOWER Y Z X TRANSVERSE FACE 112 .

18 cm2 Ultimate Compressive Strength: 33827 31175 kg > OK Factor of Safety: 1.2 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Panel No.: Area: Steel used: Angle : Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: λ= or 127 └ cm 100*100*8 1.13 65 < 120 Compressive Stress: σcbc = Gross Area: Ultimate Compressive Strength: Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: Tensile Stress: σat = Tensile Load: Factor of Safety: cm cm2 OK STOP 2208 12.29 cm2 2600 34554 1.95 15.39 cm cm2 1 λ= Compressive Stress: σcbc or 65.v.5 └ cm 100*100*8 1.S.v.1 Check for Tension: Net Area: 13.3 Kg/cm2 > 25907 kg OK 2548 OK 113 .DESIGN OF Panel No.95 15. Single Angle Section : Rv.2 cm2 > 28469 kg 13.39 1 65.89 33981 1. 1.90 < 66 120 OK OK 2198 = Gross Area : 14. LEG MEMBER 1 Effective Length: Leff.29 m Load in Compression: PC 31175 kg Load in Tension: PT 28247 kg M. 2 Effective Length: Leff.27 m Load in Compression: PC 28469 kg Load in Tension: PT 25907 kg M.: Area: Steel used: Angle : Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: 128. Single Angle Section : Rv. 1.29 cm2 Tensile Stress: σat = 2600 Kg/cm2 2548 Tensile Load: 34554 28247 kg > OK Factor of Safety: 1.S.

: Area: Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: or 137 └ 0.: 3.6 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Panel 1 Effective Length: Load in Compression: Leff.x.1 2. 1.42 cm2 Tensile Stress: σat = 2600 Kg/cm2 2548 Tensile Load: 6292 2431 kg > OK Factor of Safety: 2.55 3151 1.: Area: Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: λ1 : λ2 : or 168.v.37 m Load in Comp.42 2600 6292 2.24 194 167 < 200 Compressive Stress: Gross Area : Ultimate Compressive Strength: Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: σat = Tensile Load: Factor of Safety: 1.x.DESIGN Panel BRACING 1 Effective Length: Leff.68 167.47 σcbc = cm cm 3&6 193.37 3&6 λ1 : 157.v.87 cm 45*45*4 Rx. 1.6 cm2 > 2315 kg cm2 Kg/cm2 > 2431 kg OK 2548 OK 114 . Single kg Angle Section : Rv.: PC 2315 kg Load in Tension: Steel used: Angle : PT 2431 M.47 1.24 167 < 200 OK Compressive Stress: σcbc cm cm2 OK 908 2.5 └ 0.37 2 OK OK 735 3.69 m PC 2315 kg Load in Tension: Angle : PT 2431 Single Angle Section : Rv.4 = Gross Area : cm2 Ultimate Compressive Strength: 2315 kg > OK Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: 2.S.87 cm 45*45*4 Rx.15 2550 1.47 157 λ2 : 167.: 3.

DESIGN Panel No.6 6.0 cm2 > cm2 Kg/cm2 > 4969 kg 3645 kg OK 2548 OK 115 .v. 13 = Effective Length: Leff.: Area: Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: λ= Compressive Stress: σcbc = Gross Area: Ultimate Compressive Strength: Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: σat = Tensile Load: Factor of Safety: or 120 └ cm 65*65*5 2.47 cm cm2 2 43.: Area: Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: 112.S.66 cm cm2 < 112 120 OK OK = Gross Area : Ultimate Compressive Strength: Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: Tensile Stress: σat 164 2 λ= Compressive Stress: σcbc or 1500 3.7 8.32 43 < 120 OK OK 2237 2.20 m Load in Compression: PC 4969 kg Load in Tension: Steel used: Angle : PT 3645 M.31 12990 2.22 23421 4. 1.64 m Load in Compression: PC 4969 kg Load in Tension: Steel used: Angle : PT 3645 M.46 8.S.33 └ cm 75*75*6 1.v. Single kg Angle Section : Rv.37 2600 21762 6.56 cm2 > 4969 kg OK cm2 2600 Kg/cm2 2548 Tensile Load: 17056 3645 kg > OK Factor of Safety: 4. Single kg Angle Section : Rv. 1.77 10.7 _____________________________________________________________________________________ Panel No. LOWER CROSS ARM 13 Effective Length: Leff.

7 ________________________________________________________________________________________ UPPER CROSS ARM DESIGN Panel 13 = Effective Length: Leff.36 4862 1. Single kg Angle Section : └ Rv.09 103 λ2 : 130.97 Area: Curve Used: Design for Compression: Slenderness Ratio: or 100 cm 50*50*4 Rx.72 131 < 120 OK Compressive Stress: σcbc FALSE = Gross Area : Ultimate Compressive Strength: Factor of Safety: Check for Tension: Net Area: Tensile Stress: σat cm cm2 1253 3.97 Area: Design for Tension: Net Area: Area of Angle Section: Area of Connected Leg Area of another Leg k= Area: Tensile Stress: σat = Tensile Load: Factor of Safety: Check for Compression: λ: 2.00 m Load in Compression: PC 4206 kg Load in Tension: Steel used: Angle : PT 1559 M.83 or 143 cm 50*50*4 Rx.669 2.83 cm2 > 4206 kg OK cm2 2600 Kg/cm2 2548 Tensile Load: 7358 1559 kg > OK Factor of Safety: 4.84 1.DESIGN Panel HORIZONTAL 6 Effective Length: Leff.: 3.43 m Load in Compression: PC 1037 kg Load in Tension: Angle : PT 5418 Single Angle Section : └ Rv.3 0.: 0.2 147 Kg/cm2 > 2548 5418 < kg OK 400 OK 116 .53 3&6 λ1 : 103.: 3.88 1.2 2. 1.x.S. 1.v.53 cm 2 cm cm2 1.x.88 1.53 2600 6579 1.v.: 0.

1 (MS└ 100*100*08) 129 31175 28247 1. 13. Load (Kg) Load (Kg) F.2 3 (MS└ 90*90*08) 107 24726 22324 1.1 2 (MS└ 100*100*08) 127 28469 25907 1.S.21 2519 Z= 1.5 11 (MS└ 65*65*05) 133 4660 2684 2.3 4 (MS└ 90*90*08) 130 21430 19246 1.4 5 (MS└ 90*90*06) 110 18355 16182 1. Is Located At: 2.9 117 .TRIANGULAR TOWER X= C.7 10 (MS└ 65*65*05) 130 6935 4606 1.2 12 (MS└ 65*65*05) 153 4641 3537 1.G.3 6 (MS └ 75*75*06) 105 13826 11874 1.DESIGN SUMMARY .3 7 (MS └ 75*75*06) 130 9999 8343 1.9 Y= TOTAL SELF WEIGHT: A.4 9 (MS└ 65*65*05) 130 6206 4982 1.O.7 8 (MS└ 65*65*05) 130 7455 6799 1.73 Kg LEG MEMBER (Rvv) curve1 < 120 Tensile Angle Section Effective Length (cm) Compressive Panel No.

2 7 (MS└ 45*45*04) 119 2135 2307 1.O.2 9 (MS└ 45*45*04) 119 3553 3316 1.6 12 - - - - Panel No.S.3 1.3 11 (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 124 96 2923 2923 2559 2559 1.7 6 (MS └ 50*50*04) (MS └ 50*50*04) 84 69 5216 5216 4981 4981 1.1 2 (MS └ 50*50*04) (MS └ 50*50*04) 161 135 2773 2773 2674 2674 1.1 1.5 3 (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 135 113 3243 3243 3323 3323 1.2 10 (MS└ 45*45*04) 119 3276 3604 1.TRIANGULAR TOWER Angle Section Effective Length (cm) Compressive Load (Kg) Tensile Load (Kg) B. F.3 1.3 1. 118 .5 5 (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 94 79 3963 3963 4136 4136 1. LATTICE (Rxx & Rvv) Curve 3 & 6 < 120 < 200 1 (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 137 169 2315 2315 2431 2431 1.9 8 (MS└ 45*45*04) 119 3386 3521 1.1 1.4 1.3 4 (MS└ 45*45*04) (MS└ 45*45*04) 111 94 3448 3448 3351 3351 1.DESIGN SUMMARY .3 1.

Load (Kg) Load (Kg) F.2 14 (MS└ 50*50*04) 128 825 5729 1.DESIGN SUMMARY .S.S. LOWER MEMBER Panel No. CROSS ARM D.3 E.7 14 (MS └ 75*75*06) (MS └ 65*65*05) 164 120 5463 5463 2312 2312 2.2 7 (MS└ 45*45*04) 100 1179 4579 4. F.4 4. UPPER MEMBER Tensile Angle Section Effective Length (cm) Compressive Panel No.O. 13 (MS └ 75*75*06) (MS └ 65*65*05) 164 120 4969 4969 3645 3645 2.O.1 Curve 2 (Rvv) < 120 Panel No.O.TRIANGULAR TOWER Angle Section Effective Length (cm) Compressive Load (Kg) Tensile Load (Kg) C.2 119 .6 4. Angle Section Effective Length (cm) Compressive Load (Kg) Tensile Load (Kg) F.9 11 (MS└ 50*50*04) 155 1482 2725 2. HORIZONTAL (Rxx & Rvv) Curve 3 & 6 < 120 < 200 6 (MS└ 50*50*04) 100 4206 1559 1.2 10 (MS└ 45*45*04) 100 2589 2682 1. 13 (MS└ 50*50*04) 143 1037 5418 1.S.