Experiment No.

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AIM :To study and measure various supply voltages of PC(ATX Power supply for PCs.) TOOLS/LIABILITIES/SOFTWARE USED: HARDWARE USED: SMPS , LMPS , Voltmeter. PRE CONDITION/INPUT: Measure voltage of various components through voltmeter POST CONDITION: Various supply voltages of PC successfully checked. THEORY: The pc power supply is mainly designed to convert AC from wall outlet and convert it into DC voltage needed by the system. However it must do this conversion efficiently and reliably, and must be able to shut down the system if it is over loaded, short circuits and over heats. When the PC power starts up, it must do it in proper sequence. When it shuts down it must prevent any voltage overshoot or fluctuations .it must check itself regularly,so that any detected failure can cause an immediate and safe shutdown.

FUNCTIONS OF POWER SUPPLY: 1. Convert AC into DC power ,to supply clean electric power to system. 2. To interact with motherboard to perform various other operations like CPU startup , shutdown ,voltage and temperature detection. 3. Supply control signals and clean power to each component.

TYPES OF POWER SUPPLY: 1. LMPS (Linear Mode Power Supply) 2. SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) 1. LMPS POWER SUPPLY:The term linear means straight.The linear supply essentially operates in a straight line from AC input to DC output.This type of supplies are transformer based and are less used in computers or peripherals.

The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear regulator may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the output direct current. Linear regulators often provide current limiting, protecting the power supply and attached circuit from over current.

For example, a bench power supply used by circuit designers may be adjustable up to 30 volts and up to 5 amperes output. Some can be driven by an external signal, for example, for applications requiring a pulsed output. Linear power supplies were the mainstay of power conversion until the late 1970’s when the first commercial switch-mode became available. Now apart from very low power wall mount linear power supplies used for powering consumer items like cell phones and toys, switch-mode power supplies are dominant.

2. SMPS POWER SUPPLY: The SMPS is digital in nature and is used with most of the PC’s. The name switching mode is given to them because they step down voltage essentially by switching the supply ON and OFF.

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source like the electrical power grid to a load (such as a personal computer) while converting voltage and current characteristics. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output voltage, typically at a level different from the input voltage. The major drawback of the LMPS is the wastage of power in the form of heat.In SMPS instead of throwing this extra energy in form of heat,it was arranged to create a feed backloop.The feedback circuit senses the output voltage provided to the load and then switches the output voltage ON/OFF according to the requirement. This is done in order to maintain steady level of output.

In the case of the high load the voltage at the output drops,which is sensed by the switching circuit results in increased chopped DC duty cycle also known as long duty cycles.It increases the voltage at the secondary winding. In case of thesmall load the output voltage increases which is sensed by the switching circuit hence it decreasas the chopped dc cycles resulting in the decrease of the voltage provided by the secondary windings. Thus in both the cases the output voltage comes back to the designed value .the regulated output voltage is then fed to the load.

+5VSB: purple color Used to power stand by circuit such as PC ON circuit . +3. ATX POWER SUPPLY FOR PC’S: OUTPUT SUPPLY VOLTAGE LINE: +5 volt: (red color) for all electrical components.Switching regulators are used as replacements for the linear regulators when higher efficiency. -5 volts: white color Used only for backward copatipility with older ISA slots. however. more complicated.wake ON LAN and remote ring ON circuitry as well as intrusion detection circuit. They are.3 volts: orange color Used to provide power to motherboard. -12 volt: blue color Used by some communication circuits(serial ports). and simple designs may have a poor power factor. smaller size or lighter weight are required. their switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed. . +12 volt: yellow color For spindal and steeper motors.

5” FDDs. The smaller size typically called a mini-plug is use for the newer style of 3. It is used on most internal drives including HDD. 2) Power-ON :-green color (input signal) Power signal is from motherboard to power supply it tells when to turn off or on the input or power supply. 3) 3. CD/DVD. often called a Molex connector is keyed by virtue of the connector itself being “D-shaped”. 2. COMPARISON OF LMPS & SMPS: .3 volt output to compensate for line losses b/w the power supply and mother board. The large size.POWER SUPPLY CONTROL SIGNALS: 1) Power–good signal:-green color (output signal) Power good is the signal from power supply to motherboard to indicate that power supply is working properly and it tell the CPU circuitry to start the CPU running. ZIP and other removable media drives and older FDD (5.3 sense: brown (input signal) This signal is used to sense the actual voltage of the 3.25”). POWER SUPPLY CONNECTORS: The connectors themselves come in two basic styles: 1.3 volt supply after it has reached the motherboard which allow the power supply to actively adjust the 3.

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Punch devices were sold to convert read-only disks to writable ones and enable writing on the unused . 7. sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. The hub that engages with the drive motor. A schematic representation of one sector of data on the disk. the magnetic medium can be spun by rotating it from the middle hole.Experiment No. A hole that indicates a high-capacity disk. 2 AIM: To Study Floppy Disk And its working. A polyester sheet reducing friction against the disk media as it rotates within the housing. 2. detected by a mechanical switch or phototransistor above it. 6. The plastic housing. The magnetic coated plastic disk. A shutter that protects the surface when removed from the drive. PARTS: Common Internal parts of floppy disk. 3. 5. 1. the disk is read-only. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD). INTERNAL STRUCTURE: The 5 1⁄4-inch disk has a large circular hole in the center for the drive's spindle and a small oval aperture in both sides of the plastic to allow the drive's heads to read and write data. APPARATUS REQUIRED: floppy disk and floppy disk drive THEORY: FLOPPY DISK A floppy disk is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium. 4. A small notch on the right of the disk identifies that it is writable. if it is not present. the tracks and sectors are not visible on actual disks.

A blank 40track disk formatted and written on an 80-track drive can be taken to its native drive without problems. or word processing often used one or more 8 inch disk drives for removable storage. Fig.side of single sided disks.3. TYPES/SIZES: 8-inch floppy disk: The first floppy disk was 8 inches in diameter. and a disk formatted on a 40-track drive can be used on an 80-track drive Fig. the O. IBM used this size as a way of loading microcode into mainframe processors. and was protected by a flexible plastic jacket. business. Rewriteable disks and drives became useful. Oddly: this arrangement was the converse of the system used on 8 inch floppy discs where the notch had to be covered before the disc could be written to. Early microcomputers used for engineering.1. 8-inch Floppy Disk 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk: The head gap of an 80-track high-density 5 1⁄4-inch drive is shorter than that of a 40-track double-density (360 kB) drive but can format. Floppy Disk COMPONENTS Tape may be used over the notch to protect writable disks from unwanted writing.88 MB floppy disk drive. but the more common 1. such modified disks became known as floppy disks. 51/4-inch Floppy Disk 3 1⁄2-inch floppy disk ("Microfloppy"): A 3 1⁄2-inch 2.2.44 MB drives looked almost . read and write 40-track disks well provided the controller supports double stepping or has a switch to do such a process. This capacity was never common. and the original 8 inch disk was not fieldwriteable. Fig.S was developed for microcomputers with 8 inch drives.

current is sent through a coil in the head as the media rotates. while a stepper motor-operated mechanism moves the magnetic read/write head(s) along the surface of the disk. To write data.4.44 MB disks had another hole which identified them as being of that capacity. This small signal is amplified and sent to the floppy disk controller. When the current is reversed the particles align in the opposite direction encoding the data digitally. 1. It is important to know the different components of the floppy disk drive before servicing the drive. Fig. and to understand .3 1⁄2-inch floppy disk were produced with a capacity of 720 KB. an action accomplished by a "disk load" solenoid. Among the most important of these are the read and write heads. FLOPPY DISK DRIVE A floppy disk drive is a hardware device that reads one of the first types of portable data storage media-floppy diskettes. and sends it to the host computer system.44 MB. To read data. which converts the streams of pulses from the media into data. These parts interact with each other and perform the functions of reading and writing data on the floppy disk. checks it for errors. write-enabled the disk. The head's magnetic field aligns the magnetic particles directly below the head on the media. also known as floppy disks.identical. All disks had a rectangular hole which. Floppy Disk Drive COMPONENTS The floppy disk drive consists of different parts. if obstructed.31/2inch FD OPERATION: A spindle motor in the drive rotates the magnetic medium at a certain speed. The floppy disk drive has many parts that are needed in order for it to work properly. 1. Both read and write operations require the media to be rotating and the head to contact the disk media. the magnetic particles in the media induce a tiny voltage in the head coil as they pass under it.5. Fig. followed by what became the most common format.

SPINDLE MOTOR: The spindle motor spins the floppy disk in the floppy disk drive. Floppy Disk Drive components READ WRITE HEAD: The floppy disk drive has a read write head. This motor is the stepper motor. The head actuator is connected to a motor that moves the head forward and backward. The first part reads and writes head on the floppy disk. The floppy disk drive uses the same head to perform both reading and writing data on the floppy disk. The floppy disk head consists of two parts. . It performs the work of reading and writing data on the floppy disk by converting the binary signals to electromagnetic signals. from the center of the floppy outwards and backward to place the head over the required track. Fig. This positioning prevents any interruption between the heads while writing data on the floppy disk.6. The double-sided floppy disk drive has two heads on both the sides of the floppy disk drive to read and write data on both sides of the floppy disk. HEAD ACTUATOR: The head actuator enables the read write head to access all the tracks on one side of the floppy The head actuator moves the read write head forward. The second part is a set of two heads that erases the data from a track before the read write head writes the data on the track. The position of the read writes head on| both sides of the drive is such that they are not opposed to each other. The spindle motor has a clamp that catches the floppy disk when the floppy disk enters the floppy disk drive.the working of the floppy disk drive. The spindle motor rotates at a speed of 300 rotations per minute.

The FDD controller is affixed on the motherboard. It consists of the circuits that send the data signals to the different parts of the floppy disk drive. present in the drive need +5V and motor need +12 V.D. power to the 2 internal FDD is supplied via a single 4 pin converter The electronic ckt. It can handle FDD of different speed TROUBLESHOOTING: Bad floppy diskette: . CABLE: the internal FDDs are connected to the FD controller board through a 34 pin flat cable.C.CIRCUIT BOARD The circuit board connects all the parts of the floppy disk drive together. The FDC is connected to the system bus &DMA controller. The function used to runthe floppy disk drive is built into the circuit board. FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER: The FDC can support up to 4 disk drives. the signal cable for the internal FDDs has a significant partial twist in it. It controls the speed of the motors and manages the positions of the read write head over the required track FDD CANTROLLER The floppy Disk Drive (FDD) controller forms the interface between the floppy disk drive and the system. In case of single FDD the drive will act as A drive whether it is connected before or after the twist. The FDC has the capacity to support different sector format. It is a card that controls the floppy disk drive. In case of two FDDs if a FDD is connected after the twist it acts as A drive and if is connected before the twist it act as B drive. POWER SUPPLY:.

Verify that other floppy diskettes are not exhibiting the same issue. Most computers need to have the floppy setup as a 3. Replace the following hardware in the computer in the below order. Not setup in CMOS: Verify that the floppy drive is properly setup in CMOS Setup. temporarily disconnect that new hardware to ensure that it is not the cause of your floppy drive not working. b. 1. it is likely for a floppy diskettes to easily become bad. Bad drivers: If you are not able to read or write to a floppy diskette from Windows. Bad hardware: If you continue to experience issues after following the above steps it is likely that hardware with in the computer is bad.Verify that the floppy diskette that you are attempting to read from is not write protected or bad. Because of the technology of floppy diskette drives. Verify that the diskette is not write protected by sliding the tab into the position not allowing light to shine through it. Confliction with other hardware: If you have recently physically installed any new hardware such as a tape drive or other backup medium. If you do not have a tab place tape over this hole. Not connected properly: a. If the floppy drive is not setup properly you may experience read / write errors or the floppy may not work at all. .44MB.5. verify that the computer is not exhibiting floppy drivers issues by testing the floppy drive from MS-DOS.

expansion slots. P2. 486. the BIOS and the setup program. mass storage interfaces. memory. BIOS. all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.P. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. even the C. serial and parallel ports. such as the display screen.U is enabled to function.The system ROM actually contains three small but very critical programs these are post. and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices. the motherboard contains the CPU. In addition to hardware the motherboard also contains some software . This device provides. THEORY: The main circuit board of a microcomputer. keyboard. P3. In addition to hardware the motherboard also contain some software. Typically. P1. The motherboard is the primary component of the entire system.Experiment No. Collectively. and disk drive. The following is the picture of motherboard: . 3 AIM OF EXPERIMENT :TO MAKE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MOTHERBOARDS: 386. HARDWARE USED: VARIOUS MOTHERBOARDS.

Fortunately. IDE controller 8. CPU 13. but still quite common type. Mouse and keyboard 2. AGP Slot 12. Floppy Controller 7. USB 3. being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector. USB (Universal serial bus): USB is the General-purpose connection for PC. most PCs that use the miniDIN for both the keyboard and mouse clearly mark each mini-DIN socket as to its correct use. CMOS Battery 11. All PCs have a Key board port connected directly to the motherboard. CPU Chip 5. You can find USB . Mouse & keyboard: Keyboard Connectors are two types basically. RAM slots 6. and most PCs until recently retained this style connector. ISA slot 10. is a special DIN. but these are fairly rare compared to the PS/2 connection keyboards. The oldest. Some keyboards have a USB connection. 2. Parallel port 4. Although the AT connector is unique in PCs. You can use an AT-style keyboard with a PS/2-style socket (or the other way around) by using a converter. PCI slot 9. Power supply plug in 1. the PS/2-style miniDIN is also used in more modern PCs for the mouse.The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are given below: 1. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing.

The memory address bus is to 32 bits . USB devices are hot swappable. 11. and built-in battery. you will almost certainly notice a single . USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular on PCs. PCI slot: Intel introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. AGP slot: If you have a modern motherboard. A USB connector's distinctive rectangular shape makes it easily recognizable. although some CPU manufactures sell the CPU with a fan permanently attached.which in turn connects to the motherboard. 8. ISA slot: (Industry Standard Architecture) It is the standard architecture of the Expansion bus. and even printers. IDE controlleris responsible for controlling the hard drive. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory module). 3. CPU Chip: The central processing unit.The bus speed is 8. Parallel port: Most printers use a special connector called a parallel port.versions of many different devices. 5. such as mice. cameras. scanners. CMOS Battery: To provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all motherboards comes with a battery. 7. The EIDE drive connects to the hard drive via a 2-inch-wide. CPUs come in Variety of shapes and sizes. Floppy controller: The floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable. 40-pin ribbon cable. You can insert or remove them without restarting your system. which uses only one wire. IDE controller: Industry standards define two common types of hard drives: EIDE and SCSI. PCI bus has replaced the ISA bus. SCSI drives show up in high end PCs such as network servers or graphical workstations. The PCI bus is used to connect I/O devices (such as NIC or RAID controllers) to the main logic of the computer. 6. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery. RAM slots: Random-Access Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU. as opposed to the serial port. also called the microprocessorperforms all the calculations that take place inside a pc. 10. Parallel port carries data on more than one wire.33 MHZ and the bandwidth is 16 bits. RAM has been packaged in many different ways. keyboards. Majority of the PCs use EIDE drives. 9. which in turn connects to the motherboard. the most common onboard battery. Parallel ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA compatible cards. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive. Modern CPUs generate a lot of heat and thus require a cooling fan or heat sink. First. 4. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. The cooling device (such as a cooling fan) is removable. RAM is measured in units called bytes.

as its name implies. Power supply plug in: The Power supply. This is an Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) slot 12. Microprocessor 2. DMA channels 8. +/-5-Volt. The power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into +/-12-Volt. but is slightly shorter and usually brown. 386 MOTHERBOARD: FEATURES OF 386 M. Bus type 4. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: 1.connector that looks like a PCI slot. Interrupt level 6. provides the necessary electrical power to make the pc operate. You also probably have a video card inserted into this slot.16. and 3.B. DMA burst mode support 80386 15. CPU slot: To install the CPU. Bus width 5. and the connector can go in only one direction.20. The power supply connector has 20-pins. Sharable 7. Be sure to plug in the CPU fan's power.3-Volt DC power.25 MHz MCA 32-bit 16-bit yes 15 yes . Special notches in the slot make it impossible to install them incorrectly. it is probably not correct. just slide it straight down into the slot. Clock speed 3. So remember if it does not go easily. 13.

No. Max. Standard FDD 2. Standard on sys board 2. Height 2.2. Power supply output 2. Weight ENVIRONMENT SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Max total memory 4. KBD password 3. Power on password PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Cache memory speed and type STANDARD FEATURES: 1. Lock covers 2. System board memory socket type 6. Paged memory logic 8. Video RAM 7. Max on system board 3.2” 16. ROM shadowing 3. 1. of ports 8. Co-processor speed 5. Temperature operating range yes 4MB 6MB. ROM size 2. Parallel ports DISK STORAGE: 1. IDE controller yes yes yes yes yes 5.25 MHz VGA 256 KB 8 1 1 1. Standard graphics 6. Memory speed and type 5.9.44MB yes.20. Automatic heat parking 4. Depth 4.5” 21 lbs 132 watt 16-90 degree . Optimal math co-processor 4. Memory cache controller 9. Upgradable processor complex MEMORY: 1. Mouse supported 9. Expansion slots SECURITY FEATURES: 1. HDD included 3. number of memory module socket 7. 8MB 16 MB 80ns dynamic RAM 36 bit SIMM 3 yes yes 25 ns static RAM 128KB yes 80387DX 16. Width 3.5” 14.

Max operating altitude 7000 ft. 486 Motherboard FEATURES OF 486 M. ISA 32-bit 16-bit 2MB 8MB 16 MB 80ns dynamic RAM 36 bit SIMM 4 yes yes .B. Interrupt level MEMORY: 1. Microprocessor 2. Paged memory logic 8. Max total memory 4. Memory speed and type 5.: SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: 1. Standard on sys board 2. number of memory module socket 7. Bus width 5. System board memory socket type 6.3. Bus type 4. Clock speed 3. Max on system board 3. Memory cache controller 80486 25 MHz MCA.

Max. Video RAM 7.2. IO controller SECURITY FEATURES: 1. No.STANDARD FEATURES: 1. Parallel ports DISK STORAGE: 1. ROM shadowing 3. Temperature operating range 3. Depth 4. KBD password 3. Power on password PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Standard graphics 6. Optimal math co-processor 4. . Mouse supported 9. of ports 8. 1. Power supply output 2. Height 2.2” 16. Width 3. Co-processor speed 5. ROM size 2. HDD included 128KB yes Built-in 25 MHz VGA 256 KB 5 1 1 1. Standard FDD 2.5” 14. Lock covers 2. Max operating altitude 132 watt 16-90 degree 7000 ft. Weight yes yes yes 5.44MB yes.5” 21 lbs ENVIRONMENT SPECIFICATIONS: 1.

1 IrDA port 1 FDD port.2 CD in.1 PS2 mouse port.AMD K5/K6-2/K6-3 and many more WAKEUP-LINK interface header supporting Intel wake-on-LAN supports “modems ring on” on board crystal 3-d audio chip 1 line out.2 ISA slots 2 USB ports.Pentium 1 Motherboard FEATURES OF PENTIUM-I M.1 mic in.1 line in.B. 1 LPT port.1 game port two DIMM slots supporting up to 512 MB memory capacity 4 PCI slots. 2 COM ports Dual IDE channels supporting 4 ultra DMA 33 IDE devices dual AT/ATX power supply interface slim baby AT Flash BIOS full S/W configurable Pentium 2 Motherboard .:               Support Intel Pentium/P-MMX.

: SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE: 1.FEATURES OF PENTIUM-II M.300. Microprocessor 2. Height 2.233 MHz 21/2” 220*240 mm” 4 layers. Operating range Max operating altitude MEMORY SUPPORT: Three DIMM slots for DRAM Max installed memory Cache BIOS: 1. Weight PII 366. AWARD system BIOS 2. Clock speed PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS: 1. DMI and green functions 50 linear feet per min across 10-40 degree C 0 to 10000 feet 168 pin memory modules 256 MB 512KB pipelined built in HARDWARE MONITORING: When CPU is over heated the system BIOS will tell board to give a series of beeping alarm and slow down CPU speed . 0.05” 18 ounces ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS: Required airflow Temp. ACIP. Width and length 3. Supports plug and play.266. Depth 4.128*8 flash ROM 3.B.

The PPGA celeron provides P-2 performance with integrated level 1and level 2 caches. SOCKET –370 PROCESSOR SUPPORT: 1. One 8/16 bit ISA slots . By CPU plug and play.550 MHz clock rates 2. Using firmware MEMORY SUPPORT: 1. All celerons are automatically config. One 32 bit PCI slots 2. Supports 66 MHz FSB system bus.100 MHz 4. Support for 66. 2. All processors config. 3.EXPANSION SLOTS: AGP slots PCI slots ISA slots 32 bit*1 32 bit*3 16 bit*3 ON BOARD FLASH ROM: Provides P&P functions for automatic CPU and board config. EXPANSION SLOTS: 1. P-2 support 233 MHz to 450 MHz clock rates 3. Pentium 3 Motherboard FEATRURES OF PENTIUM III M.: SLOT-1 PROCESSOR SUPPORT 1. P-3 support for 450. Support 66 MHz memory bus and 100 MHz memory bus.B. Max installed memory can be 3*256 MB. Three DIMM slots for SDRAM 168 pin memory modules 2.

Support for PIO modes 3. And fan speed . FDD port 1MB/s transfer rate 2. Support for bus mastering and ultra DMA 33/6 modes POWER SUPPLY AND POWER MANAGEMENT: 1. Primary and secondary IDE and PCI channels 2. Two USB ports 5. suspends which keyboard on/off BUILT-IN GRAPHIC SYSTEM 1. Dual connector for either an AT/ATX power supply.ON BOARD IDE CHANNEL: 1. Supports high resolution up to 1600*1200 pixels ON BOARD I/O PORTS: 1. One PS/2 ports One infrared port HARDWARE MONITORING: Build in hardware monitoring for CPU temp. 1. One serial ports with 16550 compatible fast UART 3. Support for green PC std. One parallel port with support for ECP and EPP 4.

000 RPM SCSI drive was announced by Seagate in early 2000.5" platter Capacity: Hard disk capacity continues to not only increase.5" form factor as well. Fig. reduction of mass to enable faster spin speeds. and modern disks are now packing as much as 20 GB of data onto a single 3. A 15. . Form Factor: Desktop and server drives are likely to transition to the 2. From 10 MB in 1981. we are now well over 10 GB in 2000 and will probably hit 100 GB within a year for consumer drives Spindle Speed: 7200 RPM spindles are now standard on mainstream IDE/ATA drives. HARD DISK FEATURES: Areal Density: Densities in the lab are now exceeding 35 Gbits/in2. 1 HARD DISK A hard disk drive is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. The primary reasons for this "shrinking trend" include the enhanced rigidity of smaller platters. replace and install the hard disk. 4 AIM: To study.Experiment No. and improved reliability due to enhanced ease of manufacturing. The hard disk drive in your system is the "data center" of the PC. It is here that all of your programs and data are stored between the occasions that you use the computer. but increase at an accelerating rate.

500 MB. and a long warranty. a disk controller.Performance: Both positioningandtransferperformance factors are improving. Power is supplied by direct cabling to the power supply. suggesting that over the next few years addressing seektime and latency will be the areas of greatest value to hard disk engineers. INTERNAL STRUCTURE: . have large buffers. jumpers. Newer models hold 1 . and a cable.DISK PLATTERS: The platter is divided into Tracks and Sectors and is read by Zone Recording or Clusters. .6 gigabyte (GB) and more. that is. spin fast. DESCRIPTION: HDD systems consist of a hard disk drive. Each platter is broken into seFig 3 Tracks veral thousand tracks. Older drives hold up to 20 . how many megabytes it can store. Hard disks are measured by their capacity. TRACKS: Platters are organized into specific structures to enable the organized storage and retrieval of data. The best drives are physically small. The speed with which data can be pulled from the disk is increasing more rapidly than positioning performance is improving. On some PC's the controller is a separate expansion board that interfaces the system through an expansion slot. 2 INTERNAL STRUCTURE PHYSICAL COMPONENTS: 1. have fast seek times.

These heads are mounted onto arms that allow them to be moved from the outer tracks of the hard drive to the inner tracks and back again. 4. is responsible for turning the hard disk platters. Spindle Motor The spindle motor. since all head arms are moved as a synchronous unit. 5 HDD Parts Fig. Newer drives allow you to transfer as many as 16 or 32 sectors at a time. also sometimes called the spindle shaft. A sector is normally the smallest individually-addressable unit of information stored on a hard disk. Fig. and in most cases holds 512 bytes of information. The arms are controlled using a device called an actuator that positions the arms to the appropriate track on the disk.SECTORS: Each track is further broken down into sectors. allowing the harddrive to operate. to different cylinders. BLOCK MODE: More than one sector can be transferred on each interrupt notification. Head Actuator The actuator is the device used to position the headarms to different tracks on the surface of the platter (actually. HEADS Each platter is accessed for read and write operations using two read/write heads. 6 Internal components . These sectors are known as CLUSTERS 2. one mounted on the top of the platter and another on the bottom. so each arm moves to the same track number of its respective surface. 3.

a dot.5" drive bays meant specifically for hard drives. INSTALLATION: 1. Install Mounting Kit. or some other indication 2. Hard Disk Logic Board All modern hard disks are made with an intelligent circuit board integrated into the hard disk unit. where the drive slides into the bay and mounts directly to the drive bay walls. The function of the slider is to physically support the head and hold it in the correct position relative to the platter as the head floats over its surface. Find Pin 1 On Drive:Take a close look at the drive and determine which end of the interface connector is pin 1. 6. . There are two common ways of mounting a hard disk drive into the system case: Direct Mount: The simplest and most common mounting method is the direct mount. There should be some sort of a marking near pin 1 to indicate it. a square around the pin where it connects to the circuit board. data interface connector. If Necessary:Virtually all modern cases have internal 3.Head Sliders Each hard disk head is therefore mounted to a special device called a head slider or just slider for short. which may be a small number "1". usually triangular in shape onto which the headsliders (carrying the read/write heads) are mounted. etc. 7.5" bays full. an arrow.Hard Disk Connector Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system like power connector. you will need to use a mounting or adapter kit. if you are installing into an older case or one that has its internal 3. However.5. 8.Head Arms The head arms are thin pieces of metal.

One cable connects the disk to the computer’s power supply. 3. In particular. Many hard disks slide in and out of the case on rails. Insert the new hard disk and connect it to the same cables in the same places as the hard disk you removed. you should be able to hear and feel the drive spinning. use a removable metal box into which the drive is mounted. Pay attention to which cables you unplug. 4. Ensure that it is not loose in the case. If you have a mobile PC. If you have questions. disconnect the power.A typical hard drive has a small amount of vibration and a slight whine . Remove and replace internal hard disk: Turn off your computer. except that you have to remove the box first and insert the drive into it. especially desktops.There may be some type of electrical connection problem Make sure the cable connections are correct. and remove your computer’s cover. and the other cable connects the disk to the computer’s motherboard. Check the 4-wire connector that carries power and makes sure it is properly plugged in. you will need a small screwdriver to unscrew them. above. and power is applied. TROUBLESHOOTING: There is various troubleshooting instruction as follows: 1. and then remove the hard disk.There may be some problems in the cables and they might be having a small tab in the center of the connector's edge.If all the cables are connected properly. since you will plug the same cables into the new hard disk. 2. check the information that came with your computer.Mounting Box: Some cases. then remount the box. check the information from the manufacturer to find out if there is a panel you can remove to access the hard disk. Double-Check Installation: Make sure the drive has been fitted properly into the case and that there is no interference with other components. make sure that the logic board on the bottom of the drive is not touching anything. The procedure here is similar to that for direct mount. If there are any screws holding in the hard disk. Unplug all cables connected to the hard disk.

The hard drive has failed electronically. . This will be indicated by an error message during the computer boot cycle.5.

with a CD the laser starts reading the disc from the inside ring and ends up on the .Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) drive has gone from pricey luxury to inexpensive necessity on the modern PC. In many ways. This disk is like a "super" floppy disk that can hold lots of information.Experiment No. How CD's Work? CD-ROM stands for Compact Disc . due to its high capacity and broad applicability. the Compact Disk . One CD-ROM can hold the same amount of data as 500 floppy disks. 5 AIM:To study the Compact Disk Drive APPARATUS REQUIRED: Compact disk drive THEORY: In a few short years. but in many ways it has allowed us to use our computers in ways that we never used them before. Information is permanently recorded onto it.Read Only Memory. The CD-ROM has opened up new computing vistas that were never possible before. However. the CD-ROM has replaced the floppy disk drive. Computer games and other programs are considered to be CD-ROMs. Like gramophone records. the "multimedia revolution" was largely a result of the availability of cheap CD-ROM drives. In fact. the information on optical discs is recorded on a spiral track.

When play back starts. which can then be processed for amplification. During playback. with authors creating disks including text. The disc data is converted into electrical pulses (the bit stream) by reflections of the laser beam from a photoelectric cell. CD-Interactive (CD-I) In 1986. and computer .100 pulses per second and 16 bit (decimal places) in digital word length. The longer the decimal code.000 times per second! A recent step in CD technology is called the Mini Disc. graphics. and also in CD-Interactive hardware. These light pulses are the foundation of binary 'digital' data. Philips and Sony again joined forces to create the CD-Interactive or CD-I format. audio. the better the sound. In music playback. When it strikes a "ridge". The reason for the term "bridge" is that these disks are designed to work both in CD-ROMs that support CD-ROM XA. in fact DVD audio is set to allow 24 bit AND pulse at 97. TYPES OF CD’S: "Bridge" CDs The term bridge CD is used to refer to disks that use extensions or derivations of the CD-ROM Extended Architecture format. DAC) converts the series of pulses (binary coding) from a decimal code to a waveform. In some ways this was the first serious attempt at what we now call "multimedia". Current standard CD audio is 44. thus "bridging" the two types of CD hardware. Thus the photoelectrical cell receives series of light pulses corresponding to the ridges and lands in the disc. every time. It is half the size of a regular CD and can hold the same amount of information. These extended formats are described in the "white book" specification. This concept was quite ambitious. . A simple substitution for the weak signal "0" and the in-focus signal "1" results in a pure digital playback without alteration. the photocell will receive only a weak reflection. with the goal to develop both a format and a special new type of hardware to use it. When the laser beam strikes "land". Thus a 24 bit system sounds all that much better. video. a D/A-Converter (digital to analogue converter. the beam is reflected onto a photoelectric cell.outside. a laser beam shines on the ridges and lands on the data membrane layer. without failure or degradation. the number of revolutions of the disc decreases from 500 to 200 rpm (revolutions per minute) to maintain a constant scanning speed.

and written to the CD. photo CD is an implementation of CD-ROM extended architecture designed to hold photographic images. The developed and printed pictures are then scanned and converted to digital form.programs. but the actual storage capacity depends on the particular CD format used. There are extended CDs that can actually exceed this limit and pack more than 80 minutes on a disk. the beam passes polarizing prism (beam splitter) and only the vertical polarized light passes. the film is first developed normally. The light beam is then converged into a parallel beam (by the collimator) and passes through the 1/4-wave plate where the beam polarization plane is rotated by 45 degrees. but these are non-standard. Photo CD Developed in the early 90s by Kodak and Philips (who seems to have its hand in everything CDrelated). They technically use mode 2 form 1 of the CD-ROM XA architecture. Regular CD-ROM media hold about 650 MB of data. CD DRIVE-BASIC DESIGN: A schematic of an optical three-beam pick-up of a CD drive is shown in the next figure along with the laser beam route through the system. Then. encoded into the photo CD format. When you send in film for processing to photo CD. Writing the photos to the CD is done using a process that is basically the same as how CD-R works: a laser burns the information into the tracks of the CD. CD CAPACITY: A standard CD has a capacity of about 74 minutes of standard CD audio music. Video CD (VCD) Support for a special CD format for the storing of compressed video information is defined as part of the "white book" specification. The beam is then focused onto the disk surface by a lens and a servo-controlled mechanism called 2-axis device. and hardware sold to handle all of these and connect to a television screen for output. Polarization plane . Through the use of MPEG compression it is possible to store 74 minutes of full-motion video in the same space that uncompressed "red book" audio uses! This format is called video CD or sometimes VCD Playing video CDs requires either a video CD player or a CD-ROM drive that is video CD compatible. The laser beam from the laser diode passes through the diffraction grating to produce two secondary beams needed to maintain correct tracking of the disk. Photo CDs are defined in the "orange book" specification.

all beams reach six photo detectors: 4 main spot detectors and 2 side spot detectors enabling read-out of the pit information from the disk CD DRIVE COMPONENTS: The CD drive has the job of finding and reading the data stored as bumps on the CD. After a few more reflections. A laser and a lens system focus in on and read the bumps.of the reflected beam is rotated by another 45 degrees turning its initial vertical polarization into a horizontal. This drive motor is precisely controlled to rotate between 200 and 500 rpm depending on which track is being read. Considering how small the bumps are. the CD drive is an exceptionally precise piece of equipment. . The drive consists of three fundamental components: A drive motor spins the disc.

The discs are then coated with aluminum (or another metal) to create the readable reflective surface.A tracking mechanism moves the laser assembly so that the laser's beam can follow the spiral track. The CD fabrication machine uses a high-powered laser to etch the bump pattern into photoresist material coated onto a glass plate. Through an elaborate imprinting process. the dye is translucent: Light can shine through and reflect off the metal surface. But when you heat the dye layer with concentrated light of a particular frequency and intensity. this pattern is pressed onto acrylic discs. they have a smooth reflective metal layer. arranged in a long spiral track. which rests on top of a layer of photosensitive dye. OPERATIONS OF CD Writing CDs In response to this demand. Finally. CD-recordable discs. scratches and debris. don't have any bumps or flat areas at all. INSTALLATION . or CD-Rs. electronics manufacturers introduced an alternative sort of CD that could be encoded in a few easy steps. When the disc is blank. The tracking system has to be able to move the laser at micron resolutions. Instead. Reading CDs The conventional CDs store digital data as a pattern of bumps and flat areas. the dye turns opaque: It darkens to the point that light can't pass through. the disc is coated with a transparent plastic layer that protects the reflective metal from nicks.

Check the jumpers on your new cd-rom before moving to the next step. Be careful not to unscrew any screws holding the CDD 8. Plug all the plugs back into the cd-rom and screw everything back into place. Now that you've removed the cd-rom drive the next step is to install your new CD-ROM drive. carefully by sliding it either forward or backward. b) BIOS settings might be incorrect . Unplug the power cord and other cords from your computer and find a sturdy flat surface on which to work on. there should be an IDE (wide) plug. Find the CD-Rom drive. 7. 9. controls facing forward. or sliding the cover off. 6. 5. Unscrew those screws on both sides of the cd-rom drive. it should be about 1. 2) The IDE data cable has to be properly connected. Unplug all plugs from the back of the cd-rom drive. and 6 inches long.REMOVE 1. you just have to remove the cd-rom drive. To do this. Open your computer up by taking the side panel off. you need to shut off your computer. Now before touching anything inside. TROUBLESHOOTING There are several factors that can cause problems with CD-ROM drives. 3. First of all. find the screws holding it onto the chassis. it is a good idea to hook up to an anti-static wrist strap. 2. Now. simply slide the cd-rom drive in from the front of the computer. The cable has to be inserted on the drive connector so that the colored edge is on the same side as pin 1 on the drive connector. A typical cdrom drive should be set on slave if it is using the same IDE cable on the same cable. Unscrew all screws from the back of your computer except the power supply screws. a) The cabling is not properly connected 1) The power connector has to be plugged in. Once you find the CD-Rom drive. This cable is normally connected to the IDE primary or secondary motherboard connector and can have either one or two plugs on the end.5 inch thick 5 inches wide. 4. a CD plug (small) and a power plug (medium).

the My Computer window will be displayed Double Click the "Control Panel" icon. then you will need to go into the BIOS and find the entry that enables the secondary IDE controller. There are at a minimum 2 tabs on the top of the screen. 1) If the drive is installed on a secondary IDE controller. IDE CD-ROM drives are detected automatically.On some newer computers. you should see briefly a message that a new device was installed. Double Click the "My computer" on the desktop. This will open the CD-ROM section and show you the drive name that window has detected. after the change you will need to exit the BIOS and Save the changes. . Click on the + sign in front of the "+CD ROM". the Control panel window will be displayed Double click the "System" icon. c) Software The quickest way to check for hardware conflicts is to look in the open the device manager and look for yellow exclamation points in front of the device names. The drive will be given the next available drive letter. There are two distinct places that might need to be changed. the System Properties window will be displayed If there are any problems with the drive a Yellow Exclamation point will be shown in front of the "+CD ROM" entry on the device manager window. then allow the computer to reboot. Click on the "Device Manager" tab on the top of the screen. After the computer is turned on and a window is loaded. The General and the Settings. If the drive does not seem to be detected then should check the device settings to see if there is a problem. the System window will be displayed. the BIOS have to be changed to tell the computer that a new device has been added. The CD ROM properties window will be displayed. 2) On some systems the drive type (which is normally the place where the drive parameters are entered) has to be set to the "Auto" selection. When connected to a computer running Windows 95. Click on the name so it is highlighted (blue) and press the properties button on the bottom of the screen. On both of the above entries.

you will see specific information for that drive. The assigned drive number is located here. When the Settings tab is pressed. If for some reason the computer chose a drive name that is already in use by another device or if you want the drive to have a different drive letter you change it on this screen by setting the "reserve drive letters" of "Start drive " and "End drive" to the new drive letter you want Most of the problems are caused by improper Master/Slave settings or not having the IDE controller in the BIOS enabled. This should normally say "This device is working properly". .When the General tab is pressed the "Device status" will be shown in the middle of the screen.

numbers or signs (characters). a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard. other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or computer commands. such as the mouse. While most keyboard keys produce letters. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other and reports all key presses to the controlling software KEY TYPES: A computer keyboard comprises character keys for typing. which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys. Despite the development of alternative input devices. the keyboard remains the most commonly used and most versatile device used for direct (human) input into computers. modifier keys for altering the functions of other keys. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. function keys and system command keys – such as and – for special actions. THEORY: In computing. 6 AIM: To study keyboard and its functions. and often a numeric keypad to facilitate calculations. touch screen. pen devices. . character recognition and voice recognition. to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.Experiment No. navigation keys for moving the text cursor on the screen.

a keyboard incorporates special keys that do nothing by themselves but modify the functions of other keys. To facilitate this. For example. KEYBOARD LAYOUT: . but in some text-entry systems the diacritical mark is displayed along with an indication that the system is waiting for another keystroke: either the base character to be marked. Typically. modifier keys usually come in pairs. there is no indication to the user that a dead key has been struck. The positioning of the character keys is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter. In some systems. whereas the (control) and (alternate) keys trigger special operations when used in concert with other keys. one functionally identical key for each hand. 2) MODIFIER KEYS: Besides the character keys. the key can be used to alter the output of character keys. which can be used to type letters and other characters. It allows access to a wide range of predefined extra characters by interpreting a whole sequence of keystrokes following it. an upper row for typing digits and special symbols. or to produce the diacritical mark in isolation. an additional diacritical mark. and the on the bottom row. so the key appears dead.1) CHARACTER KEYS: The core section of a keyboard comprises character keys. so holding a modifier key with one hand leaves the other hand free to strike another key. there are three rows of keys for typing letters and punctuation. 4) COMPOSE KEY: A Compose key can be characterized as a generic dead key that may in some systems be available instead of or in addition to the more specific dead keys. 3) DEAD KEY: A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key that.

the keyboard does not send a message such as the A-key is depressed but rather the left-most main key of the home row is depressed. and these numbers are what is sent to the computer when a key is pressed or released. each key has an internal reference number. markings. Mechanical layout : The placements and keys of a keyboard. visual.) The keyboard and the computer each have no information about what is marked on that key. (Technically. the "ISO" keyboard layout is used throughout Europe. and it could equally well be the letter A or the digit 9. such as the key. The functional layout of the keyboard refers to the mapping between the physical keys. The choice of switch technology affects key response (the positive feedback that a key has been pressed) and travel (the distance needed to push the key to enter a character reliably can be different on other keyboards). determined in software. 1) MEMBRANE KEYBOARD: . For example. When a key is pressed. usually differentiated by the switch technology employed in their operation. Mechanical layouts only address tangible differences among keyboards. such as the letter "A" appearing on the screen. Usually the functional layout is set to match the visual layout of the keyboard being used. legends. corresponding to the legends on the keyboard. "raw keycodes".A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical. of all the keys of a keyboard. and the same mechanical layout can be produced with a number of different visual layouts. but typical French. Visual layout : The arrangement of the legends (labels. so that pressing a key will produce the expected result. and user preference. typewriter. or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer. country. or functional arrangement of the keys. KEYBOAD TECHNOLOGY: There are many different types of computer keyboards. Functional layout : The arrangement of the key-meaning associations. and UK variants of mechanically identical keyboards appear different because they bear different legends on their keys. or other typographic keyboard. and software events. engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Visual layouts vary by language. German. The user of the computer is requested to identify the visual layout of the keyboard when installing the operating system.

flat-panel membrane keyboards and fulltravel membrane keyboards: Flat-panel membrane keyboards are most often found on appliances like microwave ovens or photocopiers. but purists tend to find them "mushy" because the collapsing dome does not provide as much positive response as metal domes. Both are common switch technologies used in mass market keyboards today. It still uses rubber domes. Dome-switch keyboards are also called direct-switch keyboards. most commonly referred to as polydomes. 2) DOME SWITCH KEYBOARD: Dome-switch keyboards are a hybrid of flat-panel membrane and mechanical keyboards. While polydomes are typically cheaper than metal domes. The rubber dome switches. 3) MECHNICAL SWITCH KEYBOARD: . they lack the crisp snap of the metal domes. Polydomes are considered very quiet.There are two types of membrane-based keyboards. and usually have a lower life specification. are formed polyester domes where the inside bubble is coated in graphite. Full-travel membrane-based keyboards are the most common computer keyboards today. but a special plastic 'scissors' mechanism links the keycap to a plunger that depresses the rubber dome with a much shorter travel than the typical rubber dome keyboard.

as well as its modern imitator. making them watertight like membrane keyboards. as there is little tactile feedback. On PCs. Typically they are completely sealed in rubber. they cannot be folded without damaging the membrane that holds the circuitry. Notable keyboards utilizing this technology are the Apple Extended Keyboard (the original or the "II"). and silicone will tend to attract dirt. such keyboards have varying response and travel times. Depending on the construction of the switch. Like membrane keyboards. and hair. and the line is now carried by Creative Vision Technologies under the Avant brand. 4) ROLL-UP KEYBOARD: Some keyboards are designed out of flexible materials that can roll up in a moderately tight bundle. dust.Mechanical-switch keyboards use real switches underneath every key. Normally the external materials are either silicone or polyurethane. they are reported to be very hard to get used to. It is important to note that although many manufacturers claim that the keyboards are foldable. the Matias Tactile Pro. 5) OPTICAL KEYBOARD: . the OmniKey series from Northgate Computers was popular. These two keyboards use ALPS switches.

allowing only one beam per row of keys (most commonly a horizontal beam). refracts or otherwise interacts with the beam. Most commonly the emitters and sensors are located at the perimeter. resulting in an identified key. The mechanism of the optical keyboard is very simple – a light beam is sent from the emitter to the receiving sensor. The light is directed from side to side of the keyboard interior. mounted on a small PCB. Most optical keyboards require at least 2 beams (most commonly a vertical beam and a horizontal beam) to determine the actuated key. . reflects. Some optical keyboards use a special key structure that blocks the light in a certain pattern. and it can only be blocked by the actuated keys.An optical keyboard technology utilizes light-emitting devices and photo sensors to optically detect actuated keys. and the actuated key blocks.

With the help of mouse. On the basis of interface. This type of mouse draws its power from RTS line of the RS-232-C port. The mouse is small enough to fit under the pole of hand with the button under the fingertip. The mouse uses two pairs of LEDs and photodiodes at its bottom. The first mouse system was introduced for IBM PC’s in 1982. One pair is oriented at the right angles with the other. The parts of mechanical mouse can break. MECHANICAL MOUSE: The design is based on a small boll that is fixed at the bottom and rotated as the mouse is pushed along the surface. The whole process of moving the mouse on the screen is termed as dragging the mouse.e. 2. which causes a core on screen movement of the cursor. Switches inside the mouse detect the movement in four directions (i. the user points at a menu selection by physically moving the input device. a mouse can be classified as: 1. OPTICAL MOUSE: In this type of mouse. 7 Aim:To Study mouse and its operation. This mouse requires that the user move it across a surface. so care must be taken. 2. Apparatus Required:mouse-scroll and optical. which allows a user to indicate what function he wants that his computer to carry out by selecting from a list of commands presented as a menu. instead of rotating the ball. Bus mouse: These mouse are attached to the dedicated mouse adapter that plug into computer’ expansion slots. a light beam is used to detect movement across a specially designed mouse pad. cores to two axes of 2.Serial Mouse: This mouse is interfaced via a serial port. MOUSE: Mouse is a computer’s peripheral device used along with the keyboard.D system) and relay the direction of ball’s rotation to the host computer.Experiment No. the mouse can be classified as: 1. The mouse works identically as that of the serial mouse except that . Each pair of LED and photodiode detects the motion in either direction across one axis of the grid. On the basis of the technique of use. it has a standard 9 or 25 pin plug at the end of its cable. The matching mouse pad is coated with an overlapped pattern of blue and yellow grids. It processes the electrical signal received from the mouse and converts those signals to the serial port. One more button at the top of the mouse enables the user to indicate that he can select a menu item. There is a cord connecting the device to its computer host trailing like a tail.

it uses its own dedicated supply. this type of mouse is not directly accessible by dos because OS does not know what I/O addresses the ports are assigned . Also.

Stages of RIP:- . How it works: Raster image processing:. The input may be a page description in a high-level page description language such as PostScript. The hardware was completed in just a week or two. In the latter case. The source material may be encoded in any number of special page description languages such as Adobe PostScript (PS. the RIP applies either smoothing or interpolation algorithms to the input bitmap to generate the output bitmap. The first commercial implementation of a laser printer was the IBM model 3800 in 1975. BR-Script). used for high-volume printing of documents such as invoices and mailing labels. typically built into the laser printer. Raster image processing is the process and the means of turning vector digital information such as a PostScript file into a high-resolution raster image. HP Printer Command Language (PCL).Each horizontal strip of dots across the page is known as a raster line or scan line. The RIP uses the page description language to generate a bitmap of the final page in the raster memory. The prototype was built by modifying an existing xerographic copier. or Microsoft XML Page Specification (XPS). Portable Document Format.Experiment No. Creating the image to be printed is done by a Raster Image Processor (RIP). The bitmap is then sent to a printing device for output. who had an improved printer working by 1971and incorporated into a fully functional networked printer system by about a year later. Stark weather disabled the imaging system and created a spinning drum with 8 mirrored sides. A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a raster image also known as a bitmap. as well as unformatted text-only data. Light from the laser would bounce off the spinning drum. sweeping across the page as it traveled through the copier. but the computer interface and software took almost 3 months to complete. 8 Aim: TO STUDY PRINTER ASSEMBLY AND ELEMENTARY FAULT DETECTION IN DMP AND LASER PRINTER Apparatus Required: Various printers THEORY : Laser Printer: The laser printer was invented at Xerox in 1969 by researcher Gary Stark weather. XPS or another bitmap of higher or lower resolution than the output device. with a laser focused on the drum.

dot size remains constant and dots are placed in random order to create darker or lighter areas of the image. Screening: In order to print. dot size varies depending on object density—tonal values. 3. Rendering: A process through which the private internal representation is turned into a continuous tone bitmap. Numerous patents describe the photosensitive drum coating as a silicon sandwich with a photo charging layer. Most RIPs process pages serially so the current machine state is only for the current page. or in more recent printers. Note that in practical RIPs. Once a page has been output the page state is discarded to ready it for the next page. a corona wire positioned parallel to the drum. Boron nitride as a charge leakage barrier layer. Charging:Applying a negative charge to the photosensitive drum older printers. dot placement is precisely controlled by sophisticated mathematical algorithms. as well as a surface layer. i. interpretation and rendering are frequently done together. as well as a surface layer of doped silicon. one page at once.1. One version[specify] uses amorphous silicon containing hydrogen as the light receiving layer. Simple languages were designed to work on minimal hardware so tend to "directly drive" the renderer. dots are placed in a fixed grid. Two screening methods or types are Amplitude Modulation (AM) screening and stochastic or Frequency Modulation (FM) screening. notably silicon with oxygen or nitrogen which at sufficient concentration resembles machining silicon nitride Exposing:- . In FM screening. 2. a revolving photosensitive drum or belt. Interpretation: This is the stage where the supported PDLs (Page description languages) are translated into a private internal representation of each page. projects an electrostatic charge onto the photoreceptor (otherwise named the photo conductor unit). In AM screening. a charge leakage barrier layer. An AC bias is applied to the primary charge roller to remove any residual charges left by previous images. a continuous-tone bitmap is converted into a halftone (pattern of dots). The roller will also apply a DC bias on the drum surface to ensure a uniform negative potential. a primary charge roller. which is capable of holding an electrostatic charge on its surface while it is in the dark.e.

The stream of rasterized data held in memory turns the laser on and off to form the dots on the cylinder. and its infrared energy uniformly heats the roller from the inside. Smaller. showing individual toner particles comprising 4 dots of an image with a bluish back ground. The toner must be wiped off and the process restarted. the pins . the fuser roller must be uniformly hot. Fusing:Melting toner onto paper using heat and pressure.Laser neutralizing the negative charge on the photoreceptive drum to form an electrostatic image. and a discharge lamp removes the remaining charge from the photoreceptor. A radiant heat lamp is suspended in the center of the hollow tube. there is more roller contact time for the toner to melt. The paper passes through rollers in the fuser assembly where heat (up to 200 Celsius) and pressure bond the plastic powder to the paper. When the print is complete. The printer head consists of tiny pins that are operated electro magnetically. DMP are the most popular types for use with PCs. The laser beam neutralizes (or reverses) the charge on the black parts of the image. Cleaning:Magnification of color laser printer output. due to this energy-saving design. Some printers use a very thin flexible metal fuser roller. Lasers are used because they generate a narrow beam over great distances. The cylinder continues to rotate during the sweep and the angle of sweep compensates for this motion. If paper moves through the fuser more slowly. As head moves across the paper. so there is less mass to be heated and the fuser can more quickly reach operating temperature. Each character is generated from an array on matrix of dots. The toner is on the photoconductor ready to apply. One roller is usually a hollow tube (heat roller) and the other is a rubber backing roller (pressure roller). which directs the laser beam through a system of lenses and mirrors onto the photoreceptor. but the operation failed before it could be applied. compared to large high speed printers where paper moves more rapidly through a high-temperature fuser with a very short contact time. an electrically neutral soft plastic blade cleans any excess toner from the photoreceptor and deposits it into a waste reservoir. Toner may occasionally be left on the photoreceptor when unexpected events such as a paper jam occur. For proper bonding of the toner. They have a printer head that is pulled horizontally across the paper from left to right and back again using a rubber belt and electric motor. and the fuser can operate at a lower temperature. leaving a static electric negative image on the photoreceptor surface to lift the toner particles. inexpensive laser printers typically print slowly. The laser is aimed at a rotating polygonal mirror.

move rapidly in and out under the control of the printer electrons. Characters are formed when the pins strike the ribbon, leaving dots on paper. The resolution and quality of DMP is determined by the number of pins in the printer head. Usually the head is of ninepins. Most of the printers have a lever that adjusts the distance of the printer head from the roller to accommodate different thickness of stationary. Another level controls the pinch rollers that allow the use of single sheet, non-sprocket fed paper. Price is obviously a major factor of contributing to the popularity of DMPs . PRINTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO VARIOUS TYPES: 1. IMPACT AND NON-IMPACT PRINTERS:: In an impact printer the character is formed by physical contact of print head against the ink ribbon onto the paper. In the non-impact printers, the character can be pulled at a time they are known as serial. 2.CHARACTER AND LINE PRINTERS: Printers, which print one character at a time, are called character printers and the printers, which print one line at a time, are called line printers. Printers have three major assemblies: Power supply Control mechanism Printing mechanism POWER SUPPLY: It consists of DC regulator for safety logic and a filter. The safety logic sheets of the power supply in abnormal condition prevent any damage to device.

CONTROL MECHANISM: This subassembly consists of one or more PCBs. the CE provides following circuits:  Up address latch  RAM and ROM  Address decoder  RESET logic  Head driver  CR and CF monitor drive  Interface drive/receiver

The reset signal is generated either during power on or when init is recognized, received from PC. It is sent to various logic in the printer to perform the init sequence.

   

Moving the printer head to the home PCs Cleaning buffer Resetting the microprocessor Providing online/ready status

PRINTER MECHANISM:  Function pattern  causage assembly  Printer head  Paper fed mechanism  Home rents  8 pocket on it  Paper end session

LASER PRINTER: The main parts of the laser printer are: 1. Charging electrode 2. Cleaning rode 3. Photoreceptor drum 4. Toner 5. Rotating hexagonal mirror 6. Laser scanning unit Laser beam produced by the laser-scanning unit passed through the character generator box. The responsibility of the character generator box is allow or not to allow the laser beam to pass through according to the character. This beam is strike to the rotating hexagonal mirror, which deflect the beam towards the drum. Drum is already positively charged and the surface at which the beam strikes becomes negatively charged. Toner is also positively charged. The character that we want to print on the paper is obtained on the drum due to beam. The negatively charged portion of the drum attracts the positively charged toner particles, and the image is produced on the paper. Then this paper is passed through the heating section so that the image becomes permanent. Color laser printers Fuji Xerox color laser printer C1110BColor laser printers use colored toner (dry ink), typically cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK). While monochrome printers only use one laser scanner assembly, color printers often have two or more scanner assemblies.

Color printing adds complexity to the printing process because very slight misalignments known as registration errors can occur between printing each color, causing unintended color fringing, blurring, or light/dark streaking along the edges of colored regions. To permit a high registration accuracy, some color laser printers use a large rotating belt called a "transfer belt". The transfer belt passes in front of all the toner cartridges and each of the toner layers are precisely applied to the belt. The combined layers are then applied to the paper in a uniform single step. Color printers usually have a higher cost per page production cost than monochrome printers.

Drum printer It is awide-format inkjet printer. The paper is taped onto a drum for precise alignment to the nozzles. An old line printer technology that used formed character images around a cylindrical drum as its printing mechanism. When the desired character for the selected position rotated around to the hammer line, the hammer hit the paper from behind and pushed it into the ribbon and onto the character.

Drum Printer Mechanism

identical characters are printed simultaneously at all required positions on a line. a fixed font character set is engraved onto the periphery of a number of print wheels. the number matching the number of columns (letters in a line) the printer could print. Typically. driven by another voice coil. a selection of different bands was generally available with a different mix of characters so a character set best matched to the characters commonly printed could be chosen. a hammer strikes the paper from the rear and presses the paper against the ribbon and the drum. But in this way. The wheels. Because the drum carrying the letterforms (characters) remains in constant motion. In a typical drum printer design. where a thin steel band is used instead of a chain. the model number representing the lines per minute rate of the printer. two complete revolutions of the character drum were required with one revolution being used to print all the "odd" columns and another revolution being used to print all of the "even" columns. spin at high speed and paper and an inked ribbon is stepped (moved) past the print position. For this style of printer. only half (plus one) the number of hammers. they were driven by voice coils mounted on the moving part of the hammer. An impact printer in which a complete set of characters for each print position on a line is on a continuously rotating drum behind an inked ribbon. with their B300. the strike-and-retreat action of the hammers had to be very fast. joined to form a large drum (cylinder).Lowercost printers did not use a hammer for each column. by signalcontrolled hammers. with paper in front of the ribbon. Instead. This obviates the situation whereby all of the hammers fire simultaneously when printing a line that consists of the same character in all columns. such as a complete line of dashes ("----"). B600. Band printer Band printers are a variation of chain printers. highspeed workings of today's laser printers. shifting with each column. As the desired character for each column passes the print position. magnets. Such printer technologies seem ridiculous compared to the quiet. Again. Often the character sequences are staggered around the drum. Data products was a well known manufacturer of band printers. causing the desired character to be recorded on the continuous paper. (The B300 was effectively a B600 with only half the number of . a hammer was provided for every other column and the entire hammer bank was arranged to shift left and right. and the associated channels of drive electronics were required. with the characters embossed on the band.The hammer pushes the paper into the type slug when it rotated around to the proper position. on the fly. and B1000 range.

The drum printer is designed for film. and 150. and capsules. You will also learn about the ink cartridges and the special paper some inkjet printer’s use. in addition. Electronic push-button controls are featured for setup. Printing can be one. . Inside Parts of a typical inkjet printer include: Print head assembly:   Print head .000 one. A simplified operator interface has digital display for printer operating conditions. linear or radial. it precisely centers the print on tablets. caplets. 150.Depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer. logo registration and operation. The dots can have different colors combined together to create photo-quality images. Servo motors with optical encoder feedback for speed and position provide accurate control of printing registration.) The drum printer offers offset printing for the pharmaceutical and confectionary industries.000 one.000 linear or rotary capsules per hour Inkjet An inkjet printer is any printer that places extremely small droplets of ink onto paper to create an image. In this article. so small that they are tinier than the diameter of a human hair (70 microns)! The dots are positioned very precisely. the print head contains a series of nozzles that are used to spray drops of ink. ink cartridges come in various combinations. Change parts are designed to be easily removed for a quick change to a different product. and no rectified or rectified. It can be in one or two colors. you know that:    The dots are extremely small (usually between 50 and 60 microns in diameter).The core of an inkjet printer.or two-sided. you will learn about the various parts of an inkjet printer and how these parts work together to create an image.or two-sided tablets per hour.hammers—one per two character positions. such as separate black and color cartridges. with resolutions of up to 1440x720 dots per inch (dpi). Ink cartridges . requiring two goes to print all characters on each line. The hammer bank moved back and forth one character position. Printing capabilities are as follows: 250. If you ever look at a piece of paper that has come out of an inkjet printer.or two-sided caplets per hour.or sugar-coated tablets and caplets and for hard-shell gelatin capsules.

Thermal bubble . The feeder typically snaps open at an angle on the back of the printer. some of the ink is pushed out of a nozzle onto the paper.Used by manufacturers such as Canon and Hewlett. In a thermal inkjet printer. and all of them can fire a droplet simultaneously.A belt is used to attach the print head assembly to the stepper motor.While earlier printers often had an external transformer. as well as decode the information sent to the printer from the computer. This pulls more ink into the print head from the cartridge. most printers sold today use a standard power supply that is incorporated into the printer itself. The crystal receives a tiny        . Piezoelectric .Patented by Epson. A crystal is located at the back of the ink reservoir of each nozzle. Paper feed stepper motor . Feeders generally do not hold as much paper as a traditional paper tray.   Paper feed assembly:  Paper tray/feeder . Interface port(s) . As the bubble expands.color and black in a single cartridge or even a cartridge for each ink color. When the bubble "pops" (collapses). Control circuitry . Some printers dispense with the standard tray for a feeder instead. Rollers . Power supply .A set of rollers pull the paper in from the tray or feeder and advance the paper when the print head assembly is ready for another pass. A typical bubble jet print head has 300 or 600 tiny nozzles. Stabilizer bar .A small but sophisticated amount of circuitry is built into the printer to control all the mechanical aspects of operation.  Print head stepper motor . Belt . tiny resistors create heat.these stepper motor powers the rollers to move the paper in the exact increment needed to ensure a continuous image is printed.A stepper motor moves the print head assembly (print head and ink cartridges) back and forth across the paper. A few printers connect using a porter small computer system interface (SCSI) port. a vacuum is created. The cartridges of some inkjet printers include the print head itself.Most inkjet printers have a tray that you load the paper into. Some printers have another stepper motor to park the print head assembly when the printer is not in use. Parking means that the print head assembly is restricted from accidentally moving. but most new printers use the USB. this method is commonly referred to as bubble jet. like a parking brake on a car. Click the button to see how a thermal bubble inkjet printer works. and this heat vaporizes ink to create a bubble.The parallel port is still used by many printers. allowing you to place paper in it.The print head assembly uses a stabilizer bar to ensure that movement is precise and controlled. this technology uses piezo crystals.

it forces a tiny amount of ink out of the nozzle. it pulls some more ink into the reservoir to replace the ink sprayed out.electric charge that causes it to vibrate. . When it vibrates out. When the crystal vibrates inward.

Audio Cables and Connectors 2. Computer accessories like mice. like when you want to connect the output of a DVD player or a set-top box to a Dolby home theater.5 mm or 1/8" mini audio jack. Fig.1 – 3. otherwise known as a TSR connector. microphones.5 Headphone Jack Most speakers and microphones can connect to the computer with these audio cables. Additionally.9 AIM: . is colored green. USB Cables and Connectors You can use USB cables to connect most new devices to your computer including flash memory sticks. 2. These are fiber optic cables and can therefore transmit pure digital audio through light. you need the TOSLINK (or S/PDIF) connector. portable media players.3. printers. internet modems and digital cameras.To observe and study various cables. where you insert the stereo audio cable. keyboards. but the most common ones used with computers are the 3. connectors and ports used in computer communication. It is available in several sizes.2 – Digital Optical Audio For high-end audio. Some laptops and audio equipment have a mini-TOSLINK jack but you can use a converter to connect it to a standard TOSLINK (Toshiba Link) port. webcams. 1. portable hard-drives. scanners and speakers can also be connected to the computer through USB ports.5mm headphone jack The most common audio cable is the standard headphone jack. The microphone port on your computer is usually pink while the speaker port.Experiment No. . 2. USB cables are also used for charging a variety of gadgets including mobile phones or for transferring data from one computer to another.

though some connectors may have less pins depending on their configurationDVI’s video signal is compatible with HDMI.A DVI cable has 29 pins. 4. Fig. chances are that it uses DVI instead of VGA. camcorders. you may also use a VGA cable to connect your laptop to a TV screen or a projector. Fig. S-Video Cable 4. A standard VGA connector has 15-pins and other than connecting a computer to a monitor.1 – VGA One of the most common video connectors for computer monitors and high-definition TVs is the VGA cable. Audio and Video Cables 4. DVI Monitor Port 3. Digital Optical Audio 3. offering additional audio channels and/or component video Fig. older video consoles to the television.2 – DVI Monitor Port If you have purchased a computer in the recent past.Standard S-Video connectors are round in shape and may have anywhere between 4-9 pins. otherwise known as Separate Video or Super Video cables. Video Cables 3. 6. Connectors 3. 3. so a simple converter can allow a DVI monitor to receive input from an HDMI cable. carry analog video signals and are commonly used for connecting DVD players.3 – S-Video S-Video cables. 5. The new breed of "thin" laptops use the smaller variants of DVI like the Mini-DVI and Micro-DVI.Sometimes additional cables may be included. VGA Cables and .Fig.1 – RCA Connector Cables RCA connector cables are a bundle of 2-3 cables including Composite Video (colored yellow) and Stereo Audio cables (red for right channel and white or black for the left audio channel).

Fig. and additionally support up to 8 channels of digital audio.org/di/2009/10/DisplayPort. DVI video. or Lynx. otherwise known as IEEE 1394.labnol. Component video offers better picture than composite because the video signal is split in different signals while in the case of composite.Standard HDMI cables can be up to 5 meters long. HDMI support a maximum resolution of 4096×2160p (HD is only 1920×1200) with up to 8 channels of digital audio and are used for connecting Blu-Ray players to an HDTV.instead of composite.StandardDisplayPort cables can be up to 3 meters long. RCA Connector Cables 4. everything is transferred through a single yellow plug. Data Cables 5. 5. .1 – Firewire IEEE 1394 Firewire. converters are available to convert Mini DisplayPort into standard DisplayPort. or HDMI video and audio with a DisplayPort cable or connection. It is also possible to ad-hoc network computers without a router over FireWire.7. 8. and the length can be further increased with amplifiers.LINK. Fig.2 – HDMI Cables HDMI is the new standard that provide both audio and video transmission through a single cable. 9Firewire IEEE 1394 . Both support resolutions up to 2560 × 1600 × 60 Hz. Display Port DisplayPort connectors are available to connect VGA. Additionally. but at a lower resolution cables can be up to 15 meters long.3 – DisplayPort http://img. is a faster alternate to USB and is commonly used for connecting digital camcorders and external hard drives to a computer. Fig.pngA combined digital video and audio cable that is more commonly used in computers is DisplayPort and the smaller derivative Mini DisplayPort. but higher quality ones can be up to 15 meters long. i.HDMI is backwards compatible with DVI so you can use a converter to watch video on a DVI device through the HDMI cable though you will have to use another cable for the audio. 4.

5. The keyboard and mouse use "PS2" connectors. Fig. the devices that plug into them rarely. Be sure not to force the connector because you will end up bending the pins. so unlike USB. The parallel port is almost obsolete. and video port all use "D" type connectors (DB25M. permitting the cable to be plugged in only in the correct direction. Although the jacks are sometimes color-coded. The center jack (audio in) is where you plug in audio from another device.The green jack (audio out) is where you plug in your left speaker. The PS2 connectors are color-coded. The audio jacks are the most confusing connectors on the back panel. eSATA cables are designed for portable hard drives. The red jack is where you plug in your microphone. A USB port is keyed so that a USB cable can be plugged in only one way.10 eSATA Cable Connector Computer Ports:Most connectors are polarized.The right speaker plugs into a jack on the left speaker. The serial port was originally used for the mouse and modem. These are called D connectors because of their shape. serial port. you cannot power an external hard drive with eSATA. although it is still required by some printers. The green connector is for the mouse. Then push the cable into the connector. The serial port is now obsolete. such a CD player. eSATA cable cannot transmit power. Rotate the cable until the connector keys match up. DB-9M and DB-15F respectively). which permits the cables to be plugged in only one way. The purple connector is for the keyboard. PS/2 Ports:- .However.2 – eSATA Cables While SATA cables are used internally for connecting the hard drive to the computer’s motherboard. but it was a real pain to configure those ports. first match the cable to the connector. and can transfer data faster than USB or FireWire.The parallel port. To plug in a keyboard or mouse cable. Both of these ports have been replaced by the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port.

Parallel means the device is capable of receiving more than one bit at a time (that is. . you can typically disable the PS/2 ports in the system's CMOS setup and free the PS/2 system resources for other devices. Some other value-add information to go here! VGA stands for Video Graphics Array. they are not interchangable. has become the standard for desktop video. It uses color summing to translate color graphics into graphics using 64 different shades of grey. it receives several bits in parallel). in effect. VGA offers clean images at higher resolutions. The standard VGA can produce as many as 256 colors at a time from a palette of 262. Although these ports may look identical at first glance. If you elect to use a USB keyboard and mouse.Refers to processes that occur simultaneously. 6-pin. VGA requires a VGA monitor. It migrated to the IBM PC unchanged except for a switch from the original 36-pin Amphenol connector.144 colors. Most modern printers are parallel. though. The original VGA. and appeared as an interface card for the Apple. or one capable of accepting the analog output of a VGA card. Also. so you'll need to be extremely careful to attach the keyboard and mouse to their respective PS/2 port. VGA. DB25 Parallel Port :The parallel port originally started out as aundirectional (output only) port running at about 150K/sec. although now more advanced. low-speed serial connections commonly dedicated to a keyboard and mouse.Printers and other devices are said to be either parallel or serial.The PS/2 Ports are simple. which it has retained through the years. it was only capable of 16 colors at a time. VGA Monitor Port:Video Graphics Array: used to connect the monitor to the computer. had to be at a 320x400 resolution to display this amount of color. At the standard 640x480 resolution. simulates color on a monochrome monitor. This. VGA extends into the monochrome world. leaving both the MCGA and 8514 in the dust.

Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle simultaneous demands. USB Port:Universal Serial Bus: a protocol for transferring data to and from digital devices. . but slower than those that connect via FireWire an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps. Firewire IEEE 1394 Port:A type of cabling technology for transferring data to and from digital devices at high speed.or six-wire connector used primarily to connect telephone equipment in the United States. Many digital cameras and memory card readers connect to the USB port on a computer. a four. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. although RJ-45 connectors are more common. Some professional digital cameras and memory card readers connect to the computer over FireWire. Modem RJ-11 Jack:Short for Registered Jack-11. USB card readers are typically faster than cameras or readers that connect to the serial port. which specifies the physical and lower software layers. RJ-11 connectors are also used to connect some types of localarea networks (LANs). USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging. It is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards.3 standard. Also known as IEEE 1394.RJ45 Ethernet Port:A local-area network (LAN) architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. modems. The Ethernet specification served as the basis for the IEEE 802. and keyboards. FireWire card readers are typically faster than those that connect via USB. such as mice. A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices. FireWire was invented by Apple Computer but is now commonly used with Windows-based PCs as well.

jacks. Plug type audio connectors are a plug. They may also have switches. or male. or female. .Mini Audio Jack:Audio connectors are used to affix cables to other audio equipment. and may have an integral switch. or combinations. Combination plug and jack connectors are also available. connector consists of sockets that are aligned to mesh with a pin-type connector. Connectors may be plugs. Jack type audio connectors are a jack. connector includes pins that can be inserted into a socket. providing electronic signal transference and grounding protection.

which stands for hard disk. DISPLAY CARD (VGA CARD): - The full form of the VGA is video graphic card. 10 Aim: TO STUDY THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARDS i. SUPER IDE CARD LAN CARD ETC. jumper setting has got the main improvement in this card. Composite video interfaces 2. 16 foreground and 8 background colors are possible in the color mode in which blinking on a per character basis is also possible. DISPLAY CARD. Direct drive) TTL) interface FR modulator interface for linking a home TV via a external RF modulator CGA can operate in two modes: B/W and color. floppy disk controller. The more RAM we use. THEORY: SUPER IDE CARD: -Four to five years earlier this card was known as HFDC. It is through this card only that we can use mouse or joy stick. SUPER IDE CARD LAN CARD ETC. HARDWARE USED: DISPLAY CARD. In . But now the technology has been changed therefore it is known as the super IDE card. signal is send through 15 pins to monitor. this card presents the display on a very high resolution through which the picture that ultimately arrives at the monitor is very clear.Experiment No. The graphics card is the 16-bit card which as in itself RAM ranging from 256 KB to 1024 KB. it can be fixed on any slot on motherboard. clearer will be the display on the monitor. The CGA board provides three video interfaces: 1. This card has got all the capabilities and features among all the previous cards available like CGA HGA EGA etc. COLOR/GRAPHICS ADAPTER: CGA support color monitor and NTSC TV monitor with external RF modulator.e. This card is more powerful from the previous cards. which not only control the hard disk and floppy disk and also provides the facility one parallel port. serial port and one is game port.

. reverse video.between these modes these character attributes are also available. The CGA board can support to alphanumeric modes and 2 graphics modes. blinking and intensity.

. and multimedia applications. the Pentium Pro. General processor performance was increased while costs were cut. Various Microprocessors are: PENTIUM II : The Pentium II microprocessor was largely based upon the microarchitecture of its predecessor. such as Window 9x. The Pentium II was basically a more consumer-oriented version of the Pentium Pro.It is a multipurpose programmable device that accepts digital data as input. It was cheaper to manufacture because of the separate.Experiment No. the slower and cheaper L2 cache's performance impact was reduced. 11 AIM: To study various Microprocessors THEORY: A Microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer’s CPU on a single integrated circuit or at most a few integrated circuits.It is an example of sequential digital logic as it has internal memory. The improved 16bit performance and MMX support made it a better choice for consumer-level operating systems. slower L2 cache memory.processes it according to instruction stored in its memory and provides results as output. but with some significant improvements. Combined with the larger L1 cache and improved 16-bit performance.

Pentium pro o Successor: Pentium3 o L1 Cache: 32KB o L2 Cache: 512KB PENTIUM III: .25um o Instruction set: IA-32.35um-0.Various Features are: o Introduced in mid 1997-early 1999 o Common Manufacturer: Intel o Max CPU Clock rate: 233Mhz-450MHz o Min. feature size: 0.MMx o Predecessor: Pentium.

feature size: 0.MMx. it was the Pentium M microarchitecture of Pentium M branded CPUs. XEON o L1 Cache: 32KB o L2 Cache: 512KB PENTIUM IV: . Celeron (Core). Pentium Dual-Core. 1999.13um o Instruction set: IA-32. The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier Pentium II-branded microprocessors. The most notable difference was the addition of the SSE instruction set (to accelerate floating point and parallel calculations). that formed the basis for Intel's energy-efficient Core microarchitecture of CPUs branded Core 2.4GHz o Min.SSE o Predecessor: Pentium II o Successor: Pentium4. and Xeon.25um-0. Subsequently. and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing process. and not the NetBurst found in Pentium 4 processors.The Pentium III brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26. Various Features are: o Introduced in 1999-2003 o Common Manufacturer: Intel o Max CPU Clock rate: 400Mhz-1.

8GHz o Min. They had a 7th-generation x86 microarchitecture. the NetBurst microarchitecture ultimately hit a frequency ceiling far below that expectation – the fastest clocked NetBurst-based models reached a peak clock speed of 3.8 GHz) limited only by TDPs reaching up to 115 W in 3.) by featuring a very deep instruction pipeline to achieve very high clock speeds (up to 3.8 GHz.4 GHz –3.MMX. etc.Pentium 4 was a line of single-core desktop and laptop central processing units (CPUs). called NetBurst.SSE.8 GHz Prescott and Prescott 2M cores. II. NetBurst differed from P6 (Pentium III.SSE3 o Predecessor: Pentium III o Successor: Pentium D o L1 Cache: 32KB o L2 Cache: 512KB CORE i3: .SSE2. feature size: 180nm-65nm o Instruction set: IA-32. which was the company's first allnew design since the introduction of the P6 microarchitecture of the Pentium Pro CPUs in 1995.3Ghz-13. At the launch of the Pentium 4. Intel stated NetBurst-based processors were expected to scale to 10 GHz (which should be achieved over several fabrication process generations). Various Features are: o Introduced in 2000-2008 o Common Manufacturer: Intel o Max CPU Clock rate: 1. However.

although the Intel 5 series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors.The Core i3 was intended to be the new low end of the performance processor line from Intel. 2010. Intel confirmed that. 2011 CORE i5: . the CPU will support ECC with UDIMM. using those processors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it will support the ECC function of ECC memory. with an integrated GPU and two cores. The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based. following the retirement of the Core 2 brand. with slightly different configurations. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium. The first Core i3 processors were launched on January 7. When asked. if a Core i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450. Various features are:       Sandy Bridge – 32 nm process technology 2 physical cores/4 threads L1 cache: 32+32 Kb (per core) L2 cache: 256 Kb (per core) L3 cache: 3 MB Introduced in January. According to motherboard manufacturer Supermicro.

as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7.The first Core i5 using the Nehalem microarchitecture was introduced on September 8. 2011 o Variants ending in 'S' have a peak TDP of 65 W. The same processors with different sets of features (Hyper-Threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are sold as Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors. Lynnfield Core i5 processors have an 8 MB L3 cache. others 95 W except where noted o Variants ending in 'K' have unlocked multipliers. Various Features are: Sandy Bridge – 32 nm process technology o 4 physical cores/4 threads (except for i5-2390T which has 2 physical cores/4 threads) o L1 cache: 32+32 Kb (per core) o L2 cache: 256 Kb (per core) o L3 cache: 6 MB o 995 million transistors o Introduced in January. others cannot be overclocked CORE I7: .5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. a DMI bus running at 2. 2009. which should not be confused with high-end Core i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield. the Lynnfield core.

and Sandy Bridge microarchitectures. Both the first and second generation of Intel Core i7 processors are rated as 5 stars in the Intel processor rating. and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer). This had previously been removed at the introduction of Core line o 781 million transistors o Intel Turbo Boost Technology . The Core i7 brand is targeted at the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptop computers. The second generation of Intel core processors are based on the "Sandy Bridge" core and are set to be updated in January1 2012 with "Ivy Bridge". "Core i7" is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand. Core i5 (mainstream consumer). Various Features are: o 4 physical cores o 256 KB L2 cache o 8 MB L3 cache o Front side bus replaced with QuickPath up to 6.4GT/s o Hyper-Threading is again included. and Xeon (server and workstation) brands. as of 2012-03-31.Intel Core i7 is an Intel brand name for several families of desktop and laptop 64-bit x86-64 processors using the Nehalem. 1Footnote: It has not yet been launched. Westmere.

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