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PROCESSING

PICTURE

DEFINITION

REMEDY

PROBLEM

CAPPING

CAPPING Capping is often directly related to air entrapment. That is, the tooling (punches & dies)

Capping is often directly related to air entrapment. That is, the tooling (punches & dies) is designed to allow the air to escape between the upper punch tip and the die wall. The upper punch tip is smaller in diameter than the lower punch tip in order to allow the air to evacuate during compression.

The first step to resolve capping is to increase dwell time. Dwell time is controlled by press speed, compression stations (main compression & pre- compression) and punch head flat diameter. Punch head flat diameter is often overlooked.

LAMINATION

LAMINATION Lamination is when the tablet splits apart in single or multiple layers. Lamination is often

Lamination is when the tablet splits apart in single or multiple layers. Lamination is often blamed on over compressing - too much compression force flattens out the granules, and they no longer lock together. Lamination can also occur when groups of fine and light particles do not lock together.

Reducing thickness and increasing dwell time will give these particles more of a chance. Dwell time can be increased by adding pre-compression or slowing the machine speed down. Adding a taper into the die will help eliminate lamination, however, many lamination problems are directly attributed to the formulation or to the preparation of the product.

PICKING

PICKING Adherence of the tablet material Because of engraving or areas in the letters like “A”,

Adherence of the tablet material

Because of engraving or

areas in the letters like “A”, “B”,

• Lettering should be

from the surface of a tablet by a punch

embossing or debossing on the

designed as large as possible, even the tablet size can be increased by reformulation

• Colloidal silica can be

punch tips like small enclosed

“D”, “O”, “Q” etc

added as polishing agent to formula

• Using additional binder

 

to increase cohesiveness of granules and thereby causing decreased adherence

• Plating of punch faces

with a chromium material to obtain smooth face which is non-adherent

• Avoid wet granules.

STICKING

STICKING Sticking always occurs in low • Partial or complete

Sticking always occurs in low

• Partial or complete

melting point substances, and moisture supports this defects, lower the speed up of upper and lower punch leads to weight variation of tablets. It produces

substitution of low melting point components with high melting point materials in the formula

 

rough and chipping surface

• Proper drying of the

tablets. It develops material on both punches. Lack of drying is

granules to remove excessive moisture

   

basis of this.

• Selection of Binding

agent is essential to solve sticking.

• Ideal selection of

lubricant in desired proportion will minimized this problem.

CRACKING

CRACKING Due to rapid expansion of tablets when deep concave punches are used Small, fine cracks

Due to rapid expansion of tablets when deep concave punches are used Small, fine cracks observed on the upper and lower central surfaces of tablets

Reduce granule size. Add fines. Moisten the granules properly and add proper amount of binder

MOTTLING

MOTTLING Unequal distribution of colour on • By using bright

Unequal distribution of colour on

• By using bright

the tablet surface with light and

coloring agent that will

dark areas standing out in an otherwise uniform coloured surface

mask all the color variations of the ingredients

 

• Proper drying by

reducing the drying temperature

• Colored adhesive gel

solutions must be added

when they are hot too much cooler powder mixtures to avoid precipitation

• It is better to

incorporate fine powder adhesives like acacia and tragacanth into product before adding the granulating fluid

• By changing the

solvent system or binder system

• Grinding to small

particle size

PEELING

PEELING Film peels off exposing the tablet surface and is associated with cracking and splitting Adjust

Film peels off exposing the tablet surface and is associated with cracking and splitting

Adjust molecular grade of polymer Balance spraying and drying rate

LOGO

LOGO This occurs when the coating fills Increasing the

This occurs when the coating fills

Increasing the

BRIDGING

in the lettering or logo on the tablet and is typically caused by improper application of the solution, poor design of the tablet embossing, high coating viscosity, high percentage of solids in the solution, or improper atomization pressure.

plasticizer content or changing the plasticizer can decrease the incidence of bridging.

ORANGE PEEL

ORANGE PEEL Surface appearance of Thinning the solution

Surface appearance of

Thinning the solution

ROUGHNESS

similar to an orange or lemon and is associated by cracking and splitting. This refers to a coating texture that resembles the surface of an orange. It is usually the result of high atomization pressure in combination with spray rates that are too high.

with additional solvent Use mild drying condition

TWINNING

TWINNING This is the term for two tablets that stick together, and Balancing the pan speed

This is the term for two tablets that stick together, and

Balancing the pan speed and spray rate.

it’s a common problem

modify the design of

with capsule shaped tablets.

the tooling by very slightly changing the radius.

Reference :