You are on page 1of 1

Late Edition

Today, periodic clouds and sunshine, high 77. Tonight, clear, cool, low 58. Tomorrow, mostly sunny, a seasonably warm afternoon, high 80. Weather map is on Page C8.

VOL. CLXII . . No. 56,172

2013 The New York Times




In Most Cases, Internal Review Was the Only Investigation


Cautious Support From Obama and Karzai An Early Step

WASHINGTON After contradictory stories emerged about an F.B.I. agents killing last month of a Chechen man in Orlando, Fla., who was being questioned over ties to the Boston Marathon bombing suspects, the bureau reassured the public that it would clear up the murky episode. The F.B.I. takes very seriously any shooting incidents involving our agents, and as such we have an effective, time-tested process for addressing them internally, a bureau spokesman said. But if such internal investigations are time-tested, their outcomes are also predictable: from 1993 to early 2011, F.B.I. agents fatally shot about 70 subjects and wounded about 80 others and every one of those episodes was deemed justified, according to interviews and internal F.B.I. records obtained by The New York Times through a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit. The last two years have followed the same pattern: an F.B.I. spokesman said that since 2011, there had been no findings of improper intentional shootings. In most of the shootings, the F.B.I.s internal investigation was the only official inquiry. In the Orlando case, for example, there have been conflicting accounts about basic facts like whether the Chechen man, Ibragim Todashev, attacked an agent with a knife, was unarmed or was brandishing a metal pole. But Orlando homicide detectives are not independently investigating what happened. We had nothing to do with it, said Sgt. Jim Young, an Orlando police spokesman. Its a federal matter, and were deferring everything to the F.B.I. Occasionally, the F.B.I. does discipline an agent. Out of 289 deliberate shootings covered by the documents, many of which left no Continued on Page A18


A military police officer doused a protester with pepper spray in Rio de Janeiro on Monday. The unrest continued on Tuesday.

In Bulgers Underworld, a Judas Was the Worst Protests Grow As Brazilians Killer Testifies on Code Blame Leaders of Honor at Mob

BOSTON Family and friends come first, John Martorano, an aging gangster known as the Executioner, declared from the witness stand here on Tuesday. My father always taught me that. The priests and the nuns I grew up with taught me that. They taught me that Judas Judas was the worst per-

Trial in Boston
son in the world. Just a few days into testimony at one of the most sensational criminal trials in this citys history, it is clear that something more is at stake than the racketeering and murder charges in the 32count indictment against James (Whitey) Bulger, the notorious ruler of Bostons underworld in the 1970s and 80s. The trial has focused in its early days on the criminals concepts of honor and loyalty, codes they say they lived by. Mr. Martorano, for one, who has confessed to at least 20 murders, took offense at being called a mass murderer, did not like the term hit man and rejected the label serial killer. He preferred the term vigilante, seeing in it the noble pursuit of protecting friends and family, especially if they were being hurt or double-crossed or could be hurt or double-crossed. Is there any honor or integrity


The victim of a killing attributed not to the defendant, but to a star prosecution witness.

in what you did? Mr. Martorano was asked under relentless crossexamination on Tuesday by Henry Brennan, a defense lawyer. I thought so, Mr. Martorano replied. I thought both. I didnt like risking my life, but I thought if the reason was right, Id try. That concept of honor has been a subtext of this trial since the moment it opened last week. Mr. Bulgers lead lawyer, J. W. Carney Jr., took the unusual tack of immediately acknowledging that his client was guilty of several charges against him, including drug dealing, illegal bookmaking and loansharking, and said he had made millions upon millions of dollars through his criminal enterprises. But, the lawyer insisted, Mr. Bulger, 83, was never an F.B.I. informer, as the prosecution alleges. Nor, he said, did Mr. Bulger kill the two women on the list of 19 murders he is accused of participating in. The code prohibits the killing of women. And being an informer is totally unacceptable something that Mr. Carney said was deeply ingrained in the Irish, who for so long had to protect one another from their British overContinued on Page A15


SO PAULO, Brazil Shaken by the biggest challenge to their authority in years, Brazils leaders made conciliatory gestures on Tuesday to try to defuse the protests engulfing the nations cities. But the demonstrators remained defiant, pouring into the streets by the thousands and venting their anger over political corruption, the high cost of living and huge public spending for the World Cup and the Olympics. In a convulsion that has caught many in Brazil and beyond by surprise, waves of protesters denounced their leaders for dedicating so many resources to cultivating Brazils global image by building stadiums for international events, when basic services like education and health care remain woefully inadequate. I love soccer, but we need schools, said Evaldir Cardoso, 48, a fireman at a protest here with his 7-month-old son. The demonstrations initially Continued on Page A8

WASHINGTON The Taliban signaled a breakthrough in efforts to start Afghan peace negotiations on Tuesday, announcing the opening of a political office in Qatar and a new readiness to talk with American and Afghan officials, who said in turn that they would travel to meet insurgent negotiators there within days. If the talks begin, they will be a significant step in peace efforts that have been locked in an impasse for nearly 18 months, after the Taliban walked out and accused the United States of negotiating in bad faith. American officials have long pushed for such talks, believing them crucial to stabilizing Afghanistan after the 2014 Western military withdrawal. But the Taliban may have other goals in moving ahead. Their language made clear that they sought to be dealt with as a legitimate political force with a longterm role to play beyond the insurgency. In that sense, in addition to aiding in talks, the actual opening of their office in Qatar nearly a year and a halfafter initial plans to open it were announced and then soon after suspended could be seen as a signal that the Talibans ultimate aim is recognition as an alternative to the Western-backed government of President Hamid Karzai. By agreeing to negotiations, the Taliban can come out in the open, engage the rest of the region as legitimate actors, and it will be very difficult to prevent that when we recognize the office and are talking to the office, said Vali Nasr, a former State Department official who is the dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. The United States, already heading toward its military exit, has little to offer beyond prisoner exchanges, and the Taliban are Continued on Page A3

Energized by Bloombergs Exit, Extending a Hand Abroad, Obama Often Finds a Cold Shoulder Labor Chiefs Try to Sway Race

After more than a decade of sitting out the fiercest race in town, leaders of the United Federation of Teachers are plotting a comeback. They have so much polling data that they can pinpoint the views of Puerto Ricans and Chinese immigrants alike. They can tailor messages based on brands of toilet paper voters buy. Normally busy handling complaints from teachers, they are now scouring financial records and questioning candidates about $4,000 restaurant bills. And on Wednesday, the union will throw its sophisticated political machine behind a candidate for mayor of New York City. Unions across the city, after years of low morale and stalled contract negotiations, are roaring back to life this election season, excited by the prospect of installing a friend of labor in City Hall when Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg leaves office at the end of the year. Some groups, like the teachers union, are expected to spend several million dollars on the race.

Several labor leaders are weighing advertising blitzes aimed at the broader public. Political organizers are training callers, social media activists and door-todoor canvassers. Politics in the city are shifting, Michael Mulgrew, president of the teachers union, said. Its not a pipe dream. Were going to be a force. Labor leaders face several challenges as they seek to reassert themselves as political heavyweights in a city that has not elected a Democrat for mayor since 1989. In a crowded field, they are split over whom to endorse, causing concern that they might cancel one another out. At a time of declining union membership and lingering economic turmoil, the strength of organized labor is unclear. Public officials across the country, including Mr. Bloomberg, a political independent, have cast doubt on their motives, and pushed back against demands from municipal workers for retroactive Continued on Page A25

WASHINGTON Over porterhouse steak and cherry pie at a desert estate in California earlier this month, President Obama delivered a stern lecture to President Xi Jinping about Chinas disputes with its neighbors. If it is going to be a rising power, he scolded, it needs to behave like one. The next morning, Mr. Xi punched back, accusing the United States of the same computer hacking tactics it attributed to China. It was, Mr. Obama acknowledged, a very blunt conversation. Ten days later, in Northern Ireland, Mr. Obama had another tough meeting with a prickly leader, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia. At odds with him over the Syrian civil war, Mr. Obama tried to lighten the mood by joking about how age was depleting their athletic skills. Mr. Putin, a decade older and fending off questions at home about his health, seemed sensitive on the point. The president just wants to get me to relax, he said with a taut smile. While tangling with the leaders


President Obama had a chilly meeting with President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia on Monday.
of two cold war antagonists of the United States is nothing new, the two bruising encounters in such a short span underscore a hard reality for Mr. Obama as he heads deeper into a second term that may come to be dominated by foreign policy: his main counterparts on the world stage are not his friends, and they make little attempt to cloak their disagreements in diplomatic niceties. Even his friends are not always so friendly. On Wednesday, for example, the president is to meet in Berlin with Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, who has invited him to deliver a speech at the Brandenburg Gate. But Ms. Merkel is also expected to press Continued on Page A11





The Fruits of Surveillance

Gen. Keith B. Alexander and other national security officials told a House committee that potential terrorist events were disrupted by government surveillance. PAGE A18

Obama Will Seek Arms Cuts

President Obama will offer to reduce the American nuclear arsenal if Russia does the same, officials said. PAGE A10

Uncertainty at the Fed

With Ben S. Bernankes second fouryear term leading the Federal Reserve due to end in January, President Obama suggested that he was likely to nominate a new chairman this year. PAGE B1

Heat Force a Seventh Game

The Miami Heat beat the San Antonio Spurs, 103-100, in overtime, to even the N.B.A. finals at three games all. LeBron James had 32 points, 10 rebounds and 11 assists in the victory. Tim Duncan had 30 points for the Spurs. Game 7 will be played Thursday night. PAGE B11

Minor Derailment, Big Trouble

Part of a train slid off the track in a tunnel near Pennsylvania Station, affecting rail service in the Northeast. PAGE A21

Nickelodeon Keeps Food Ads

The childrens TV network, unlike the Disney Channel, refused to adopt a set of nutritional standards and ban food ads that violated those rules. PAGE B1


Immigration Reforms Savings

Congressional budget analysts say a proposed immigration overhaul would cut close to $1 trillion from the deficit PAGE A17 over the next two decades.

A Healthy Cooks Sweet Secret

Martha Rose Shulman, a crusader for eating light, reveals that in her offhours, she loves to haul out the butter and bake treats, like the Quintessential Chocolate Chip Cookie, above. PAGE D1

Maureen Dowd


Shakespeare With Jitterbug

Comedy of Errors in Central Park. Charles Isherwoods review. PAGE C1

Obesity Recognized as Disease

The move by the American Medical Association could help improve reimbursement for drugs and surgery. PAGE B1