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Ground Enhancement Materials For Soil Floors GEM (11 kg) , BENTONITE (25 kg) These materials are developed to enhance the conductivity. It reduces the earthing resistance in all kinds of soil structure (such as rock, sandy soil) and an ideal material for soil of weak conductivity. Obtaining earthing resistance at requested values is not always possible. But for a good protection it must be reduced under specified values, (maximum 10 ohm according to the legislation of Ministry of Public Works, maximum 5 ohm. according to regulations for Lightning Protection). The characteristic of the earthing system is directly depended on the structure of the soil on which the installation is made. In an ideal earthing system, the earthing resistance must be reduced as much as possible in order to have the electrical current pass easily. Accordingly, the system and its surrounding must be as such to arrange rapid ion flow. The passing of electric current in a conductor is provided by electron movement whereas this is provided in soil by ions. If the movement of ions in the soil is less, the passing of electric current also becomes difficult. General Specifications

Does not be soluble or decomposed as time passes. Protects the resistance obtained during the life of the system. Increases the frost resistance about at the rate of 10%. No need for controlling periodically. One person is sufficient to prepare and make it. Not harmful for soil and does not pollute the underground waters.

Advantages Of Bentonite Or Gem Powder As To Coal And Salt: As the ion numbers are different in the metal orders, when two metals comes together a potential difference occurs between them. This potential difference causes metals to act as batteries and occurance of an ion flow. This is called as galvanic corrosion. The coal takes the ions of the copper due to the electro-chemical potential existing between coal and copper. The number of ions in copper decreases as time passes and the copper looses its characteristics. The electrolyte corrosion created by salt when it merges with water, decomposes the copper, besides the amount of salt put with underground water becomes less and is used up as the time passes.

Manual: For earthing conductor:

Dig a pit in 10.2 cm width and 50 100 cm depth or under freezing point.

Lay BENTONITE or GEM having a thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 on the basis of the pit. Place a naked copper conductor in an appropriate size (of min. 50 mm2) on the GEM or BENTONITE. Lay BENTONITE or GEM having a thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 again on the conductor. Sprinkle water until GEM or BENTONITE becomes slightly mud, then add soil on and close the pit.

Approximate Linear Feet Of Ground Conductor Covering With 1/2 Bag Bentonite Or 1 Bag Gem In The Channel Trench Width 2.5cm (1") 10cm 4" 15cm 6" 20cm 8" 25cm 10" 4.3m (14.0) 2.8m (9.3) 2.1m (7.0) 1.7m (5.6) Total Thickness Of Gem 5.1cm(2") 2.1m (7.0) 1.4m (4.7) 1.1m (3.5) 0.9m (2.8) 7.6cm (3") 1.4m (4.7) 0.9m (3.1) 0.7m (2.3) 0.6m (1.9) 10.2cm (4) 1.1m (3.5) 0.7m (2.3) 0.5m (1.8) 0.4m (1.4)

For earthing rod: Dig a pit in 7, 6 cm width and length of the rod with any drill.

Place the rod into the pit and strike a little bit. If any addition is needed at this point this should be with thermal welding. Fill around of the rod with BENTONITE or GEM powder and wet again with water. Lastly, cover the pit with soil.

Application of the earthing conductor first in the place where it enters into the soil, reduces to minimum or totally eliminates the amount of electrode or plate required to be use. It can be used for 1 bag of GEM in a place of 4 m. whereas for BENTONITE in a place of 10 m

The Approximate Depth To Be Filled By 1/2 Bag Of Bentonite Or 1 Bag Of Gem Density 1442 Kg/M3 (90 Lb/Cu Ft) Diameter Of Depth Of The Hole The Hole 1.8m 2.1m 2.4m 2.7m 5.2m 5.8m 6.1m (6) 7.5cm (3") 2 (7) 2 (8) 2 (9) 2 (17) 4 (19) 4 (20) 4

10.0cm (4") 12.5cm (5") 15.0cm (6") 17.5cm (7") 20.0cm (8") 22.5cm (9") 25.0cm (10") For earthing plate;

2 3 5 6 8 10 12

3 4 5 7 9 12 14

3 4 6 8 11 13 16

3 5 7 9 12 15 18

6 9 13 17 22 28 34

7 10 14 19 25 31 38

7 10 15 20 26 32 40

Dig a pit in the dimensions and depth of the plate to be used, under freezing point (50-100 cm). After placing the plate vertically, make a mould around the mould as such to include a bag of BENTONITE or GEM Powder. Pour the BENTONITE or GEM Powder into the mould as being plastered with water and then make the necessary connections Ground Enhancement Materials For Concrete Surfaces - Marconite (25 Kg) Marconite is an additive which is of particles and electrically conductive and provides obtaining electrically conductive concretes using the common concrete technology and supersedes the concrete additives of fine particles such natural sand. It is the most ideal material to be used especially for grounding in order to reduce the resistivity. Marconite/cement/water ratios required for application varies according to processing facilities of the conductive concrete and the pressing strength required for it. A typical mixture should be prepared in the following ratios: ( 975 kg + 325 kg + 275 l) m 3 conductive concrete Marconite Cement Water Preparation of Marconite plaster is same with the method we obtain concrete with cement. The plaster prepared as such is poured on the conducton. Applications; Conductive concrete can be used in order to reduce the passing resistance of the earthing electrodes and improve the affecting area as being a sealant to cover the earthing rods placed into the holes which are opened with drills or a covering that surrounds the horizontal conductors embedded in a pit. . Specifications Of Marconite Concrete Mortar Weights kg 1.450 0.485 0.385 1.380 0.550 0.380 1.290 0.645 0.375 2 0,28 0,58 34 24,1 2,5 0,31 0,69 45 16,7 3 0,34 0,79 44 8,2 Marconite Water Cement Cement Weight ratio Ratio Total Water Cement Ratio Final Load Pressing of 3 Sample Strength N kN / mm 2

Prepared Material Mixture No Marconite OPC 8873 Water Marconite OPC 8872 Water Marconite OPC 8880 Water

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