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CHAPTER 15: IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REAL?

Multiple Choice: 1. Artificial intelligence is the study of ideas which enable computers to do the things that make people seem intelligent. This commonly used definition of AI is a quote by: A. Alan Turing. B. Patrick Henry Winston. C. Phil Knight. D. Bill Gates. Answer: B 2. Reference: What Is Artificial Intelligence? Difficulty: Moderate

The imitation game was developed by ____________ to demonstrate a computers intelligence. A. Alan Turing B. Patrick Henry Winston C. the U.S. Dept. of Defense D. Bill Gates

Answer: A 3.

Reference: Can Machines Think?

Difficulty: Moderate

The simulation approach in regard to AI includes all of the following problems EXCEPT: A. people dont always know how they do things. B. the brain can perform parallel processing, which is difficult for computers. C. machines operate differently than the brain. D. we know how the brain functions and can simulate that in a computer.

Answer: D

Reference: What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Difficulty: Moderate

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? 4. One of the first popular domains for AI research was: A. the checkerboard. B. solitaire. C. chess. D. parallel processing. Answer: A 5. Reference: Opening Games Difficulty: Moderate

Traditional AI techniques still used today include all of the following EXCEPT: A. searching. B. heuristics. C. pattern recognition. D. parallel processing.

Answer: D 6.

Reference: Opening Games

Difficulty: Challenging

Machine learning involves: A. learning from a successful move. B. copying the knowledge of a human to a computer. C. loading numerous games and playing them regularly. D. making numerous mistakes so the computer can learn.

Answer: A 7.

Reference: Opening Games

Difficulty: Moderate

A primary outcome of the automatic language translation program was the realization that: A. humans are faster and more accurate. B. computers are faster and more accurate. C. computers make fewer errors than humans. D. computers can accurately translate 99% of the text.

Answer: A

Reference: Machine Translation Traps

Difficulty: Easy

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real?

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AltaVistas Babel Fish Web site is a(n): A. language translation program. B. wealth of information about species of fish. C. AI search engine. D. AI organizational page of information.

Answer: A 9.

Reference: Machine Translation Traps

Difficulty: Moderate

A typical problem of natural-language communication is: A. tone inflection. B. the limited vocabulary of natural language. C. the use of accents. D. the enormous vocabulary of natural language.

Answer: D 10.

Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty: Moderate

Syntax, a problem with natural-language communication, is: A. the tone inflection of human language. B. the natural accent of the human voice. C. a set of rules for common expressions. D. a set of rules for constructing sentences from words.

Answer: D 11.

Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty: Moderate

Semantics, a problem with natural-language communication, refers to: A. the underlying meaning of words and phrases. B. a set of rules for constructing sentences from words. C. the natural accent of the human voice. D. the tone inflection of human language.

Answer: A

Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense

Difficulty: Moderate

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The most successful natural-language applications: 3

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? A. keep the scope of their work very wide and nebulous. B. limit the scope of their field. C. keep the rules very flexible and variable. D. discard common sense as unimportant. Answer: B 13. Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense Difficulty: Easy

When it comes to the areas of data and knowledge, computers are much better at handling: A. knowledge first, then processing the data. B. knowledge than data. C. data than knowledge. D. only knowledge.

Answer: C 14.

Reference: Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems

Difficulty: Easy

A typical database contains: A. rules, facts, and relationships. B. only rules and relationships. C. simulation of human thinking. D. only facts.

Answer: D 15.

Reference: Knowledge Bases

Difficulty: Moderate

When a computer can correctly recognize faces of users with a high degree of reliability, it is using: A. fuzzy logic. B. pattern recognition. C. image analysis. D. OCR.

Answer: C

Reference: Image Analysis

Difficulty: Easy

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A knowledge base contains: A. rules, facts, and relationships.

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? B. only rules and relationships. C. simulation of human thinking. D. only facts. Answer: A 17. Reference: Knowledge Bases Difficulty: Moderate

A software program designed to replicate the decision-making process of a human expert is a(n): A. data system. B. database. C. expert system. D. semantic system.

Answer: C 18.

Reference: Artificial Experts

Difficulty: Moderate

Using the knowledge of an expert in a particular field in order to duplicate it into a program is the creation of a(n): A. expert system. B. database. C. fuzzy logic system. D. pattern recognition system.

Answer: A 19.

Reference: Artificial Experts

Difficulty: Easy

When a conclusion is stated as a probability rather than an exact fact, it is known as: A. an expert system. B. a database. C. fuzzy logic. D. a pattern recognition system.

Answer: C

Reference: Artificial Experts

Difficulty: Moderate

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XCON, a system at American Express, and a system at Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Virginia are all examples of: A. expert systems. B. databases.

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? C. fuzzy logic. D. pattern recognition systems. Answer: A 21. Reference: Expert Systems in Action Difficulty: Moderate

Expert systems primarily started in the: A. insurance field. B. medical field. C. aviation field. D. library reference field.

Answer: B 22.

Reference: Expert Systems in Action

Difficulty: Easy

The field of AI that covers fingerprint identification, handwriting recognition, and weather forecasting is: A. pattern recognition. B. image analysis. C. parsing programs. D. fuzzy logic.

Answer: A 23.

Reference: Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World

Difficulty: Moderate

The task of identifying recurring patterns in input data with the eventual understanding or categorizing of that input is known as: A. fuzzy logic. B. automatic translation. C. a parsing program. D. pattern recognition.

Answer: D

Reference: Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World

Difficulty: Moderate

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What aspect of artificial intelligence represents half of the industry? A. Fuzzy logic B. Automatic translation C. Parsing programs

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? D. Pattern recognition Answer: D 25. Reference: Pattern Recognition: Making Sense of the World Difficulty: Moderate

_____________ is the process of identifying objects and shapes in a photograph, drawing, video, or other visual image. A. Pattern recognition B. Image analysis C. OCR D. Fuzzy logic

Answer: B 26.

Reference: Image Analysis

Difficulty: Easy

The U.S. Postal Service sorts much of its mail using: A. OCR. B. fuzzy logic. C. image analysis. D. pattern recognition.

Answer: A 27.

Reference: Optical Character Recognition

Difficulty: Moderate

OCR stands for: A. original character representation. B. optical character recognition. C. optical computer reply. D. original character recognition.

Answer: B

Reference: Optical Character Recognition

Difficulty: Easy

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More advanced speech recognition programs that have the ability to recognize speech without being trained by a speaker are known as: A. OCR. B. speaker independent. C. digitized speech. D. synthetic speech systems.

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? Answer: B 29. Reference: Automatic Speech Recognition Difficulty: Moderate

When a computers speech sounds like the speech of a human, it is using: A. OCR. B. synthetic speech. C. speech synthesis. D. prerecorded commentary.

Answer: C 30.

Reference: Talking Computers

Difficulty: Moderate

The primary successes of intelligent applications tend to have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: A. logical rules. B. unstructured logic. C. sequential thinking. D. orderly relationships.

Answer: B 31.

Reference: Neural Networks

Difficulty: Moderate

A network of a few thousand simple processors is called a _________ network. A. neural B. cerebral C. rational D. robot

Answer: A

Reference: Neural Networks

Difficulty: Moderate

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An example of a ____________ network is American Express reading and analyzing millions of charge slips each day or recognizing patterns in huge quantities of data, such as the stock market. A. neural B. cerebral C. rational D. robot

Answer: A

Reference: Neural Networks 8

Difficulty: Moderate

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? 33. A computer-controlled machine designed to perform specific manual tasks is known as a(n): A. speech synthesizer. B. AI. C. robot. D. OCR. Answer: C 34. Reference: What Is a Robot? Difficulty: Easy

Robots are quite effective in all of the following EXCEPT: A. cleaning up hazardous waste. B. doing repetitive jobs. C. working 24/7. D. doing work that requires fine-motor skills.

Answer: D

Reference: Steel-Collar Workers

Difficulty: Moderate

Fill in the Blank:

35.

AI stands for ____________.

Answer: artificial intelligence Reference: Alan Turing, Military Intelligence, and Intelligent Machines Difficulty: Easy 36. ____________ is the process of breaking complex jobs into manageable pieces and completing these tasks simultaneously. Reference: What Is Artificial Intelligence? Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: Parallel processing

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? 37. A(n) ____________ is a rule of thumb. Reference: Opening Games Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: heuristic 38.

One AI technique that is still used today is ____________, the process of looking at possibilities and choosing one that is most probable for success. Reference: Opening Games Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: searching 39.

The ____________ technique rapidly repeats a simple operation until an answer is found. Reference: Opening Games Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: brute-force 40.

Every natural language has a(n) ____________, a set of rules for constructing sentences from words. Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: syntax 41.

The most successful natural-language applications limit their ____________, or affected area, so that rules can be clean and unambiguous. Reference: Nonsense and Common Sense Difficulty: Easy

Answer: domain 42.

____________ allows a computer to output words in English or another language. Reference: Talking Computers Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: Speech synthesis 43.

Between humans and computers, ____________ are better at comprehending and identifying relationships among facts. Reference: Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: humans 44.

A database contains only facts, while a(n) ____________ also contains a system of rules for determining and changing the relationship among those facts. Reference: Knowledge Bases and Expert Systems Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: knowledge base 45.

A(n) ____________ is a software program designed to replicate the decision-making process of a human expert. Reference: Artificial Experts Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: expert system 46.

Since most human decision making involves ambiguity, ____________ allows for conclusions that are based on probabilities rather than certainties. Reference: Artificial Experts Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: fuzzy logic 47.

An expert system is based on the knowledge of a(n) ____________. Reference: Artificial Experts Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: expert

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? 48. Because of the orderly and well-documented information of the industry, the ____________ field was the area used for some of the first successful expert systems. Reference: Artificial Experts Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: medical 49.

The process of ____________ is used for recognizing and recoloring classic motion pictures or piloting cruise missiles. Reference: Image Analysis Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: image analysis 50.

____________ text is more difficult than printed text for a computer to recognize accurately. Reference: Optical Character Recognition Difficulty: Easy

Answer: Handwritten 51.

____________ voice recognition systems have the ability to recognize speech without being trained by an individual speaker. Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: Speaker independent Reference: Automatic Speech Recognition 52.

Most modern robots include ____________ that accept new input and enable robots to correct or modify their actions based on feedback from the outside world. Reference: What Is a Robot? Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: sensors 53.

____________ is the playing of prerecorded speech stored on a computer. Reference: Talking Computers Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: Digitized speech 54.

With ____________ software or hardware, PCs can recite typed text, but with artificial and robotic voices. Reference: Talking Computers Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: speech synthesis 55.

A(n) ____________ uses a network of a few thousand simple processors that work simultaneously. Reference: Neural Networks Difficulty: Challenging

Answer: neural network 56.

A(n) ____________ is a computer-controlled machine designed to perform specific manual tasks. Reference: What Is a Robot? Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: robot 57.

____________ is the application of AI concepts to networks, rather than only to individual computers. Reference: AI Implications and Ethical Questions Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: Distributed intelligence 58.

In the workplace, ____________ primarily take over tasks that are boring, dirty, or dangerous and which humans often do not want, cannot do, or get very tired of doing. Reference: What Is a Robot? Difficulty: Moderate

Answer: robots

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Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? Matching:

59.

Match the following terms to their meanings: I. Turing test A. software designed to replicate the knowledge of a human expert B. set of rules for constructing sentences from words C. the real meaning of words and phrases D. if it acts intelligent, it is intelligent E. contains facts and relationships F. the first area of AI research G. Spanish hola for English hello H. contains only facts I. one of the first software programs to converse in natural language

II. Expert system III. Automatic translation IV. Checkers and chess V. Syntax VI. Semantics VII. Domain VIII. ELIZA IX. Database X. Knowledge base Answers: D, A, G, F, B, C, J, I, H, E

J. the world that the application deals with Reference: Multiple locations Difficulty: Challenging

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 15: Is Artificial Intelligence Real? 60. Match the following AI techniques to their specific examples: I. Searching A. in a game of checkers, keep checkers in the kings row as long as possible B. a chess move is successful, the computer will probably opt to use it more often in the future and vice versa C. there are five possible chess moves in this situation, if I choose thisthen this happens; if I choose this other optionthen this thing happens; etc.

II. Heuristics III. Pattern recognition other IV. Machine learning Answers: C, A, D, B

D. if the knight chess piece is in this square and the Queen is to the right with the opponents King straight in front, then the proper move is Reference: Opening Games Difficulty: Moderate

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved.

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