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Nonlinear FlexuralFlexuralTorsional Interactions in Beams Including the Effect of Torsional Dynamics. I: Primary Resonance
M. R. M. CRESPO DA SILVA and C. L. ZARETZKY
Department of Mechanical Engineering Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 121803590, U.S.A.
(Received: 9 March 1992; accepted: 22 June 1992)
Abstract. Nonlinear coupling between torsional and both inplane and outofplane flexural motion is examined
for inextensional beams (or beamlike structures) whose torsional and flexural eigenfrequencles are of the same order. The analysis presented here is based on a consistent set of nonlinear differential equations which contain both curvature and inertia nonlinearities, and account for torsional dynamics. Response characteristics, including stability, are determined for cantilever beams subjected to a lateral periodic excitation. The beam's response in the presence of a onetoone internal resonance involving a torsional frequency and an inplane bending frequency is investigated in detail.
Key words: Beams, nonlinear oscillations, flexuraltorsional dynamics, torsional response, nonlinear resonance.
1. Introduction
To date, the analyses of nonlinear dynamics of beams that have been presented in the literature have dealt with the case where the torsional frequencies of the beam are much higher than its bending frequencies. For such a case, the torsional inertia has no significant effect on the motion of the beam and, thus, the torsional deformation is determined directly by the nonlinear coupling between inplane and outofplane bending. Many applications involving the dynamics of structural elements fall into this important class of problems. Analytical and experimental investigations for such cases are exemplified by the works reported in [18]. For beams having a cross section with high aspect ratio, for example, the first torsional natural frequency is of the order of a lower bending natural frequency. This may also be observed in long structural members that may be modeled as a beam, such as components of space structures or satellites. In this case, the nonlinear coupling between torsional and bending motions may cause an exchange of energy between such motions. There are two myths which are common among engineers whose training has not included nonlinear analysis techniques; (1) "keep the amplitudes of excitation small, and a linear analysis should be sufficient"; (2) "amplitudes of nonlinear motions are so large in beam structures that the structure would be destroyed long before its amplitude grows that large. Thus, a study of nonlinear phenomena in such structures is unneeded". The results presented in Parts I and II of this work, and in several other papers that have been published in the technical literature, clearly serve to dispel such myths. In this paper, nonlinear coupling between torsional and flexural motions in inextensional beams is examined by taking into account the torsional dynamics of the beam. Here, torsional and flexural natural frequencies are of the same order, thus allowing for the occurrence of a number of nonlinear phenomena that involves such motions. The differential equations formulated in [2, 3] and in [4] are used for such investigation. Those equations contain all the geometric nonlinearities that arise when an inextensional beam is deforming in three
4
M.R.M. Crespo da Silva and C. L. Zaretzky
dimensional space. The beam is subjected to a lateral periodic excitation with frequency near a bending natural frequency which, in turn, is near the first torsional natural frequency of the beam. In Part II of this work, a combination resonance where a torsional natural frequency is near the sum of two bending natural frequencies is addressed.
2. Equations of Motion
The system analyzed here is shown in Figure 1. It consists of a cantilever of length L and specific (i.e., per unit length) mass re(s), subjected to a distributed periodic force Qv (s, t) = qv(s) cos(f~t), or to a base displacement qv cos(f~t), applied in the inertial ydirection. The independent variable s is the arc length measured along the beam, and t denotes time. The small effects due to extensionality, which are taken into account in [4, 9, 10], and shear deformation are neglected. The differential equations, and the boundary conditions, that govern the flexuralflexuraltorsional motions for inextensional beams were first formulated in [2]. Further details of the formulation are also given in [4]. The expanded version of those equations, which are amenable to a perturbation analysis of the motion, are given below for the case when the beam is subjected to the distributed force indicated above. The first two equations below are Equations (46b) and (47b) in [4], while the third equation is Equation (1 ld) in [2].
m4) + c~,i~+(D(v")"= {D~w"(O" +v"w')+w'Qo~v'[D¢(v'v" + (D n  D¢)w'v'tw" +
[(D,
+ w'w")]'
D¢)(O~w"02v")] '
+ 3~w'(o~ + ~0',~')+ 3U( ,/~' + w'~')
[0~  ~,)(oS  e>' + w',/w') 
~,~']
(la)
vl S m S
, / v ,
f f(~,2 2
L 0
+
wt2)..d8 d8
~1
J
} qv(s)cOs(~t).
mg,
+ c~(v+(D,Tw")"= {D~v"(O" + v"w')w' [D,Tv'v"+ Dnw'w"]'
+ [(D, 7 
V¢)(O.v" + O~w")]' 3~i/(0~ + i/w')
+ w'(3J,z' + a ~ ' ~ ' ) 
[(3~ ds
3~)(o~' + o~,z')  3 J ]
.
S
2
L
m
/(8
0
"vt2 Jr w " 2 ) " d 8
If
(lb)

(j~  j~) [(+'2  ~'~)o~

~'~']
Qo~.
(lc)
In the above equations, ( )' and ( ) denote, respectively, partial differentiation with respect to s and t. The quantities D~(s) and D((s) are the principal flexural stiffnesses of the beam,
.t) = 7'(L. 3o(s). The expanded form of the beam's torsion is equal to "7' = 0" + v"w'. are shown in Figure 1 (where carets (^) are used to indicate unit vectors). . which is determined as [3. . which is approximated as = c0x0x = a 3~cyOx • ~ 3{cTVy. . The boundary conditions for the above equations are v(o. . t) + fo v"w'ds = 0.~(s. t) = 0x(s. while D~(s) is the torsional stiffness. .t) = w'"(L.f~ v'w"ds. % ~ and ~. The • superscripts are dropped for convenience in notation o _ + . / ( m L 4 ) .(s.t) = v'"(L. For convenience. Equations (1 ac) are nonlinear partial integrodifferential equations describing the coupled flexuralflexuraltorsional response of an initially straight inextensional beam possessing both varying cross sectional dimensions and nonuniform material properties.t) = 3(o. where 7(s) is the angle of torsion of the beam. /3y = Dg/D~. the normalized form of Equations (lac) may be written as given below.TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance ^ 5 Y . This includes tapered and stepped beams and long slender structures that may be approximated as a beam. t) and w(s. . as shown in Figure 1. 3"~ = 3¢/(mL2). responses involving dynamic coupling between torsional and flexural motions may be addressed. w* = w/L. t) is an orientation angle that was introduced to describe the orientation of the cross section at location s. The quantities c~ and cw in Equations (la. t* : t v / D .' I / w(s. The quantities v(s. . a~ = 3o/(mL2). and by introducing a small damping term in Equation (lc). while 0=(s. Equations (lac) will be specialized to a uniform homogeneous cantilever beam from this point forward.t) Fig. . . /3~ = De/D~. v* = v/L.t) _1.t) = O. Coordinate systems and elastic deflections for the beam. t) + v'w' .0 = = = w'(O. .. The principal axes of the beam's cross section at location s. 1. b) are viscous damping coefficients that are introduced to model flexural damping in the structure. 3~ (s) and j{(s) = 3o(s) +3g(s) are the distributed mass moments of inertia. t) are the beam's deflections along two inertial directions. By accounting for the torsional distributed mass moment of inertia in these equations. .t) = w"(L.t) = o (2a) (2b) v"(L. ~* = F~L2v/m/D. . c*~ = cvLa/v/mD~ and c~ = cwL2/x/mD~. s + u(s. By making use of the angle of torsion for the beam. 4] ~. Equations (1 ac) are written in terms of nondimensional quantities defined as s* = s/L.
3C) 1 0 (v'w")'ds.i~t'~ .0 ] + (3~ . 1.q/bt2)} t .~ 1// .~'w'] • (3c) In the next section the eigenfunctions associated with the linearized counterpart of the above equations are determined.(V' v' w" ds + 3~i/ 0 ) + v' (3¢~5'2 + 3~@'2'  3~cTw'~/}'+ qv(S)COS(f~t).~.3~?(vt] " (3b) + Wt(f~iJ t2 + 3. .3~ I. 2 ) _ (v'~") d~ .] .R.M.~'2)~ .v'(v' (v~ 8 i)t7 2 . J~ + 3~ 9~7" = .i/ i vttwtd8) .my)[~(v "2 _ ~ . . .( 1 . Crespo da Silva and C. (v 12 + wl2)"ds ds ] + 3~ ~/+ [ (i) [ ( 0 (3~? .6 M. (3a) @ 0  WI(V It2 Jv W It2) + W t flyVtV ttt [  WtW m + 3~?Jtv t + 3Tl~)tW t  ~ ' iJ 1 0 (V t2 + wt2)"d8 ds ]  3~ ~ (J) + (v'w")ds  v'(v' ~' 0 [(303() ((vt"Y2 t. L.3~) [(~'~ . Zaretzky + V ! [~yVtV ttt  WIW tt! + 3¢~)lvI + 3OibtwI .(V'7 . Equations (3ac) are then transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations which are used to analyze the coupled motions with a perturbation technique.~'~' ¢..
The solutions to Equations (5a.7 in the expression obtained for F~(s). Fw(s) and F. ~o~ = ~w and3¢ = 3. wt(t) = cos(wwt + Bw) and 7tt = cos(w.TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance 7 3. the eigenfunctions Fv (s) and F..~ (s) satisfy the differential equations ptttt •v* v . + 3~co.yt + B. (60 . t). 2 r= 0 (Sb) with the boundary condition Fv(0) = F'(0) = F. b) are obtained as cos.tt (5a) 9~F4.~). (6a) (6b) 1%= and r~coshrl + r ~ c o s r 2 r 2 sinh rl + fir2 sin r2 (6c) (6d) T2 = (6e) ~ = (2~1)7~.~(s) are determined by solving the linearized counterpart to Equations (3ac) numerically. For a beam with constant distributed properties.yF. Fw(s).cGF~ + 3(cGr ~ = 0 2 2r. In general. Eigenfunctions Associated with the Linearized Equations The solution to the undamped linearized differential equations of motion will be used as the starting point for a perturbation analysis based on Equations (3ac). 2 . The eigenfunction associated with the linearized part of w(s..y(0) = 0 and F~'(1) = F~(1) = 0. 1 2] where n= 1. Those solutions are of the form v=F~(s)vt(t) w = Fw(s)wt(t) 7 = F~(s)'yt(t) (4a) (4b) (4c) with vt(t) = cos(tort + By).. the eigenfunctions F~(s).2. is obtained by setting fly = 1.
0025 0.676 21. the terms/3uv~2v m and 3~v~2~) ~produce a similar vt3 term in the reduced equations.M. these constants are chosen so that 1 0 1 1 0 0 The effect of the distributed mass moments of inertia on the natural frequencies ~ow (or ~v/x/~u) is illustrated in Table I for several values of 3~ (or 30. t) and "y(s.432 55. b) and the 3. (7) The constants C~.1 and 3~ smaller than 0.7 and 3~. which is obtained by imposing the condition F~"(1) = 0 on the function F~.516 3. such effect is negligible for typical values of 3. as well as third bending and first torsion modes. To estimate their contributions. Galerkin's method is applied to Equations (3ac) with v(s.043 21.633 The quantities rl and 9" 2 satisfy the characteristic equation given below. and ~w is more pronounced for the higher modes. Zaretzky TABLE I Natural frequencies ~w versus 3n 3~ 0 0.001 if Lib = 9.~ and 3¢ terms in Equation (3c) will be neglected. respectively. The distributed mass moments of inertia also contribute to a number of nonlinear terms in Equations (3ac). This gives 3. one has 3~ = (b/L)2/12. For a homogeneous beam with a square cross section. for example. the term 3~. The numerical values of the coefficients associated with the distributed mass moment of inertia were found to be negligible when compared to the values for the coefficients of the similar terms associated with the distributed stiffnesses. t).5236 w~ (second mode) 4.R. For these reasons. r~ + r 4 + 2r~r~(coshrl)cosr2 + r l r z ( r ~ .r2)(sinhrl)sinr2 = 0.8552 ~ 61.~. As an example. and compare them to those arising from the stiffness terms. are arbitrary. Even though the effect of the distributed mass moments of inertia on the frequencies ~ .8 M. L. For a homogeneous rectangular cross section beam of length L and cross section dimensions a and b for example.001 are typical in practice. The Galerkin coefficients for such terms were evaluated using first bending and torsion modes. Crespo da Silva and C.6952 ~ 22.~ in Equation (3c) is associated with the linearized counterpart . one has 3~ = (b/L)2/12.7 ~ 0. thus simplifying the analysis. Values of 3. the 3n. Cw and Cr that appear in the expressions for Fv. w.7 58. where b is a cross section dimension. 7).8752 ~ 3. w(s.331 w~ (third mode) 7.005 w~ (first mode) 1. t) approximated as at = F~(s)at(t) with at(t) = cos[w~t + B~] (a = v. For later convenience.5198 3. When the natural frequency ~7 is commensurable with the bending natural frequencies. Fw and F. The terms associated with the distributed mass moments of inertia and the stiffness terms produce similar Galerkin coefficients. 3~ and 34 3n + 3~ terms in Equations (3a.
(9) The case when the excitation frequency.% = Ay(tl.t2) + e2at2(to. t2)] =~ A~ cos qS.}O@2~/t w2 t..yt q. ) are listed in Appendix A.wt.~ d27t. and there is energy exchange between the vt and "Yt motions caused by nearinteger commensurability between the natural frequencies of the system• By transferring the damping and the excitation terms out of the O(e) approximation as c~ = e2Cv2. tl = et and t2 = 62t are introduced. • . w ( s . 2. f v = e3f v. energy may be exchanged between torsional and bending motions. Equations (3ac).y(tl.O~ws(W2)"Wt (8a) q.CT. the method of multiple time scales [11] will be used. = 0. the following ordinary differential equations of motion are obtained for the quantities vt (t). wt (t) and 7t (t): + + : + + + ~. a one mode approximation is used. f~.tl. A one mode approximation is justified when the frequencies associated with other modes that are not near the excitation frequency are not commensurable.yTt . t2) cos [Wvto + Bv(tl.f[~V5('02)"Vt~. + W2vVtl = O. t ) ~ F~(s)wt(t) and 7 ( s . In this case those modes "die out" due to damping in the system [11]. Three time scales to = t. and nonlinear interactions in the coupled v(s.w. and vt. aw~ and ar~ (i = 1. In such a case. = Aw(tl. is near one of the eigenfrequencies of the undamped motion.t2)cos [WwtO + B. Such motions are investigated in this paper. In this case the beam exhibits a nonlinear primary resonance. t2)] & Av cos qSv d2wtl + C O w W t 2 = (1 la) (llb) (1 lc) O. Wv. t2) cos [co~to+ B.f2C72.t2. tl. tl. Here. t ) ~ FT(s)"/t(t) motions are then investigated. fv A f l Fv(s)qv(t) ds. as discussed in the previous section. and the coefficients av~. P e r t u r b a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f t h e M o t i o n Approximate solutions for the motion may be obtained by using Galerkin's method to reduce the expanded differential equations of motion. wt and 7t are expanded in terms of e as at(to.O32.t2)] =A Awcosq3w 2 .TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance 9 of that equation and.t) ~ F~(s)vt(t).t2) + e3at3(to. + co. and when wv is near w7 is addressed. cw = e2 cw2 . (10ad) the following differential equations are obtained for each order of approximation when the expansions defined by Equation (9) are substituted into Equations (8ac): dgvt.yt = O@ ~/t?)2 .vtl = A~(tl. 4. tl. In the above equations. thus cannot be neglected. cr ~.O{v6(W2)"'Ot "~. When the distributed mass moments of inertia terms are neglected.~(tl.t2) a = v.e) = eat~(to.'.[O@4(~3tWt)" q.'.Ct73~tll)t ~. To analyze the motion governed by the three coupled nonlinear ordinary differential Equations (Sac).Iv COS(fit) ~iJt + Cw@t qC02Wt = Olw1"TtVt qO~w2Wt"/2 q.'y.Ogw6(~U2t )"Wt (8b) (8C) 5t q.'.Ogw3Wtv2 1Ctw4w3 q. to a set of ordinary differential equations.Ct75Vt~3t]" .
"/tlVt. = 2Ww [(dlAw)sinew + Aw(d.C v ) ] / 2 (125) d2"yt2 + co2%2 = 2dodlTt. leo7 ± w.(w~ + ¢z~)a74 . wt.1.cv2dovt~ + fv3 cos(Qt0) (13a) dgWt3 "Jlwgwt3 : Cw2do~lJt 1 .OLw6Wtld20 (V~I) (13b) d2o. wt . 2) is used. ) [cos(¢v . ] [cos(¢~ + ¢~) + cos(¢v . Here.aw3 Vtl Wtl k.r) sin ¢'r + A~(dlBT) cos ¢'r] + [a. I.) ~ OLV2 tt'fftl ~.) + o[~/sdo(VtldO~tl ) = 2w. .w 2 + a.r. were used in Equations (1 2ac).Vt2"~tl) 2 3 q.. (2dodl(vqwtt) + d2[vt2wtl + wtzvtl]) +oers{dl(vttdowtl)+do[vt2dowt ~ +vt~(dlwt~ + dowt2)]} • (13c) In the above equations. the case where the values of the natural frequencies . = 2w~ [(d.w~aT.] + av~AvoA 7 [cos(¢ 7 + ¢~) + cos(¢ 7 . The O(e 2) differential equations exhibit the combination resonances co~ ~. + ew)] ArAb~2 o(. + a73vt. + a~. R. L.10 M..2dodlwt2 .Bv)cOs¢.aw4 Wtl ~. Crespo da Silva and C.aw2 Wtl ~t21 q.Olw5Wtl d2 (W21) ~.OLV3 tlqJ)$1 ~ Ogv4Vtl "3V .r3 (vtlwt2 + wqvt2) + ar.r [(dlA.."/t.)] A . + a. l. ("Yt2Vtl }.t3 q. the notation d~( ) = O( )/Otn (n = 0. 3) d2vt3 + co2vt3 2dodlvt2 .( d2 ~. + a74d~(vt. A ~ / 2 (12c) 2 2 + w.2dod2)wt. which are also given in Equations ( l l a . ] and w 7 ~ tw~ :kw.~3 .]. M.cow(2a74 + a. wt. w~. Zaretzky 2) d2vt2 + co2vt2 = 2dod.c ) .cos(¢.~ ]w7 qw. Bw)cosew] + awlAvA7 [cos(¢ 7 + Cv) + cos(¢ 7 .Av)sin¢~ + A~(d.¢. + wtz'Yt.ew) .vt. ) ] / 2 (12a) d2wta + co2wtz = 2dodlwt~ + aw.¢ ~ .(d 2 + 2dod2)vtl + av~(Tt2wt. The solutions to the O(e) differential equations.
~77) 2 + c o ~ ..TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance 11 are "away" from these resonances is considered.w~a.O@4(CO v q. . Equations (13ac). With the O(e) and O(e2) solutions given by Equations (11ac) and (15ac). @  (14a.~ v .¢~) CO2 . The case when ~7 is near Wv + ww is analyzed in [12].rAw [ cos(¢7 + Cw) cos(qSr Cw) ] vt22 [col: (7~. the motion when Wv ~ co7. For the case considered in this paper.CdwWt w~o(2d2Am + cmzAm) sin Om . d2B~ + k2Av 7 + k6AvA2] cos ¢~ + AvA 2 a~ 1k72 + ~c~3 ..3 . are obtained: dlA~ = 0. the following conditions for elimination of secular terms at the O(e 2) level.~)(<~ + ~v . w. the 0@ 3) differential equations.COw) 2 ...~ 7~~)2J ctwlATAv [ C0S(¢7 + Cv) Wt2 . cos(¢~ . b) (15a) c%A. take the following forms: dgvt3 + a)2vt3 = fv3 cos(~to) b wv(ZdzAv + cv2Av)sinCv ~ 3 + k3AvA 2 + klAvA 7 2 cos(¢v .Cdv) 2 (15b) 7t2 = A~A~ [kv~ cos(¢~ + era) + k~2cos(¢v . is investigated..OZ../SCOw(COw + COy) kVl = (16a) 2[w2(COv+Wm) 2] (16b) Note that the second order torsional component of the beam response is only dependent on the first order inplane and outofplane bending motions.).~ ) + high frequency terms (17b) .. Instead.6 + high frequency terms (1 7a) 2 3 7g~w~3 Jr.Cm)] (15c) where OZ3. and solutions to Equations (12ac). which is a resonance condition exhibited at th e O(e 3) level.(CO. dlB~ = 0 (a = v. 2 2 + Am [2cvwdzBm + k7A 2 + ksA~ + k9Av] cos ¢w + AmAav ~mlk~2 + ~w~ ~vam~ + ~m2 (~m .2¢7 ) + [2wvA.
rd2B7 . and with f~ ~ a~v. The coupled motions in the presence of this resonance condition.y)+ [2coTA. are now investigated with the objective of determining how the flexural and torsional motions interact. Zaretzky d2~t3 + 027~t3 2 = coT(2d2A. 1[ owl]l (21 a) k2 = ~O~v4. while those for k 6 through kl0 are listed in Appendix B. Equations (17ac) exhibit the internal resonant condition w7 ~ Wv.WvOivs 3 2 (21b) .f~3 sin 95y = 0 (20a) 2 2wvAvd2Bv + k l A v A 7 cos # + k2A v + k3AvA 7 + k6AvA w + 2d2Aw + cw2Aw = 0 Aw[2wwd2Bw + k7 A2 + k8A2v + k9 A2] = 0 2wTdzA7 + CTzWTA~ + k4ATA2~ sin # = 0 Av[2wvd2B 7 . M. 295v .B.q57 + # and 2957 .k4 A2 cos I x .95~ = 95~ . R. By defining the following quantities # = 2Azwut2 + 2(B~ . Crespo da Silva and C. 2 3 2 fv3 COS 95f = 0 (20b) (20c) (20d) (20e) (20f) The expressions for the coefficients kl through ks are listed below.r + c72A7) sin 95"r 2 k4ATA 2 cos(295~ .ksATA 2 .#.BT) A (lga) (18b) (19a) (19b) Cf ~ COv~r2t2.¢7) + high frequency terms. two detuning parameters e2a2 and e2A2 are introduced as ft = wv(1 + ~20"2) Wv = co7(1 + e2A2).~) ~ 2A2w~t2 + 2(B~ .k5A2v .95. Toward this end. L.kloA2w] = 0.12 M.rA~]cos¢7 + a 72 5g( 71o/b7) @ 0:72} (17c) x ATA~ cos(2¢~o .kmA. the following conditions for elimination of secular terms at the O (e3) level are obtained from Equations (1 7ac): 2 2w~d2A~ + Wvcv2Av + klA~A 7 sin # .Bv and by noticing that ~2t0 = 95~ + 95I.
OL. = 0. while for the second equilibrium solution. The same conclusion may also be obtained when Equation (3b) is written in the following form in terms of dimensional time: mL 4 / O D.d2#/2. referred to as El. Thus.Og. and f~ ~ coy. Those equations admit two equilibrium solutions. (22) As this component of the curvature tends to zero. . 4] pv = Tv"  w' 1+ + 72w '' + O(e4). The amplitudefrequency response characteristic for El is obtained as k2(eAv~ )3 5:: V/(e3 fv. # and B. which implies that the bending stiffness D. is nonzero.r. .r = (o2 + A2)cov . r. Bv. One equilibrium solution. Since d2B~ = cov02 . % with Aw~ = 0 and fl = constant = fie (/3 = Cy.d2¢I . The autonomous equations admit the equilibrium solution A~ = constant = A~. those equations are autonomous in terms of the variables Av. ¢I. p). The same conclusion may also be obtained from the expression for the ~ component of the beam's curvature vector which is given as [2.). = (23) The above differential equation also discloses that w" 4 ~/'7 as D. A~ 4 0 as t + oc. which also discloses that w = O(e2). the conclusion that the wmotion is of higherorder goes "handinhand" with the conclusion that the 7) component of the curvature is small. 2 k5 = CtWl[W2(2Oz75 + OL. corresponds to eA.oL%) 4co2 oe71 4 '1 OLy. Bw and B.~ is effectively infinite. It should be noted that the conclusion Aw = 0 indicates that the outofplane bending component of the response is of higher order.TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance 13 (21c) (21d) O/'v2÷ ~OgvlOgwl ['~w+ 1¢3= ~co2 4co2 k4 = °~w'(cov2°~74. r.. Ar.3] }.o. Explicit expressions for the equilibrium values of the inplane bending and torsional amplitudes as functions of the detuning parameters 6202 and 62Z~2. referred to as E2. A~.~ S¢Tv W ÷ 0@3).T3 ] 4o:2 .d2¢/ and d2B.OgWl[OLT4(. cAr.a. As disclosed by Equation (20c).  + cwwvD~~ + w ml 7%" + 1.y4) . damping parameters e2cv2 and e2c72 and the excitation strength e3fv3 can be obtained from Equations (20af). one then obtains w" = v"'y. A~o. )2 . A. for the resonant motion corresponding to coo ~ w. w. 7 4 oo.4co2 4o:2 (21e) Equations (20af) are coupled nonautonomous ordinary differential equations in terms of the variables A~.r.) 2 co2(e2cv2)2(eAv~)2 £20"2 = 2w2eA~ (24) This is the same as the amplitudefrequency response characteristic of a classical Duffing oscillator. (c~ = v.
Since the excitation strength has no effect on the amplitude of the directly excited inplane bending component of the beam's response. Results and Discussion The results obtained in the previous section are now presented in the form of several amplitudefrequency response plots. the inplane bending amplitude. the inplane motion is independent of both the excitation strength. and to the excitation strength: [2wvw.} + 2wZa2Av. 3 2] 2 + k2Av~ + k3AveAve + c. JCv2. Crespo da Silva and C. where z__ = [ A v .ksA2] 2 + [cr2wT]2  [k4A2 12 = 0 (25a) k4Av ~ ksA2. The stability of the steady state motion for equilibrium E2 may be ascertained by perturbing the equilibrium state as z_(t) = z__ e + Z__s(t). and on the frequency detuning parameters e2(r2 and eZA2. is also obtained. For this. 13]. AT. the following equation for p. 5. Zaretzky For equilibrium E2 the state variables #e and CA can be eliminated from Equations (20af) to obtain the following two expressions which implicitly relate the steady state inplane bending and torsional amplitudes. e. Equation (25a) discloses that for E2. the stability of the perturbed motion can be determined by applying the RouthHurwitz stability criterion to the differential equations ?cs = e2d2z__s = Az__ s. and eATs. e.k5A2v¢ k4A2 ~ (26) The steady state response is determined by equilibrium E1 outside the range where E2 exists.~2wvA~. is dependent only on the torsional damping. f). In the process of linearizing Equation (20f) about the equilibrium E2. as described in [11. this corresponds to a saturation phenomenon. to first order.~(o2 + A2) . The elements of the 4 x 4 matrix are readily obtained from Equations (20a./37 and 3~. eA~. cos #e = 2WVWT(Cr2+ A2) . R. By linearizing Equations (20a. For rectangular cross section beams the nondimensional torsional stiffness/37 may be expressed as [14]: A GK 3G 2 .14 M. a homogeneous cantilever with a rectangular cross section is used as an example in order to choose appropriate values for the nondimensional parameters /3v. ¢f]T. e2c72. This provides a condition for the existence of E2 when the constraint [ cos #e [ < 1 is imposed.y~ are obtained from Equations (25a. ~3fv 3 and of the flexural damping coefficient. b. b). klC72WTA27~]2 ~ ] f~23=0" (25b) Equilibrium E2 exists only when real solutions for both A. #. f) in the perturbation state z__ s. to the detuning and damping parameters. b. Ave. That is.~ and A. L. M.
with the bending amplitude jumping down to point B and the torsional amplitude jumping from zero to point C. with co~3 near the first fundamental torsion frequency. both the planar response (equilibrium El) and the coupled response (equilibrium E2) are plotted for 6_2cv2 ~.08 k2 739. r = ~ rr~ ~ ~Ov = (7. It can be observed from Figure 2. equilibrium .787). Results will be shown for b/h = 48. and for b/h = 16.r .r ~ 3. By equating the expressions for these two frequencies.48 b ~ 16 kl 201. The numerical values obtained for the constants kl through ks are listed in Table II. As the driving frequency is increased from the region slightly below this critical value of detuning.4 will be used. ~2c72 = 0. and G/E is the ratio of the shearing modulus to the extensional modulus of the beam material° The normalized mass moment of inertia 3{ is determined as: 3e=]~ 1+ (28) To exemplify the resonant motion for beams possessing a onetoone internal resonance.83 6658. At this point the motion is given by equilibrium E2.32 203. In these figures. As the driving frequency is increased further.9 k3 401.r ~ 1.95 k4 196800 203870 ks 392440 397040 15 where h/b = v/~u is the ratio of the crosssectional height to the width of the cross section. f) and (7) as follows: co. a beam for which the third inplane flexural eigenfrequency is near the fundamental torsional frequency is "designed" as indicated below.16 and cov ~ co.01 only equilibrium El exists.857 (for L/b = 9 one obtains coy ~ 3.41 394.8548) 2 h (29) and by choosing a value for G/E and for h/b = v/~u. that below a critical value of detuning of approximately 0. and for which f~ is near the third inplane bending eigenfrequency.. Figures 2 through 4 display the effect of varying the excitation strength on the frequency response for the beam with b/h = 48. both the bending and torsional amplitudes increase even though the detuning is increasing. For b/h = 48 one obtains L/b ~ 9 and oar ~ co. the bending amplitude follows the stable branch BD to point D while the amplitude of the torsional motion proceeds from point C to point E. 3.018 and e2A 2 = 0. L/b .~ and 3~ are then determined by making use of the above equations.~ 9. the amplitude of the bending motion follows the planar response curve until point A where equilibrium E1 becomes unstable. the corresponding values for L/b.r b .857 and co. for an excitation strength of e3fv3 = 2 x 10 5.0. as obtained from Equations (6d. The value G/E = 0. while for b/h = 16. coy3. As the detuning increases beyond point D on the bending response curve and point E on the torsional response curve.TorsionalFlexuralDynamics: PrimaryResonance TABLE II Values of kl through ks for co~. As the driving frequency is increased within the range where equilibrium E2 exists.285.0008.~ 3. ~ co.
0015 o.. .'".0008. .. o'12 0. 0..~ ~ ..002 0. In this case. .03 E . the bending response curves for the equilibrium solutions E1 and E2 are essentially tangent to one another at point A and the amplitudefrequency response curve for the torsional motion (i. stable ullstablt 0. .02 o I 002 I o olo4 do8 E2 O" 2 0. e2c72 = 0. The effect of a further decrease in the value o f 63fv3 is shown in Figure 4. . .08 Fig. The jump from point A to point B shown in Figure 2 disappears in this case. .0005 0 0.'04 l 0.c 0..m~ EAT. 0 0 2 5  = 48 and for which ~:c..02 EAT~ /'" . Figure 3 shows the effect of lowering the excitation strength to 1. Instead..45 × 10 5... A 0. R..06 0 0.E of equilibrium E 1 as the driving frequency f~ is increased beyond the value corresponding to point A. the curve marked A 7 in Figure 3) is a closed loop.02 " 0. A .08 ' o'." ..0015 EAI.002 0. .001 0. Amplitudefrequency response for a beam with b/h e2A2 = 0 and £3fv 3 : 2 x 10 5.. . Depending on the initial conditions of the motion. slable unstable 0. Amplitudefrequency response for a beam with b/h c2A2 = 0 and e3fv3 = 1.018.''"" 0.001 0. 3.45 x 10 5.0025 E 0. ..".14 Fig. = 48 and for which E2cv2 = 0.018. E2 ceases to exist and the bending amplitude jumps to point F while the torsional amplitude jumps to zero as the driving frequency is increased further. .. 2 = 0.. The bending response corresponding to equilibrium E2 becomes detached from the response curve repre . M..01 B ~ ~ /.0008... .""""" ::" .0005 0. ~2c72 = 0.. the region where equilibrium E2 exists is now considerably reduced. 0102 ~2o" 2 0.e 0.0025 . .005 0I 0.'iy A E~ 4.0 / / . L... 0.e. 2./"" i.02 .1 6 M. the inplane bending motion follows either branch AC of the open line for equilibrium E2 or branch A . Zaretzky 0. Crespo da Silva and C.
1. .02 0.125 = 48 and for which e2cv 2 = 0 . e2c72 .075 . 0.75 x 10 .006 eAre 0. For these figures.008 "l 0.5 .c 00005 F 0 0 02 0 i O1 0 0.. The sensitivity of the frequency response to the internal detuning e2A2 is illustrated in Figures 5 through 7 for a beam with b/h = 16.01 t 0..1 Fig..~ " .02 0~ 03 0.75 × 10 4.....~ = 1.104 0 005 ~2a 2 Fig..025 0 0.~e0..4 and E2A2 = 0..0. the frequency response shown in Figure 5 resembles that shown in Figure 2.025 0..015 00015 eA. Jumps from E1 tO El.004 eA. As the value of e2A2 is increased to 0. are now predicted.125 I I I I I 0. The curves representing the bending component for equilibrium E2 now intersect the E1 planar response curve at four points. unslable .:. 0. E2c72 = 0 .005 ~ B *A. 0.002. c~c72 = 0.08 ~202 0. the nature of the coupled response (equilibrium E2). 4.. Amplitudefrequency response for a beam with b/h ~2A2= 0 and e3fv 3 = 1.01 0.1 '1" 0.025 0 0.01 and Eafv3 . which is now from El to El.0.075 0.s~ahte **"*'" _ 0. changes.0. 5. For J A 2 .. 0 0 0 8 .. and from E2 to E2. however.05 0. can be observed at point A as the bending amplitude jumps from point A to point B when the detuning is increased past the value corresponding to point A. e2cv2 .2 x 10 ..TorsionalFlexuraI Dynamics: Primary Resonance 0.~:~.002 0. The jump characteristics are identical to those in Figure 2 and only the shape of the response curves for equilibrium E2 is seen to be affected by the different shape parameters for this beam. shown in Figure 6.02. senting the bending motion for equilibrium El.."A.002 0.:.0025 17 E 0.001 0. = 16 and for which e2cv2 = 0. Amplitudefrequencyresponse for a beam with b/h e3f~.. A jump phenomenon.002. 0 1 8 . A further decrease in the excitation strength leads to the eventual disappearance of equilibrium E2.01..
.. The effect of varying the onetoone internal resonance detuning parameter e2/k2 on the frequency response displayed in Figures 5 through 7 can be seen to be similar to the effect of varying the excitation strength in Figures 2 through 4. e2c.002 0.y~ = 0.01.. slable unstable . .~ ..'b "... . b/h = 16 and for which e2c...1 . 0. Amplitudefrequency response for a beam with b/h = 16 and for which e2cv2 = 0.... :::='" E.08 0. L Zaretzky 0. .~ 0025 0 ~ ~. 7. ..'.025 oo2 o )1o2 olo. c3f~3 = 1.002 0 0.125 O....... 0..75 x 10 4 and e2A2 = 0. M.::.. 0 0 5 ! / ' ":~:'" . ...18 M.06 i 0. 0 2 5 . The amplitudefrequency response curves now show isolated "islands".008 0 075 eA~ 0..$. 0. fh. . 6. Figure 7 shows the effect of reducing £2A2 to £2A2 = 0. For negative values of this detuning parameter the frequency response is similar to that for small excitation strengths in that the response curves for the coupled motion are isolated and sometimes fragmented." ~'"" A ~ _ ..•l . R.004 cA.~ i 0 f 0.10 Fig. For positive values of E2A2 the response is similar to that for higher excitation strengths in that the coupled response curves intersect the planar bending response curve which results in multiple jumps between the coupled and uncoupled responses... 0. For certain values of e 2 A 2 ( a s in Figure 6) the "classical" jump point within the uncoupled inplane response may be altered so that the .006 0075 eA~. .75 x 10 4 and e2A2 = . 0..125 0..002.02..008 o.. 6 .... stable unstable ... o 008 E2cr2 Fig..004 eA. Crespo da Silva and C.02 0102 0. 0.025.01.. . e2c. Amplitudefrequency response for a beam with e3f....006 0.104 E202 0..002. which eventually disappear as 62A2 is decreased further. ..05 ....2 = 0...0 .... 3 = 1.r2 = 0... .
e 0 02 • 0.002...04 J 0... 19 .01... 0.ol A A j "" .. 0 1 . ~.... Only the response corresponding to equilibrium El is exhibited if the torsional motion is identically zero. 0.0007 Fig.3 for a beam with b/h = 16 and for which e2c. 8..TorsionalFlexural Dynamics: Primary Resonance 005 .... A' f? .. 0 2 and £20...003 ( .. 0.. £2Cy2 = 0 . at a constant driving frequency.006   slable '" ....2 = 0..y2 = 0. 0 o.r = 0 is an equilibrium solution to Equations (20af). o f" 0 :....... 000045 o 0.... Figures 8 and 9 show the effect of varying the excitation strength..0.  003 0... on the bending and torsional response of a beam for which b/h = 16... Thus....."" _.0003 . The circles that appear in Figure 5 represent the results of the numerical integration of Equations (8ac) with the same parameter values used to generate the perturbation results..... inplane bending amplitude will experience a more pronounced jump than that predicted from an analysis that neglects the possibility of bendingtorsional coupling. Both figures . £2A2 = 0...o6o14 o od02a 0..002 eA. nonzero initial conditions for the torsional motion had to be chosen for the numerical integration for the beam to exhibit the coupled response given by equilibrium E2.........::> eAo~ o. £3fv 3 for a beam with b/h = 16 and for w h i c h E2Cv2 ~... unless there is an initial condition involving torsion....... .. This figure was arbitrarily chosen to compare the results of the numerical integration with those obtained from the perturbation analysis. the beam's steady state response will consist only of the directly excited inplane bending motion.2 = 0. . .....002..02 ".005. Since A...~ . .. .004 .0006 63fv3 Fig..02 and £2cr2 = 0......... ~lllble unslable . Variation of the response amplitudes with £2c....... 9.iiiiiii ... " cAre 0."  0004 004 0.0d042 00d056 £3fv:l 0... £ 2 A 2 = 0 ...00015 ~ ....001 001 o. Variationof the response amplitudeswith e3f. 0.005.
if the possibility of bendingtorsion coupling had been neglected a priori. the bending amplitude remains at the constant value corresponding to point A while the torsional amplitude jumps from zero to point C and increases to the value corresponding to point E. respectively. The sensitivity of the frequency response to both the excitation strength. there is a jump in the bending amplitude from point B to point D while the torsional amplitude jumps down from point E to zero. The results obtained here show . which occurs when the excitation strength is lowered below the level at which equilibrium E2 exists.002. while equilibrium Ez is unstable throughout the region of excitation strengths shown in Figure 9. M. Only equilibrium E1 is stable in that region. In that case. i. as the excitation strength was increased. Thus. the bending amplitude increases steadily until it reaches a value corresponding to point A. discloses that as the excitation strength is increased from zero. which was generated for e2cr2 = 0.02. equilibrium El becomes stable again while equilibrium E2 becomes unstable. R.005 equilibrium E2 is unstable within the range of excitation strengths shown. Numerical integration of the governing differential equations was also performed in order to verify the accuracy of the perturbation analysis. Analytical expressions for the steady state response characteristics were obtained by a perturbation analysis. This is clearly an example of saturation since at the excitation strength corresponding to point A.005. was investigated by taking into account all the geometric nonlinearities in the differential equations of motion. 6. which is valid when there is no commensurability between the frequencies of other modes. If only inplane bending had been considered in the response analysis. the bending amplitude "saturates" and any further energy pumped into the system is transferred to the torsional component via the internal onetoone resonance.. Figure 9 shows that for a value of detuning of 6202 ~. and to the internal and external resonance detunings. The branch AC of the bending response corresponding to equilibrium E1 is also unstable which results in a jump of the bending amplitude from point A to point B as the excitation strength is increased from zero. Crespo da Silva and C. The beam was subjected to an inplane resonant bending excitation in the presence of a onetoone internal resonance between an inplane bending frequency and a torsional frequency. the response curve obtained for the planar bending amplitude would resemble that of the bending motion given by equilibrium E1 with the exception that section AC of the response curve would be stable. the jump up of the bending amplitude would occur at point A'. As the excitation strength is increased further. Zaretzky show this effect for eaCv2 = 0.20 M. Thus. Figure 8.e. e2c72 = 0. The response investigated here consists of single mode approximation for bending and for torsion. has been analyzed in detail. rather than at point A. the effect of the nonlinear bendingtorsion coupling still reflects itself on the jump phenomenon for the inplane response. L. consists of a jump down of the bending amplitude from point G to point H while the torsional amplitude jumps down from point F to a value of zero. This jump. including the effect of torsional dynamics. only equilibrium El is stable. At the excitation strength corresponding to points B and E of the bending and torsional components of equilibrium E2. It is interesting to note that a portion of the response curve shown in Figure 8 that corresponds to saturation is unstable for the values of the parameters indicated in that figure.01 and eZA2 = 0. Summary The flexuralflexuraltorsional response of beams. This point represents a transition between stability and instability for equilibrium El. For higher values of the excitation strength. Another jump phenomenon may be observed in Figure 8.0.
When designing structural systems.F..J y i F~ [FD(FvF Olv 5 Fv = . Also.9 y ) L [/ F. Acknowledgement The authors are indebted to the reviewers for their constructive comments. ) ..)] l/If ds C~v4 = .(./3. a. which are caused by the nonlinearities that are always present in the differential equations of motion for the structure.F.' F 4) 2 .~' F~.1 [ 2J 0 t 1 0 t2 ds ds F~ ds (A5) O~v6= .. (A7) .~ ds ds 0 ) ds (A6) 1 = i [9.. the engineer should be aware of such phenomena.TorsionalFlexural Dynamics.0 . the inplane bending component of the coupled response saturates so that any further energy "pumped" into the system is transferred to the torsional motion "via" the internal resonance. within certain regions of the excitation strength.(FDF. each having associated with it a unique set of jump phenomena between the coupled and uncoupled steady state motions./'/' + (. Appendix A The Galerkin coefficients first appearing in Equations (8ac) are defined as follows: 1 ct~l = J [/37F~(/r. ' " ds 0 1' (a3) (A4) l It2 l l l Ill l /3yF~(FDF..) i F~(F.7 'i ( i i F~ F~ 0 1 F..F." Primary Resonance 21 that the response of the beam exhibits various forms due to the different nonlinearities in the equations.F'+:)' + ( l 0 1 Jv)F~(F. which helped improve the quality of the presentation of this work. 0 (A2) ~v3 = /{ 0 0 (1 .~FT)"] as (A1) ~v~ = (1 . ) } ds 1 # # ..
3~ J * . = f F. L..2 .F~) ]' ds aw. (1fy) 3~ 1 f F~F 2 v "2 ds 0 (A13) 0:. ) + fvFw(F. : . 3¢ j 0 1 w (A14) 05. Crespo da Silva and C.~.'F. M.t j f p. ~ov ds .F..~y) f ~ ~.22 M.o ds 0 1 $ (A15) (A16) 0 1 0 0:.F~v") '} ds 0:w4 =f 0 i ' " ' [F~.F'F" ds 0 (AI7) Appendix B The following are some of the ki coefficients first appearing in Equations (17ac).t 0 ]. as ds (A12) O:71 . (Ag) (A10) t l/2 / +Fw(F.*w*.3  (1 . to the order of the equations in which these coefficients . The others are defined in the text.p .(F. Zaretzky 1 / ~ (ptt I~2]tt 0 (A8) 0:w 3 =of 1{.~ '/ 0 0 Fw 1 0 F~2 ds ds ds (All) 0:~6 = ~ 1/ F. R.. Note that.~ 1 1 0 F "2 d. is 1 fy)F~ 1 Fw .
R. S. 'Nonlinear flexuralflexuraltorsionalextensional dynamics of beams. and Crespo da Silva. H. M. wv = wr in the equations below. G. 'Stability of nonlinear oscillations of an elastic rod'. 11: Combination resonance'. 899911. 10. D... Mook. I.. Journal of Hydronautics 7. D.2wv) 2 3 2 k 7 = ~O~w4 . 13. M. 1994 (forthcoming). and Young. 451473..0973] At. E.Og73] 4w~ (w~ + 2w~) + Ov) + _ + 033) 4cow(cow .0. 23 k6 = 4COw(COw + 2COy) 4. 5. II: Forced motions'./4(COZy ~. 1974. Journal of Sound and Vibration 97.. 1979. 2. C. . II: Response analysis'.. Nonlinear Dynamics 5./3) + 2 Ct2¢3) 4COw(COw . and Zaretzky. and Mook. 1990. R. 14.COy)2 . L.. 5159. C.O{V 3 4ww(ww. M R. AIAA Journal 12. Crespo da Silva. 12. 'Nonlinear coupling of pitch and roll modes in ship motions'.. 1988. I: Equations of motion'.. W. M. A.. H. Zaretzky. Haddow. WileyInterscience.2co~) 4cow(cow + 2coy) 2 (B5) References 1.. 1973. 6. D. M. R. A. New York. Nayfeh.CtwSa)w (B1) (B2) OgW. Journal of Structural Mechanics 6.. A. 'Equations for nonlinear analysis of 3D motions of beams'. M. International Journal of Solids and Structures 24. Nonlinear Oscillations. A. C. and Lobitz. T. T. International Journal of Solids and Structures 24.4w 2) 2 0~. M. T. 437448. C. H. C. 4. D.. Crespo da Silva.CUr) 2 . 449461. J. Crespo da Silva..O~. and King. W. Mook. A. 'Nonlinear flexuralflexuraltorsional interactions in beams including the effects of torsional dynamics.~t)V) + Og'. and Marshall. H.WtO(OJW "{. L. 'Nonlinear analysis of the forced response of structural elements'. 11. M. New York.. 1971.. Roark. M. S. W. Journal of Structural Mechanics 6. 'Nonlinear flexuralflexuraltorsional dynamics ofinextensional beams. R. R. NY. and Mook. D. 3. 12221228. C. 'Numerical perturbation method for the nonlinear analysis of structural vibrations'. Formulas for Stress and Strain. Nayfeh. W. and Glynn. M. 1974. Crespo da Silva. Nayfeh. 1978. T. Applied Mechanics Reviews 44. Formulation'. Crespo da Silva. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 52. 1988. 9. 'Nonlinear flexuralflexuraltorsionalextensional dynamics of beams.TorsionalFlexuraIDynamics: Primary Resonance appear.. Barr.Ogvl [05T5GUW(GUW. 227239. McGrawHill... T. R. Nayfeh.. 145152. 'Theoretical and experimental study of modal interaction in a twodegreeoffreedom structure'. Haight.3/)) "t. Crespoda Silva. [OL"/. L.. 281291. R. 8. M. Mook. 12251234. 12351242. NY. 1975. R. 1978. 'Nonlinear modal coupling in planar and nonplanar responses of inextensional beams'. M. 7. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 55. D. and Glynn.4(CO w . International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics 25. 'Nonlinear flexuralflexuraltorsional dynamics of inextensional beams.). C. M. 1984. M. and Sridhar. A. C. 1991.2COv) k9~w2 ~vlO~wl 2 (B4) 2 2(w 2 . D.
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