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USING AND WRITING SEQUENCES

is a set of consecutive integers. If a domain is not

specified, it is understood that the domain starts with 1.

USING AND WRITING SEQUENCES

DOMAIN:

n 1 2 3 4 5 The domain gives

the relative position

of each term.

The range gives the

an

RANGE: 3 6 9 12 15 terms of the sequence.

an = 3n,

where an represents the nth term of the sequence.

Writing Terms of Sequences

SOLUTION

a 1 = 2(1) + 3 = 5 1st term

a 2 = 2(2) + 3 = 7 2nd term

a 3 = 2(3) + 3 = 9 3rd term

a 4 = 2(4) + 3 = 11 4th term

a 5 = 2(5) + 3 = 13 5th term

a 6 = 2(6) + 3 = 15 6th term

Writing Terms of Sequences

SOLUTION

Writing Rules for Sequences

then you may be able to write a rule for the n th term

of the sequence.

a rule for the n th term of the sequence

– _1 , _1 , – __

1 , __

1 , ….

3 9 27 81

Writing Rules for Sequences

SOLUTION

n 1 2 3 4 5

1 , 1 , 1 − 1

terms − − ,

3 9 1 81 243

2

1 2 7 3 4 5

rewrite 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 1

terms − − − − −

3 3 3 3 3

n

1

A rule for the nth term is an = −

3

Writing Rules for Sequences

a rule for the n th term of the sequence.

SOLUTION 2, 6, 12 , 20,….

n 1 2 3 4 5

terms 2 6 12 20 30

rewrite

terms 1(1 +1) 2(2 +1) 3(3 +1) 4(4 +1) 5(5 +1)

Graphing a Sequence

represent the position numbers (the domain) and the

vertical axis represent the terms (the range).

Graphing a Sequence

department of a grocery store

and are stacking oranges in

the shape of square pyramid

with ten layers.

of oranges in each layer.

Graphing a Sequence

SOLUTION

stack. Let an represent the number of oranges in layer n.

n 1 2 3

an 1 = 12 4=22 9 = 32

2

From the diagram, you can see that an = n

Graphing a Sequence

an = n2

(3, 9), . . . , (10, 100).

USING SERIES

expression is a series. A series can be finite or infinite.

FINITE SEQUENCE INFINITE SEQUENCE

FINITE SERIES INFINITE SERIES

3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 + . . . .

example, for the finite series shown above, you can write

5

3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 = Σ 3i

i=1

USING SERIES

upper limit of Is read as

summation “the sum from i equals 1 to 5 of 3i.”

5

Σ 3i 5

3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 = Σ 3i

i=1

i=1

index of summation lower limit of summation

USING SERIES

because it uses the uppercase Greek letter sigma,

written Σ.

to that for a finite series. For example, for the infinite

series shown earlier, you can write:

∞

3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 + . . . = Σ 3i

i=1

continues without end.

USING SERIES

Any letter can be used. Also, the index does not

have to begin at 1.

Writing Series with Summation Notation

5 + 10 + 15 + . . . + 100

SOLUTION

the third is 5 (3), and the last is 5 (20). So the terms

of the series can be written as:

ai = 5i where i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 20

20

The summation notation is Σ 5i.

i=1

Writing Series with Summation Notation

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +...

2 3 4 5

SOLUTION

is 1 more than the numerator. So, the terms of the series

can be written as:

i

ai = where i = 1, 2, 3, 4 . . .

i+1

∞

The summation notation for the series is Σ i .

i=1i+1

Writing Series with Summation Notation

by simply adding the terms. For sequences with many

terms, however, adding the terms can be tedious.

Formulas for finding the sum of the terms of three

special types of sequences are shown next.

Writing Series with Summation Notation

CONCEPT

SUMMARY

FORMULAS FOR SPECIAL SERIES

n

1 Σ 1 =n gives the sum of n 1’s .

i=1

n n (n + 1) gives the sum of positive

2

Σ i=

integers from 1 to n .

i=1 2

n n (n + 1)(2 n + 1) gives the sum of squares

3

Σ i 2=

of positive integers from

i=1 6

1 to n.

Using a Formula for a Sum

square pyramid 10 layers high?

Using a Formula for a Sum

SOLUTION

the series is given by ai = i 2, where i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10.

10

Σ i 2 = 12+ 22 + . . . + 102

i=1

= 10(10 + 1)(2 • 10 + 1)

6

10(11)(21)

=

6

= 385

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