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Original Title: PC Inverse functions & 1 to 1

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Functions

A function y = f (x) with domain D is one-to-one on D

if and only if for every x1 and x2 in D, f (x1) = f (x2) implies

that x1 = x2.

so that each element, x, of the domain is mapped to one,

and only one, element, f (x), of the range.

range is mapped from one, and only one, element, x,

of the domain.

Horizontal Line Test

A function y = f (x) is one-to-one if and only if

no horizontal line intersects the graph of y = f (x)

in more than one point.

y

Example: The function

y = x2 – 4x + 7 is not one-to-one (0, 7) (4, 7)

on the real numbers because the y=7

line y = 7 intersects the graph at 2

both (0, 7) and (4, 7). x

2

Example: Apply the horizontal line test to the graphs

below to determine if the functions are one-to-one.

a) y = x3 b) y = x3 + 3x2 – x – 1

y y

8 8

4 4

-4 4 -4 4

x x

Every function y = f (x) has an inverse relation x = f (y).

x y x y

2 2

1 3 1 3

0 2 0 2

-1 1 -1 1

-2 -2

Domain Range Range Domain

The ordered pairs of :

y = |x| + 1 are {(-2, 3), (-1, 2), (0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3)}.

x = |y| + 1 are {(3, -2), (2, -1), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2)}.

The inverse relation is not a function. It pairs 2 to both -1 and +1.

The ordered pairs of the function f are reversed to

produce the ordered pairs of the inverse relation.

Example: Given the function

f = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (3, 1), (4, 2)}, its domain is {1, 2, 3, 4}

and its range is {1, 2, 3}.

The inverse relation of f is {(1, 1), (3, 2), (1, 3), (2, 4)}.

The domain of the inverse relation is the range of the

original function.

The range of the inverse relation is the domain of the

original function.

The graphs of a relation and its inverse are reflections

in the line y = x.

Example: Find the graph of the inverse relation

geometrically from the graph of f (x) = ( x 3

− 2)

4

The ordered pairs of f are 3 y y=x

( x − 2)

given by the equation y = . 2

4

The ordered pairs of the inverse are

( y − 2)

3 x

given by x = . -2 2

4

-2

( y − 2)

3

( x 3 − 2)

x= y=

4 4

To find the inverse of a relation algebraically,

interchange x and y and solve for y.

Example: Find the inverse relation algebraically for the

function f (x) = 3x + 2.

y = 3x + 2 Original equation defining f

x = 3y + 2 Switch x and y.

3y + 2 = x Reverse sides of the equation.

( x − 2)

y= Solve for y.

3

divide by 3.

For a function y = f (x), the inverse relation of f

is a function if and only if f is one-to-one.

is a function if and only if the graph of f passes the

horizontal line test.

is a function called the inverse function of f.

Example: From the graph of the function y = f (x),

determine if the inverse relation is a function and, if it

is, sketch its graph.

y y = f -1(x)

y=x

The graph of f passes

y = f(x)

the horizontal line test.

x

The inverse

relation is a function.

graph of f -1.

The inverse function is an “inverse” with respect to

the operation of composition of functions.

The inverse function “undoes” the function,

that is, f -1( f (x)) = x.

that is, f ( f -1(x)) = x.

3

Example: The inverse of f (x) = x3 is f -1(x) = x.

3 3

f ( f(x)) = x = x and f ( f -1(x)) = ( 3 x )3 = x.

-1

x +1

Example: Verify that the function g(x) =

is the inverse of f(x) = 2x – 1. 2

( f ( x) + 1) ((2 x − 1) + 1) 2x

g( f(x)) = = = =x

2 2 2

x +1

f(g(x)) = 2g(x) – 1 = 2( ) – 1 = (x + 1) – 1 = x

2

It follows that g = f -1.

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