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MATRICES

MATH PROJECT

END

(This is the second of two

presentations on matrices.

Please work through the first

before trying this one!)

END

Remember this?...

a a 1

The number 1 is sometimes called

the “identity.” When you multiply a

number by one, you always get that

number. This is called the “identity

property of multiplication.”

END

Now multiply these matrices...

__ __

__ __

1 0

0 1

4 1

3 2

1st row; 1st col.=

) 0 )( 3 ( ) 1 )( 2 ( 2

2

1st row; 2nd col.=

) 1 )( 3 ( ) 0 )( 2 ( 3

3

2nd row; 1st col.=

) 0 )( 4 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( 1

1

2nd row; 2nd col.=

) 1 )( 4 ( ) 0 )( 1 ( 4

4

END

Did you notice that the product

looks exactly like the first matrix?

4 1

3 2

1 0

0 1

4 1

3 2

For that reason,

1 0

0 1

is called an “Identity Matrix.”

END

The identity matrix for

a 3x3 matrix would

look like this...

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

“Ones” along the “principle

diagonal” (i.e., upper left to lower

right), “zeros” everywhere else!

END

And just as a number (x) has a

“multiplicative inverse” (often

called a “reciprocal”) such that...

1

1

x

x

Many matrices have a

“matrix inverse” too!

If Matrix “A” has an

inverse, it is written as...

1

A

−

END

And (as you have probably

guessed!) when you multiply a

matrix by it’s inverse, you get...

An Identity Matrix!

It can be easily shown (but it’s a

little messy, so we won’t do it here)

that, if a matrix has an inverse, it

will be given by this formula...

END

Inverse of a Matrix

z y

x w

] A [ If

z y

x w

w y

x z

−1

] A [ then

(Do you

recognize

this?)

It’s the

determinant

of [A]!

END

FORTUNATELY...

Our calculators can evaluate the

inverse of a matrix quickly and

easily!

Now, let’s notice how a system of

equations can be written as a

matrix equation…

END

Consider this system

of equations...

10 5 6

43 7 3

y x

y x

You may

remember several

ways to solve it...

(preferably with a

calculator!)

END

But once you learn to solve

systems with matrices, you may

never go back to other methods!

(And a neat bonus is that the

calculator can handle 3 or more

equations with 3 or more

variables as easily as two!)

END

First, let’s re-write the system as a

“matrix equation.”

10 5 6

43 7 3

y x

y x

10

43

5 6

7 3

y

x

(If you multiply

the matrices

you will get

the two

equations.)

(Try it!)

END

Now, remember this?...

35 5x

You can solve it by multiplying

both sides by the “multiplicative

inverse” of 5...

35

5

1

5

5

1

x

7 x

END

Let’s look at that matrix equation

again...

(By the way, these three matrices

have names…)

10

43

5 6

7 3

y

x

“Coefficient

Matrix”

“Variable

Matrix”

“Constant

Matrix”

END

10

43

5 6

7 3

y

x

We could

write this in

“shorthand”

as...

B AX

A X B

And we could solve it by multiplying

both sides by the inverse matrix of

matrix A!

B A X

1 −

END

With a calculator, this is

VERY EASY!

1st: Enter Matrix [A] (the coefficient

matrix).

(Use the “Matrix--Edit” function of

your calculator. And, of course, it’s a

2x2 matrix.)

END

2nd: Enter Matrix [B] (the constant

matrix--a 2x1 matrix).

3rd: Place Matrix [A] on the “home”

screen of your calculator.

4th: Hit the “inverse” key of your

calculator. It looks like this:

1 −

x

END

5th: Place Matrix [B] on the “home”

screen of your calculator.

You should now see this...

] B [ ] A [

1 −

6th: Hit “Enter”!

Your calculator will multiply the

inverse of the coefficient matrix

times the constant matrix, giving the

values of the “variable matrix”!

END

WARNING!!!

If the system of equations does not

have a unique solution...

(i.e., if they are inconsistent, or are

consistent but dependent)...

Your calculator will return an “error”

message. Can you imagine why, in

terms of the matrix operations?

END

Here’s a hint.

Remember how the inverse of a

matrix is calculated?

z y

x w

] A [ If

z y

x w

w y

x z

−1

] A [ then

END

If the determinant equals zero, then

the inverse matrix is not defined!

Well, let’s finish solving the system

we began several screens back...

10 5 6

43 7 3

y x

y x

END

10 5 6

43 7 3

y x

y x

If you enter as Matrix [A]...

5 6

7 3

And as Matrix [B]...

10

43

Then...

] B [ ] A [

1 −

returns

4

5

Notes by Dr. David Archer
teacher of Calculus at Andress High

Notes by Dr. David Archer

teacher of Calculus at Andress High

teacher of Calculus at Andress High

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