56. NO.



P. 1310~1319.


The search for graves

Bruce W. Bevan*


Over the decades, grave markers in old cemeteries have been lost. Geophysical exploration can sometimes locate the unmarked burials. The two techniques which may be best for this search are a ground-penetrating radar survey and a soil conductivity survey. A ground-penetrating radar survey, with its capability for estimating the depth and shape of buried objects, is particularly suitable. With an electromagnetic induction survey, the disturbed soil in the grave shaft can sometimes be detected as a change in electrical conductivity. Both of these surveys also can locate large metal objects. These surveys have limitations. At some sites, the radar cannot profile deeply enough; at others, the soil

strata are so complex that graves cannot be distinguished. A conductivity survey can be degraded by metallic trash and other small objects in the topsoil: it can give the best results where the earth is distinctly stratified. Results from nine surveys are illustrated here. The sites are all in the U.S.A. and the graves are not older than the 17th century. Magnetic and resistivity surveys may be suitable for some sites, but they have not been very successful for the sites discussed here. The success of these surveys has ranged widely. from excellent to poor. While little archaeological excavation has followed these surveys, geophysical tests at marked graves show the capability of the instruments.

brave markers nave become lost, destroyed, or misplaced for several reasons. Wood quickly rots. Stone may break or crumble. Vandalism and falling trees also can contribute to the loss. Some graves may never have been marked. As time and land development progress, it can become important to find these old, unmarked graves. Sometimes they are accidentally encountered during construction and someone wishes to determine the extent of the cemetery so tliat it can be preserved. In other cases, it might be necessary to locate individual burials so that they can be removed to another location. The study of old graves also can provide valuable information about changes in social customs (Brown, 1971; Tainter, 1978; Bartel, 1982).






. .




The most distinctive feature of a grave may be the disturbed soil in the filled excavation. Through the l-2-m depth of a grave shaft, the soil may change markedly. When
Presented at the 59th Annual International Meeting, Society of Exploration revised manuscript received February 5, 1991. Yieosight, P.O. Box 135, Pitman, NJ 08071. 6 1991 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved. 1310

the excavated earth is replaced. some topsoil may return to the bottom of the hole and subsoil may end up on top and may be spread on the surface. The topsoil can be higher in magnetic susceptibility than the subsoil. Also, the electrical conductivity of the natural earth may increase or decrease with depth. The soil filling the grave shaft could have a different electrical and magnetic stratification than the natural earth. These soil changes could last indefinitely. Except for recent criminal burials (Davenport et al.. 1988; Davenport et al., 1990) nothing may remain except for bones. While the bones may last for thousands of years in some types of soil, they will generally not be directly detectable. However, the decay of the body can possibly alter the chemical composition of the surrounding soil. The soil also could be less compacted at the bottom of the grave shaft. If a coffin is still partially intact, there could be an air-filled void. Coffin nails would usually be undetectable, but some coffin fittings could be large metal objects (Bell. 1990). Metallic or lead coffins could be present. If there is a burial vault of brick or stone, there could be an air cavity, and the brick or stone could be moderately magnetic.
Geophysicists. Manuscript received by the Editor March 21, 1990:

Should the natural soil have a rather planar stratification. allowing the detection of brick. would generally be more suitable for the mapping of individual graves. some earlier western cultures have aligned graves east-west with a coffin at a depth of l-2 m. Blizkovsky. Magnetometers If brick vaults are suspected. microgravity (Lakshmanan and Montlucon. The hachured areas show soil contrasts that might suggest a grave on a radar profile. can be very complex and can mask buried features on radar profiles. 1956). 1. these contrasts are often changes in the moisture content or density of the soil. Trees might have been allowed to grow in the cemetery. If the background spatial variability of the magnetic field is small.The Search for Graves The soil in the grave shaft might have settled. Electromagnetic induction meters Electromagnetic induction meters can provide a fast measurement of the electrical conductivity of the earth (Frohlich and Lancaster. Imai et al. then the chaotic soil which fills the grave shaft could be detectable. Stony soil resulting from shallow bedrock can cause the same problem. If the velocity of the radar pulse is markedly different in these soil lenses. but spatial oscillations in the measurements that have a high frequency could define the area of disturbed earth in a cemetery (Carr. However. Many of the characteristics described above can be detected by geophysics. depending on whether the metal is sought or present as incidental trash. leaving a shallow depression at the surface. 1984). making them impossible to recognize. Resistivity surveys. Conductivity surveys can be affected by electromagnetic interference in areas with high soil resistivity. but they can be done over a dry. such as New England. A cemetery could more likely be on a hilltop than in a valley. the setting is sometimes difficult: If neglected. the radar images of deeper features can be sheared into complex patterns. can provide information similar to that from EM conductivity surveys. 1982). 1986. 1311 Soils in formerly glaciated areas. the other effects (B-E) also can be present. with reflections caused by contrasts in dielectric constant and electrical resistivity. SP (Wynn and Sherwood. aerial photography has been particularly successful in the exploration for flattened remnants of ancient burial mounds (Wilson. Resistivity meters INSTRUMENTS FOR THE SEARCH Ground-penetrating radar Ground-penetrating radar (Vaughan. while the surrounding land remained clear. The surrounding soil might have washed into this. In practice. remnants of the former trees might be detectable if their roots have not decayed or if soil scars from fallen trees are present. 1975). While burial practices change with time and location. fired earth.. There is enough iron debris at many cemetery sites for magnetic surveys to be of little value. A I El C D -aD E I--q@=-’ ww I I I I I I I I L-J I I I I I I L-J I L-J I I !___! I : FIG. 1990). Possibly the cemetery was never plowed. These instruments. The Wenner configuration has low lateral resolution. and changes in the thickness of topsoil. Other instruments Many other techniques have also been employed in the search for graves or tombs: seismic (Linehan. Other electrode configurations. with four earth-contacting electrodes. 1987. for brick is rather magnetic. such as sand. Resistivity pseudosections also could provide evidence of grave shafts (Ellwood. These instruments also can measure magnetic susceptibility. They also can act as metal detectors. Metallic debris could have accumulated in the depression. 1969). although the surrounding land was: the cemetery boundary could mark a contrast in the stratification or moisture retention of the soil. While the deep contrast illustrated as A may be the most distinctive. The broken lines indicate the cross-sections of the grave shafts. It might be possible to locate the area of a cemetery even though individual graves might not be detectable. Radar is also excellent for finding air-filled voids and metal objects. Possibly the grave was outlined with a pipe or a stone border. the area could be overgrown with trees or brush and there could be a veneer of metallic trash on the surface. Grave digging might have left heaps of subsoil scattered on the surface. which is now buried in leaf mold. 1987) can create approximate soil profiles. can provide enough lateral and amplitude resolution to detect the contrasting earth that fills a grave shaft. this can be good or bad. In Europe. with intercoil spacings of l-4 m. a magnetic survey should be considered. 1986). 1979). The grave marker might have fallen and be buried at a shallow depth. . hard surface such as an asphalt parking lot. filling it up. Figure I shows different soil contrasts which might reveal a grave on a radar profile. this extra lens of topsoil might be detectable. the destratified soil of refilled grave shafts might be detected (Ralph. other iron hardware on the coffin might be massive enough to be detectable. While the nails in a wooden coffin might cause a magnetic anomaly of less than I nT. such as the pole-pole or dipole-dipole arrays.

Detailed notes are given in the Appendix. At least two of these appear to have been detected by the radar as reflections at a depth of 1-2 m. Maryland. but it is suspectedthat there could be additional graves that have lost their markers. their locations are indicated by g. An example of this is provided by a ground-penetrating radar survey of a 19th century cemetery where there was once a Baptist Church in Rockville. the original burials were from the period 1845-1877. The notes also describe the failings of some geophysical surveys. FIG. On the left. Touro cemetery. FIG. there are three additional reflections that are similar to those from the marked graves. In Figure 3. 2. The seven graves on the right are reburials. a radar survey examined a cemetery. but it was thought that there also might be additional graves. Stones indicate that graves are at the two locations marked g. the radar profile crosses four marked graves. these will allow the possible unmarked graves to be relocated. six of the seven graves are indicated by small hyperbolic arcs. The examples which are shown here have a greater clarity than is found at the average site. Maryland. On the left side of the profile. Rockville Baptist Church. results from conductivity surveys will follow. the radar reflections from four possible unmarked graves are indicated by &‘ p”. Rockville Baptist Church At many old cemeteries there are some marked graves. graves can become indistinguishable in the clutter on the radar profiles. for tests at the marked graves can suggestthe reliability of the geophysical survey. FIG. the seventh grave is only faintly detected. from another cemetery. Fourteen marked graves are along the line of this radar profile. Carroll House As part of a geophysical survey at a historical house in Annapolis. In Newport. Figure 2 is a radar profile that crosses I4 marked graves. However.1312 EXAMPLES OF GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS Bevan Touro Cemetery As the soil strata become more complex. The sides of the profile show the estimated depth in meters and the delay time of the reflection. of bones only. 4. Figure 4 illustrates the complexity of the radar profiles from the site. Carroll House. There are about 33 graves that are marked with stones at this site. The soils found in glacial and periglacial terrain can cause very complex radar profiles. none of the graves on the right side cause noticeable radar reflections. only six of them were detected by the radar. This is a good setting for a geophysical survey. The seven graves on the left are from the period 19541975. there is a cemetery that dates back to the 17thor early 18thcentury. Rhode Island. has a . The vertical scales show the round-trip delay time of the reflection and also the estimated range to the reflector. 3. While the The first examples will illustrate ground-penetrating radar surveys. These could be unmarked graves. Four graves that are marked with stonesare indicated by the letter “g”. A marked grave at “g” reflection at a depth of I m.

Furthermore. Note that the horizontal scale of the radar profile is compressedby a factor of about five relative to the depth scale. The profile of Figure 5b was made in an east-west direction and shows that the object is longer in that direction. This reflection is possibly caused by an unmarked grave. isolated reflection. it can sometimes reveal that a buried object is distinctly longer in one direction than the other. (a) This is a north-south radar profile over a possible grave. this can indicate a grave. it is about l-2 m long. Bruton Parish Church The depth of a radar reflection is the primary clue that the reflection might be from a grave. Figure 5a is a north- south profile with a strong. these are at a depth of about I m and are indicated p. The reflection at a depth of I m in Figure 5a is so strong that at least five half-cycles of the reflection are distinct. at a depth of 2 m. a secondary clue is provided by the shape of the reflection. there appearsto be a second reflection. The broken lines locate the lines of the two radar profiles. because of the weaker signal. the contour interval is I mS/m. Virginia. In these and the other profiles here. (b) An east-west profile shows that the object is wider in that direction. only three half-cycles of that reflection are apparent. there are two additional reflections that could reveal unmarked graves. The radar profiles also reveal several technical points. a reflection is detected at least 2 m distant from the middle of the object. 5. (c) Buried metal decreasesthe apparent conductivity. Bruton Parish Church. a reverberation. the marked grave on the right causes no distinctive reflection. In Figure 4. both positive and negative signals are printed identically as black bands. . the contour interval of this magnetic map is IO nT. While the size information from radar is rather crude. The profile of Figure 5b is about I m north of the middle of the object. (d) There is also buried iron or brick. this causesthe (a) (b) (4 FIG. The long arms on the hyperbolic reflection suggestthat the reflectivity of the object is large over wide angles. An example of this was found at an 18th century church in the middle of Williamsburg.The Search for Graves 1313 marked grave on the left has a clear reflection.

A radar survey was done at this cemetery and Figure 6 shows one profile with a reflection that was thought likely to be caused by a grave. A larger mass of brick also could cause the anomaly. directed east-west. suggestingthat there could be FIG. A radar profile which crossed the grave showed a clear reflection at a depth of about I m. Figure 5c shows a pattern typically caused by buried metal: low values over the object with slightly higher values around it. Maryland. perpendicular profiles. However. combined with the depth of the reflections. The Poor Farm cemetery A pauper’ s cemetery in Rockville. show the wooded ridge to the southwest. only one grave is marked with a stone. and it is also likely that iron or brick is in the grave. By making closely spaced profiles along perpendicular paths. While there is a commemorative monument on the ridge. This. The radar reflection in the middle of this profile looked like it was caused by a grave. it was found that most of the reflections were distinctly broader in the east-west direction than they were north-south. A conductivity survey was done over the possible grave with a Geonics EM31 electromagnetic induction meter.1314 Bevan reflection there to be detected at a slightly greater range. Poor Farm cemetery. Figure 7b shows reflections that could be caused by graves. but it was not a grave. has graves dating back as early as 1789. the contour lines. but it revealed no anomaly. Figure 5d showsa 40 nT magnetic high with evidence of a magnetic low on the north. which is greater than the actual depth of the object. This profile was made along a line in a north-south direction. no graves are marked. Since the example above shows that quite natural changes in the soil can cause radar reflections that are identical to these. excavation at this location showed that the cause of the reflection was a natural change in the complex soil strata that are found at this site. A magnetic survey was also done. Ely. In Figure 7a. Mount Vernon A historical record has suggestedthat the graves of slaves are located on a ridge close to George Washington’ s tomb. It was caused by a natural change in the soil strata. The low values are simply caused by the inherent nonlinearity of the instrument near excellent conductors. this survey has indicated only the possible locations of graves. these are shown by small ovals in Figure 7a. Minnesota At a cemetery in this town. A radar survey may have located about 50 unmarked graves. 6. A resistivity pseudosection was made across this object. with an interval of 5 ft (I . None of the graves is marked. showed that the reflecting object was longer in that direction. There are I8 shallow oval depressions in the area. .5 m). suggeststhat these reflections may indicate unmarked graves. it could contain a metal or metal-framed coffin. This could be caused by roughly 3 kg of iron at a depth of about I m. All the evidence suggeststhat there is an unmarked grave at a depth of I m. this tomb is marked with a rectangle in the upper right corner.

(a. Mount Vernon. (b. 7.64 (b) 10 N70 I m I --A 0 20 40 ns P PP P P FIG. . left) Possible unmarked gra by small ovals on this topographic map. above unmarked graves are evident on this radar profile.

but high conductivity has been associated with grave shafts at one cemetery. excavations about 100 m from the monument exposed burials and an archaeological test was begun. were detectable at a short distance. The area is wooded and it is possible that some of the depressions could be caused by uprooted trees that have long since decayed. clayey soils. the radar reflections are at depths of l-2 m. this causes each anomaly to be split into two areas. Several profiles in the cemetery gave evidence of a correlation between the locations of known graves and conductivity highs. Complex profiles. . About 25-50 anomalies. grave-like reflections where there are depressions. Figure 9a shows the type of conductivity anomalies that were found: low or negative readings surrounded by highs. were found in areas where no burials could be seen. The radar reflections from the depth of the burial appear to provide the strongest evidence for a grave. The soil should be high in resistivity. Low values can indicate a proximity to metal. The best conditions for this instrument are at sites where the radar detects few underground objects and either no apparent stratification or only weak.and depressionswhere there are no reflections. A conductivity survey was done with a Geonics EM38 electromagnetic induction meter after initial tests showed that the exposed coffin remains. 8. Neither geophysics nor excavation could detect any graves near the cemetery monument. CONCLUSION For the sites that have been investigated. planar strata. they are probably graves that contain coffins with metal handles and possibly metal frames. metal that is closer than about I m can cause low or negative readings of apparent conductivity. can make it difficult to isolate any possible graves. the readings can show high conductivity. The worst conditions for radar are conductive. New Jersey. unmarked graves. Ely. Three possible unmarked graves are marked with the letter “p” here. Ohio. This site is a cemetery in Lamington. These surveys have found no guarantee of success. known graves have also been invisible to these surveys. Therefore. Figure 8 shows three possible graves. there is no significant anomaly in the area of the conductivity lows. such as can be found in areas with glacial till or rocky soil.1316 Bevan fittings. which contained metal Lamington Black cemetery Another example of an EM38 conductivity survey done at a cemetery is shown in Figure 10. possibly greater than 200 R * m. reflections that are elongated in one direction relative to the perpendicular direction also suggesta grave. the groundpenetrating radar has had the greatest success at locating unmarked graves. Historical evidence suggestedits location and a monument was placed there. nine examples were found in each of these three categories. The burials appear to be slightly oblique to the measurement lines. There are three possible associations: Grave-like reflections at locations without depressions. Figure 9b is a magnetic map of the same area. Measurements of electrical conductivity also appear to be suitable for the search for graves. at a somewhat greater distance. Because of the normal nonlinearity of the instrument. all unmarked. some of the conductivity highs shown in the figure could be caused by unmarked graves. At this site. It is possible that the conductivity highs are caused by soil contrasts in the grave shafts. FIG. Geophysical evidence has suggested that there were graves where there were none. Six of these anomalies were tested by shallow excavations and five graves were partially exposed at depths of less than I m. While the two marked areas were not excavated. Minnesota. rather than by metal. During construction in the area. The upper layer of silty soil was removed to a depth of less than I m but grave shafts could not be seen in the underlying gravelly soil. Kettering Shaker cemetery There is a 19th century Shaker cemetery in Kettering. It is uncertain whether the depressions or the radar reflections are more reliable indicators of graves. showing low or negative values of apparent conductivity.

(a) Apparent electrical graves could be indicated at “ p” in this Shaker cemetery. contoured at I Apparent mS/m electrical conductivity. conductivity is contoured at an interval of I mS/m. There is a depression at “ y” that is likely a grave and high readings were found there: other anomalies marked “ p” could be more unmarked graves. 9. 20 . Lamington Black cemetery. Two (b) The magnetic map of the same area. Kettering Shaker cemetery. I : 10 i I I I I \ 3 3 ft ft W of E of center center 0: 0 20 60 80 N coordinate. IO. Three parallel conductivity profiles are spaced by about 0. nT. shows no anomalies at the conductivity lows. 100 ft 120 140 160 180 FIG.The Search for Graves 1317 2 m ’ P (4 (b) FIG. .9 m.

Peter’ s Basilica.. 25. Ralph. 19X7. Figure 5: The radar antenna was a model 3105 (180 MHz) and the depth scale assumes a pulse velocity of 8. Imai.J. Archaeological prospecting: Expedition. Ed. Geophys. The average magnetic field was 53 960 nT.. 64-66. The electrical resistivity of the earth was not measured. Approaches to the social dimension\ of mortuary practices: Memoirs Sot. 51. from Geophysical Survey Systems. 1956. Ed. 11.. 1990. 1969. 1982. Sakayama.. an operating frequency of 13..2 cmins. 141~1425.. The upper 1. The profile is line W22. 19x6. The site is located on Jefferson Street and the surface is mown lawn with only a few trees.7 cmins. 7. For each example. J. Archeology Press. 24. Handbook on soil resistivity surveying: Center for Am. Bartel.. Griffin. 35. The illustrated profile is line WS. Griffin.. B. A seismic problem in St.J.A.. W. I I. The magnetic survey was done with a sensor height of 5 ft (I . the electric dipole of the antenna was perpendicular to the line of traverse. but the soil is probably sand and gravel. The marked grave of Jacob Lopez is at S7l. no..K. 1971. Frohlich. Expl. This survey was done on l-2 April 1985 for John Milewski and John Pillsbury and was funded by the Veritat Foundation. 8. 1988.1318 REFERENCES Bevan in current Middle Eastern archaeology: Application and evaluation: Geophysics. and Sherwood. 1. Electrical resistivity surveys in two historical cemeteries in northeast Texas: A method for delineating unidentified burial shafts: Historical Archaeology... 32-58. Geophysical case histories: Sot.J. the ground-penetrating radar was a SIR System-7.2 kHz. M. The measurement spacing was 2.5 m: the EM31 has an intercoil spacing of 3. Geoscientists and law enforcement professional5 work together in Colorado: Geotimes. Grid north is a magnetic bearing of 5 degrees and extends parallel to a line of graves. Prosp. tic marks on the top of the profile are at 5 ft (I 3 m) intervals. Blirkovsky.. J. 1979. Rhode Island). 1990. T ‘ . B.6 cmins. J.. Ed.8 cm/m. 105-141. E. 19X7.. Mortuary practices and the study of prehistoric social systems. For this and the other illustrations here. Lindemann. 1982. 595-604. l&17. and Montlucon. Microgravity probes the Great Pyramid: The Leading Edge. The survey was coordinated by Paul Shackel.C. D. I.. in Lyons...L. then with Historic Annapolis but now with the National Park Service. 615-692... and Lancaster. The measurement spacing was 5 ft. Research Report no. and Borouski. Figure 2: This line was profiled with a model 3102 radar antenna (having a spectral peak at about 315 MHz) on 20 March 1987. Massachusetts: Historical Archaeology. m.3 m and 135 n .5 ft (0. 84X-861.E.A. an operating frequency of 9. Lindemann. one with the bar of the instrument north-south and the other. Wilson. D. J.8 kHz.. and was sponsored by the Charles Carroll of Carrollton 250th Anniversary Committee. lY78. 1986..66 m.W. The surface is mown lawn with some trees and bushes. no. vol.C. 195-204. Kome. The survey was done on 5 June 1986 for Peerless Rockville Historic Preservation and was coordinated by Eileen McGuckian. Range scales on the profiles have been estimated by a geometrical analysis of hyperbolic reflections: the vertical scales also show the round-trip delay time of the reflections.. The survey was done for Joan Gallagher at the Public Archaeology Laboratory (Pawtucket. Wynn.. Bell. T. l-1-21. Am. This is part of the property of St. J. M. T. The area is .. The pulse velocity is assumed to be 8. G. Information about the site was provided by Bernard Kuzinitz. Archaeology. Ellwood. 12. B. no. m. J. Ground-penetrating radar surveys used in archaeological investigations: Geophysics. m below that. Vaughan. 6.. The reference point for the survey was the south end of a grave stone for Elizabeth Braddock (1856 1870). Heimmer.L..76 m) and traverses were made east-west. I. Use of groundprobing radar and resistivity survey\ for archaeological investigations: Geophysic\. 52. C.I. 0. 51. Anthropol. 1975. Ed. Crime scene investigation techniques: The Leading Edge. S.C. J. I... B. The profile in the figure is line N 140. E. Italy.. 1990. For the surveys illustrated here.. 1984. Mary’ s Roman Catholic Church and is located on Duke of Gloucester Street. Figure 4: The profile was made with a model 3102 (315 MHz) antenna on 23 May 1985.akshmanan. Tainter. Carr. are in feet. 13-15. Davenport. vol. The ground surface is mown lawn. P. The EM38 has an intercoil spacing of I m.S m) and a Scintrex MP-2 proton magnetometer. The self-potential (SP) method: An inexpensive reconnaissance and archaeological mapping tool: J. Electromagnetic wrveying APPENDIX NOTES ON THE SURVEYS urban and a moderate amount of interference was detected from other transmitters. Field Archaeology. Figure 3: The survey was done with a model 3105 (180 MHz) antenna and the pulse velocity is 7.. 24. and Kanemori. Archaeology. m in the upper 0. like all the others here. Davenport.J. C. 7.7 m of the soil has a resistivity of about 1100 0 * m: below that the resistivity is about 370 0 .. 54-78. The depth scale assumes a pulse velocity of 10. and a detection range of about 6 m. Brown. The soil resistivity is 50-80 f1 . The grid reference point is the eastern corner of the boundary fence: the grid is aligned with this fence and grid south is a magnetic bearing of 219 degrees.. and a detection range of about I. The historical archaeology of mortuary behavior: Coffin hardware from Uxbridge. no temporal correction was made to the data and the Fredericksburg A-index was 16 on the day of survey. 2. J. Processing and applications in microgravity surveys: Geophys. 2. The My thanks go to the sponsors and coordinators of these surveys: their investment in these tests will aid others in the search for graves. no. 137-150. The soil resistivity at the site is about 400 R . The averages of pairs of readings are mapped here.S.B. Advances in archaeological method and theory: Academic Press. The two electromagnetic induction meters were from Geonics. east-west. K. 27. Vatican City. T. 91-98.W. these coordinates. Grid north was a magnetic bearing of 5 degrees and the southeast corner of the Carroll House is at coordinates N166 E47. Linehan. The EM survey was done with the magnetic dipoles vertical and at an elevation of about I m.. A historical review of ethnological and archaeological analyses of mortuary practice: J. G. the historian of the Touro Synagogue. Aerial reconnaissance for al-chaeology: The Council for British Archaeology. in SchifTer..

3 m in size. The one conductivity anomaly that was excavated but which was not a grave was apparently caused by a lateral contrast in the sand and gravel. The surface is covered by mown lawn and is flat. the radar was not successful: the radar profiled several dozen known or likely graves but only one might have been detected. A magnetic survey was unsuccessful because of an iron-containing fence and also iron objects buried in the soil: the magnetic anomalies did not correlate with radar reflections. at seven other areas where graves were indicated by the geophysical survey. Figure IO: This survey was done on 17 October 1986 for John Seidel. undulating interfaces with lenses of clay and gravel in silty soil. m: the soil is mostly gravel but contains some boulders 0. The ovals on the map show the estimated orientation of the burials. The area is rural. This causes the elongation of the anomalies in the east-west direction. The surface is covered by pine needles. The radar determined that the deeper. none were found.6 cmins.5 m) detected no anomalies where there were radar reflections. graves were found in three areas where none were interpreted from the radar profiles. The illustration is from line E355. Pluckemin Archaeological Project (now at the University of Maryland). Figure 6: The radar had a model 3105 (180 MHz) antenna and the pulse velocity is assumed to be 7. The coordinate system was set up by the U.5. Figure 8: The profile was made with the model 3105 (180 MHz) antenna. The excavation of the site was directed by Diane Rhodes (Denver Service Center. The reference point for the survey was the middle of the circular monument and the grid was aligned with the north-going path: this is a magnetic bearing of 0.5 ft (75 cm). a resistivity pseudosection found a 20 percent increase in the resistivity at the location of the radar reflection. also. three trees have trunk diameters of about I m. The site is on the property of the Ely Service Center and the area is rural. The survey was done over the period IS-20 June 1984 for Gordon Peters.3 m) along east-going traverses. The soil resistivity here was about 200 0. m below that. . as part of contract 43. Resistivity profiles on two lines showed no correlation between resistivity anomalies and 1I radar reflections. and 2. m and the sandy gravel which is below has a resistivity of about 1800 0 * m. Forest Service and aligned with magnetic north: the Isaac Rova (1866-1898) grave is located at N 1I2 E30.5 m). The measurement spacing was I ft (0.S. 0 point on the figures has truncated state plane coordinates of N898 E603. 5. Fewer than I percent of the gravel pebbles were strongly magnetic. 1. but they caused the complex magnetic map. Figure 9: This survey was done on 18 August 1985 and sponsored by the Dayton Power and Light Company as part of an archaeological survey done by Greenhouse Consultants and directed by Joel Grossman. profiles were spaced by 2. The temporal variation during the survey was 6 nT and it was not corrected. Magnetic and resistivity surveys were not helpful either. The 0. and possibly copper.3 cmins. This survey was coordinated by Doug Comer and Paul Inashima (Applied Archaeology Center. The average resistivity of the earth is about 2300 II . With the high conductivity of the soil. Dennis Pogue is the current director of the archaeological program at the site.6 m). Figure 7: The radar antenna was a model 3102 (315 MHz) and the depth scale assumes a pulse velocity of 7.76.5 degrees.5 ft (0.3 m) and traverses were made going east-west. The illustrated profile is line W30. m with anomalies of 100 0 . silver-plated metal. Resistivity profiles across five possible graves with the Wenner array and an electrode spacing of 5 ft (1. The Geonics EM38 had its dipoles vertical and along an east-west line.76 m). The surface is covered by leaves and the average distance between trees with trunk diameters greater than 5 cm is about 4 m. The metal fittings on the coffins were iron. Grid north is true north and a magnetic bearing of about 0.3 m). The survey was sponsored by the Mount Vernon Ladies Association of the Union. At the location of this figure. The depth scale assumes a pulse velocity of for Graves 1319 9.63A9-4-864. The magnetic survey was done with a Scintrex MP-2 proton magnetometer with its sensor at a height of 2. by F. The site is on CowperthWaite Road in a rural area. National Park Service): this revealed that the soil strata had complex. lead. The conductivity low at N94 is near the grave of Samuel Lane.5. natural strata dip down 13 degrees to the northwest. The site was cleared of brush and bare soil was at the surface: several loose metal grave markers were visible. The conductivity measurements were made with the Geonics EM38 on the ground and with its dipoles vertical and along an east-west line. The base map was provided by Mount Vernon. While burials were found at two areas where graves were suggested by the radar. measurements were also made with a magnetometer and a conductivity meter: while they revealed no anomaly. m using the Wenner array and an electrode spacing of 5 ft (I . The resistivity of the silt here is 120 IZ . m in the upper 0. The area is wooded but the brush was cleared. Measurements were made at intervals of 1 ft (0. Estrems and Joanne Galinis of Rutgers University. The average spacing between trees is about 3 m in the area of survey: their trunk diameters range between 9 cm and 45 cm. The average field is 55 900 nT.5 degrees.5 ft (0. The measurement spacing was 2 ft (0. National Park Service) and Joann Robertson (Montgomery County Attorney’ s Office) and was sponsored by Montgomery County. These measurements found an average resistivity of 350 f2 . The survey was done over the period of 27 April-4 May 1986. The survey did not explore the eastern side of the ridge. It appears unlikely that the geometrical effect of the depression caused the conductivity high. I cmins. For the radar survey. USDA Forest Service.The Search resistivity pseudosection was done with the Wenner array and inter-electrode spacings of 2. The illustrated line follows a magnetic bearing of 15 degrees.6 m and 2000 R . The reference point for the survey was the northwest corner of the tower of the present church and the grid was aligned with this tower. Some wood remained from the coffins. and 7. The survey was done on 7-8 January 1985 and was directed by Alain Outlaw.