Cloth Tow Target Sleeve (1935)

Jan. E3, w42.

F. G. MANsoN
AERIAL TRAILER

2,26%,469
Z'Sheets-Sheet l ,

File@ June 5, 1935

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,|NvEN'TOR.

Frank E1~Man5mT-L

Jam» §39 E942»

F. G. MANsoN
AER IAL TRAILER >

v

v2,269,469
2 -Sheets-Sheet 2

Filed June 5, 1935

FEL-'ank ELIVIanSDT'L

_

AT'roRNEY5

Patented Jan. 13, 1942

2,269,469

Unirse ‘ STAT» s Y ’e
2,269,469- . l

TENT

' ortica

AERIAL TRAILER ' ;
Frank George Manson, Dayton, Ohio ‘

Application June sf'iess, serial No. 25,168
11 claims. ' (ci: 27a-icas)

(Granted under the actief March >3., 1883, as amended April 30, 1‘928;- 370 03. (3l-„757)
The invention described herein may be‘manu' factured and used by or for the Government’for

governmental purposes, without the paymentto
me of any royalty thereon. '

taken substantially- on their respective lines in Figure 2 of the drawings. Figure ~8 is aside elevation of one of the smaller

inñating sleeves of the tow target, showing the
_construction of the same. Figure 9 is a fragmentary sectional View taken substantially on the line 9-9 of Figure 2. Figure 10 is a >sectional View taken substan tially on theline I?--l ü of Figure 8.
Figure >11 is a fragmentary plan view of one

This invention relates to improvements in? aerial trailers which vare more particularly adapted for use as tow targets, but which may be used for other purposes, such as advertisingetc.
The primary object of the invention is the pro- ,Y

vision of an aerial tow target which may be usedV as such, with a high degree of efficiency in con nection with anti-aircraft or other gunnery prac tice. Another object of this invention is the pro-l vision of an improved aerial `tow target which'v

embodies such construction as to present suf
ficient area to gunners, as a target; which pre

of» the air deflecting and inflating panels o1' bridles which enable immediate deployment and inflation of the tow target after it is launched. Figure 12 is a section of webbing which is se cured to the rleading end of the tow target for the purpose of forming an anchoring coupling to
‘which the tow cable is attached. -

f Figure 13 is a diagrammatic -representation of sents a'minimum of drag toa towing aircraft, and which is sulhciently stable while being towed as [à the manner in which the various portions of the to present an accurate target, without theos ` 0 Vtow target are doubled and hemmed, with the

with the folded portions thereof. In the drawings, wherein for the purpose of A further object of this ’invention is the pro illustration- is shown only a preferred embodi vision of an improved aerial tow >target which may be compactly assembled within a small 25 ment of the invention, the letter A may gen erally designate the aerial trailer or tow target, space or compartment upon the aircraft, so that which may include a main sleeve or body B hav it may be eñiciently launched without liability of >ing associated therewith a structure C comprising catching in parts of the aircraft during the a plurality of inflating sleeves in an improved launching process, and yet which will eñiciently ` deploy within a short period of time to permit 30 relation, and with which is associated a nn or bridle arrangement D for the purpose of sta of accurate use as a target for gunners,etc. bilizing and directing air into the sleeves B and A further object of this invention is the pro C. A tow cable E is connected at the leading end vision of an improved aerial tow target which'.I while embodying improved means to presenta , kof the bridle arrangement D.
the use of conventional tow targets. A

cillations which are sometimes attendant upon

reinforcing and stiffening webbing associated

suñicient area to gunners, a minimum of drag ts

The main body sleeve or tube B may be of a

the aircraft, and remain stable during the towing process; yet may be manufactured at a minimum of cost due to conservation of materials. A further object of this invention _is the- pro vision of an improved method of constructing and 740
packing a tow target within a small compass.

single piece of material, although it is preferably made _of awplurality of lengthwise panels which are'suitably stitched together to provide a tube
which may vary in diameter, as deployed. Pref erably, >for ordinary gunnery purposes, the in flated diameter of the main sleeve may approxi mate thirty-nine inches in diameter,_although
this distance may vary for various purposes. For

Other objects and advantages of this` invention will be apparent during the course of the follow
ing detailed description. , ’

In the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, and wherein similar refer ence characters designate corresponding parts
throughout the several views, ~

Figure 1 is a perspective view of the tow target
in its deployed condition and as it will appear to
marksmen or others who are observing thesame. `

Figure 2 is a fragmentary side elevation of the
towß target, showing the main features of- con
struction thereof.

instance, >for ordinary gun target use it may be ysmaller than for anti-aircraft target practice, and when used for other purposes, the aerial trailer, such as for advertising purposes, may vary con siderably in size. For ordinary target uses the main sleeve B may Vary between twenty-six inches and thirty-nine inches in inflated di ameter, and the length thereof may vary between nine and eighteen feet, although these dimen sions are not to be regarded as limitations upon

the'inventive structural features. ' ‘ Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, and '7 are sectional views 55 ` The trailing end of the mainv sleeve has a

2

2,269,469
forward end of the main sleeve B so as to direct

ring-shaped section 20 which is appropriately stitched thereto as at 2|, as by doubling the
material of the sleeve upon itself to provide at the extreme trailing end a circumferential pas sageway 22 wherein is disposed a section of rope or cable 23. Preferably this cable 23 is of one

the air flowing through the smaller sleeve into the larger sleeve. Strong linen webbing 40 is stitched circumferentially about the sleeve 28
at the forward end of the portion 3l which ex tends into the large sleeve. At its forward end the main sleeve B is also provided with strong

by the aircraft, to properly deploy the target in

tubes or sleeves 28 are so arranged at their rear The purpose of the rope or cable 10 ends in the open end of the main sleeve B that material 23 is to restrict the outlet at the trailing the webbing 40 lies in the same plane as the end of the sleeve B. The cable or rope 23 has a webbing 4| of the main sleeve, and, as indicated normal diameter which is somewhat less than in Figure 7, the rear ends of the small sleeves the diameter of the passageway _24 thru the 28 at this location are suitably stitched, as shown sleeve B, and in this respect puckers the ring 20 15 at 50, soas to permanently connect the small at the trailing end of the sleeve B, to provide as sleeves 28 at their rear ends with the forward a restricted outlet opening 30. `Thus the neces end of the main sleeve B. Of course the por~ sary drag is created upon the target as it is towed tions 31 of the sleeves 28 which extend into the

quarter inch manila yacht rope, although it may be of elastic material, similar to the elastic re stricting cable which is used in the vents vof

linen webbing 4|, suitably stitched thereto. The

parachutes.

spill through the target without unnecessary re ing movement of the air. into the >‘sleeves of the striction upon the speed of the aircraft. aerial trailer, the same vcomprises aV series `of Referring to the intermediate section of the 25 elongated plane; surfaces ,60 joined _together at tow target, which may' be. appropriately termed their longitudinal edges upon the tow axis of the
the small sleeve section C, the same is provided in order to insure an accurate and eflicient

a path which can be predetermined.r The diam 20 not otherwise connected together or to the main eter of the outlet opening 30 as defined by the sleeve.¿ ‘_ i . _ _ _ rope or cable 23 is such as to permit the Aair to , Referring to 1.the _bridle construction D `for guid

forwardend >of the» main sleeve are preferably

launching of the tow target; to permit of the folding of the tow target into small compass; 30 ward tow cable connecting end of the target and and to permit instant inflation. To thatl end thehypothenuse edges thereof are located out_er~ this section C consists of a plurality of small most.` There are six of these fins, one for each diametered sleeves 28, which are preferably of of the sleeves 28, and at their rear ends they ex
the same material as the sleeve B. At their rear
ends these sleeves or tubes 28 are connected inA '

trailer and radiating therefrom. These surfaces are each of the.r shapeof right angled triangles. Their apicesfare connectedtogether at the for

the forward open end of the large body sleeve B and extend therefrom forwardly exteriorly of
the sleeve B: the same being connected in a sym metrical arrangement at their forward ends and

tend slightly into the` forward ends `of thé‘re spective sleeves with which they are associated,

diametrically, across. the inside ofthe respective
sleeves.Y Thusthe iin .or plane surface for. each

having the bridle construction D attached there
to. The construction of each of the sleeves A2|! _is

small sleeve 428 not'onlyjdirectsthe air flow _into the sleeve, vbut divides ,the air stream as‘itflows into the small sleeve; lthus preventing `eddi'es `and eccentricities \in_.'the« air stream vflow. By refer

ence to Figures 3 and Il_of the` drawingsit'will indicated in Figures 5 and 8 of the drawings. be seen that these .six ,fins of the-bridle construc For their major length each consists of a single tion are` in :reality formed o_f threey sections 59 ply of material'. The diameter of these tubes is 4 Ll of fiexiblefabrict »Thesesections of fabricare of course governed by the diameter of the large of ridenticalconstruction. They are eachin the tube or sleeve B. It is preferred to use six of form of an- isoceles.- triangle, except attheir base them, arranged so that when the tow target is ends.. Atthe base-or rear.each of these sections inñated their axes will lie parallel with each 59, as 'indicated` in Figure 11, is provided wítha other and with the tow axis of theaerial trailer. 50 pair of plane'extensionslû, ofa width suiiicieng‘l At their forward ends eachof the sleeves 28 is to permit the _extension thereof, into» they open preferably doubled upon itself to provide a multi ends ofthe sleeves 28. ~ Each Section5!!l of fabric fold hem 38a, which may be stitched in any ap is reinforced along- the sides thereof, at its apex, proved manner, in order to provide a circumfer and around the marginal edges yof the exten,
ential passageway for a rigid preferably metal- ~

lic ring 3|. These rings 3| are all of the same diameter. Eyelets or grommets 32 are provided

sions A‘Hl with strong,.linen webbing. The-three
sections 58are joined togetherupon a line which

radially through this hem portion 30a in such _relation that when the sleeves 28 are placed in a
the said ring ends of the sleeves 28 together, and so that the sleeves may be swiveled at these ring

would normally be thealtitude of the triangular
sections 59,- and which lies in the axis of tow of

the aerial»` trailer, as can readily (be. understood symmetrical circular arrangement, laces 35, .60 by reference tdFigures 1.and 2 of the drawings. shown in Figure 9, may be employed to connect The length of each extension portion 10. may of
course vary. ‘Preferably it variesfrom- six tof-ten

inches and these extensionsA project into the for~ ends. This enables the rigid rings 3| to be fold ward open ends of the _smaller sleeves 28;` -_the ed one upon the other in order to pack the tow 65 opposite webbing reinforced‘edges ofY each‘of the
target into a small compass and in such orderly

fashion that it may be quickly deployed.

The

rings 3| may be of any approved construction, as

extensionslß being stitched suitably lto the mate--r rial ofthe sleeve, at diametrically Vopposed points,
so as to provide a diaphragm-like `partition-in

.is shown in Figure 9, and they may be formed by the open end of thesleeve, diametrically Vthere bending the material upon itself at its ends and 70 across, as indicatedin Figure 9 of the drawings'. soldering it as at 38 after wrapping it with wire. As indicatedin lFigure ll of the drawings ‘each At their rear ends the sleeves 28 are each of `the fabric sections 58‘ at each of the partition doubled outwardly upon themselves, to provide extensions l0 is provided ïwith ‘webbing strips 80 a double ply portion 31 of about six inches in which are overlapped at the outer sides of there 75 length which is intended to extend into _the open

spective sleeves withuwhlch the `eisztensions"Hl‘are

ifa-269,469
f associated, and stitched thereto, as -indicated in the various views of -the drawings. ThisA provides
>a very firm and strong connection between the

section ;C, and the section'D may beaboutfour
¿ times the length of the section C. ¢ These propor
tions may of course vary. f ' j ' 1 '

bridle construction and `_the small sleeve section,
with the ñnsßll of the bridle construction so ar

v- Various changes in the steps lof themethod; of

ranged as to accurately divide the air stream and guide the movement of the air flowinto the
tubes 2-8, , Y . ~~

„packing the tow target, and changes in theshape, ..size, and arrangement of parts of the improved ¿target maybe made to the form `ofi invention

Each fabric section `59 of the bridle construc
tion is _provided at its outer end with a piece of. webbing. This webbing is shown at 90 in Figure
12 of the drawings and it is stitched to the apex
end of the section 59 so as to provide an open loop at said apex, as indicated in 4Figure 2 of the

„herein shown and described, without departing
¿fromfthe spirit of the invention -or the scope of

>,the claims.
-Iclaim: _ . , 1 ,

l vl. An aerial trailer comprising as the main

'I‘hese pieces of webbing 9i)` arethen v' all stitched securely together to provide a very strong eye through which the tow cable or rope

drawings.

body thereof an elongated sleeve construction having an air spill 'passageway therethrough, bridle means for directing movement of air into the sleeve connected with the forward end of the

lE »is connected in any approved manner. From the foregoing description it can readily be understood that an aerial trailer has beenfvzo provided, which is particularly well adapted for
use as a tow target for use in connection with anti-aircraft or other gunnery practice. For

sleeve and extending forwardly therefrom,ïsaid
bridle construction comprising a plurality of

aerial gunnery the target will be towed at dis
tances of about six` hundred feet and for anti- l» f

plane fins, said sleeve construction including a plurality of small diametered sleeves arranged in parallelism and having individual fins of the bridle construction extending into the open 'mouth ends of said sleeves for directing air fiow
thereinto. .‘«

aircraft practice a distance lof about three thou sand feet. Due to the improved construction of this tow target, sufficient area is presented to the
gunner so as to furnish an adequate target.
There is a minimum of drag upon the towing air- . -

2. An aerial trailer comprising an elongated sleeve-like structure open at both ends‘and hav

ing a relatively long collapsible sleeve-like body
open at both ends, a plurality of parallel air cur

craft, and the target is stable, without unneces sary oscillations. The fabric of which the target is constructed is preferably mercerised cotton air plane cloth, and that is true for each of the sec tions B, C, and D. All of these sections are en tirely flexible, so far as the cloth is concerned, and so far as the linen webbing, except for the

rent directing sleeve-like cells opening into »the body sleeve at the fore end thereof, each cell b'e
ing open at its vfore and aft ends, stabilizing vanes at the fore vends of said cell sleeves for direc-ting

vand _stabilizing air draft therethrough, said
vanes being arranged in relative radial-relation and in diametrical intersection with the cell-like sleeves. 3. An aerial trailer comprising an elongated sleeve-like structure open at both ends and hav

rigid shaping rings 3| which are disposed in the forward ends of the smaller sleeves 28. The

ing a relatively long collapsible sleeve-like body

appreciably greater than the diameter of a single ring 3l. These rigid rings 3l are provided for the necessary stifîening at the mouth end o-f the

Preferably it is less than 1/3 of the diameter of rent directing sleeve-like cells opening into the the large sleeve B. Thus it can be-seen that the body sleeve at the fore end thereof, each cell entire target may be folded into a very small being open at its fore and aft ends, stabilizing compass. Due to the connection of the rings 3l vanes at the fore ends of said cell sleeves for they may be folded one upon the other and the 45 directing and stabilizing air draft therethrough, fabric packed in orderly fashion so that the entire said vanes being arranged in relative radial rela target may be launched through a small opening tion and in diametrical intersection with each of in the rear cockpit of a towing airplane or other the cell-like sleeves, a tow cable connected at the aircraft. Of course the rings 3| overlap upon fore ends of said vanes, and the rear end of the each other and provide a bundle which is not 50 main body sleeve being provided with a choked

diameter of these sleeves may of course vary. 40 open at both ends, a plurality of parallel air cur

spill opening.

4. An aerial trailer comprising an elongated

small tubes so as to obtain instant inflation as is relatively long to be used as a trailer for gen soon as the target is launched. The f'ln or bridle 55 eral target practice and of a nature to be col construction D of course insures not only a lapsed bodily upon itself laterally and longitudi

main body sleeve of flexible material which

proper division of air stream into the tubes 28, but the diaphragm in the smaller ends of the
tubes acts as an immediate straightener for un

folding the rings into position for inflation.
The floating cord 23 at the rear end of the tow target permits the use of a large Vent opening and thus reduces drag so that it is not appre ciably greater than that of a straight opened

nally, said sleeve having a passageway there through opening at the forward end and with a choked spill opening at the rear end thereof, a
80

plurality of relatively shorter elongated collapsi
ble sleeve sections connected at their rear ends within the fore end of the first mentioned sleeve and each projecting beyond the fore end of the

length may be about six times the length of the 75 aft ends of the sleeve, means for attaching the

of target and reduces the fabric required to a vane means at the fore ends of said group of reasonable amount. It will of course be possible smaller sleeve sections to insure the direction of to utilize a series of long sleeves, such as provided air thereinto. in the section C, of small diameter, all attached 70 5. An aerial tow target comprising an elon together, and do away with the larger sleeve sec gated flexible sleeve-like body which has a length tion B, but such construction would require an dimension many times that of the cross-dimen excessive amount of material. In order to give sion thereof, said sleeve being provided with a an idea of proportion of length, the section B in passageway therethrough open at the fore and

first mentioned sleeve, said plurality of smaller sleeve. 65 sleeve sections having passageways therethrough The large sleeve B permits of a simple design opening at the fore and rear ends thereof, and

',1 fore` endof the sleeve to a towing vehicle,¿and re
f silient means at the periphery of the aft opening

intersecting the passageways through said sleeve
sections for dividing the air streaml travel there
through. t ` ' , j

of the target normally tending to restrict the
' opening and vary its size according to the pres sure of the air as it spills through said opening.

9. An‘aerial trailer comprising a, plurality of

flexible vand longitudinally -collapsible sleeves,
each of which is cylindrical in formation, means grouping said sleeves together in a cylindrical ar

6. An aerial tow target comprising an elon gated flexible sleeve-like body which has a length dimension manyl times that of the cross (dimen sion thereof, said sleeve being provided with a passageway therethrough open at the f_ore and
aft ends of the sleeve, means for attaching the
fore end of the sleeve to a towing vehicle, and re silient means at theperiphery of the aft opening

rangement, Aan elongated collapsible vane con struction connected with said sleeves and extend

ing forwardly therefrom and an elongated large

diametered main body sleeve having the above mentioned cylindrical arranged smallery sleeves
disposed in the fore part thereof for directing

of the target normally tending to restrict the opening and vary its size according to the pres sure of the air as it spills through said opening, said resilient means comprising a floating elastic

travel of >air therethrough.
1:0. An aerial trailer comprising a plurality of

flexible cylindrical collapsible sleeves open at
their fore and rear ends, means grouping said sleeves together in a cylindrical arrangement, a rigid ring in the fore end of each sleeve for hold ing the sleeves open at their mouths, and means
for directing air into the open ends of said
sleeves.` _

band peripherally surrounding the air spill open
ing.

V7. An aerial trailer comprising a plurality of flexible and longitudinally collapsible sleeves,
each of which is cylindrical in formation, means grouping said sleeves together in a cylindrical arrangement, and an elongated collapsible vane construction connected with said sleeves and ex

tending forwardly therefrom.
8. An aerial trailer comprising a plurality of

flexible and longitudinallyr collapsible sleeves,
each of which is cylindrical in formation, means
grouping said sleeves together in a cylindrical _

11. An aerial trailer comprising a plurality of ilexible4 cylindrical collapsible sleeves open at their fore and rear ends, means grouping said sleeves together in a cylindrical arrangement, a rigid ring in the fore end of each sleeve for hold ing the sleeves open at their mouths, and means for directing air into the open ends of said

arrangement, and an elongated collapsible vane construction including a plurality of vanes con

sleeves', saidringstbeing connected together so that _the sleeves when they are collapsed may be
arranged with the rings in a superposed stacked

nected with said sleeves and extending forwardly therefrom, the plane of the vanes transversely

relation.
FRANK GEORGE MANSON.

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