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Neil Ashby Department of Physics,UCB 390 University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-00390 NIST Affiliate Email: ashby@boulder.nist.gov

July 20, 2006

AAPT workshop

1

Fundamental Principles

• Principle of Inertia

– The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference.

**• Constancy of the speed of light
**

– The speed of light, c, is a constant independent of the motion of the source (or of the observer); (it is c in all inertial frames).

**• Principle of Equivalence (“weak form”)
**

– Over a small region of space and time, the fictitious gravitational field induced by acceleration cannot be distinguished from a real gravitational field due to mass.

July 20, 2006

AAPT workshop

2

**Changes in point of view (reference frames)
**

In studying relativity, one must be willing to adopt different points of view-that is, different reference frames. The physical phenomena don’t change, but our description of them does change. Example 1: the gulf stream curves toward the east as it flows north. For an observer fixed on the rotating earth, this is due to the “Coriolis force.” To an observer in a local, freely falling non-rotating frame attached to earth’s center, this is due to conservation of angular momentum. Example 2: A pendulum in an accelerating car points backwards. From the point of view of someone in the car, the force of gravity points slightly downwards and slightly backwards. From the point of view of someone on the ground, the pendulum bob is accelerated forwards by a component of tension in the string that points slightly forwards and upwards.

July 20, 2006 AAPT workshop 3

In an accelerating vehicle.Question. what direction is “up”? Up? Up? July 20. if up is indicated by the direction of the string that holds down a helium balloon. 2006 AAPT workshop 4 .

let two lightning strokes at the front and back of the train be simultaneous. vx t'≈t− 2 c July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 5 .Relativity of Simultaneity To an observer on the ground. The “moving” observer at the train’s midpoint finds the event at front occurs first.

y.x’ Origins pass by each other at t = t’ = 0. 2006 AAPT workshop 6 . y’. z’ } In Moving Frame: x. x’.Notation--”Lab” and “Moving” Frames y y’ * In Lab Frame: Event { t. x . z z’ July 20. z } { t’.

arrival time at the rod end: In the moving frame: L L L vL t= = ≃ + 2. Light emitted at t=0 from the left end of the rod travels to the right end. 2006 t'= L vL vx . (c − v) c(1 − v / c) c c July 20. v event at t=t’=0 L c signal propagating with speed c c v In Lab.Breakdown of simultaneity In a given inertial frame. it’s OK to take differences of velocities and obtain a velocity difference greater than c. t'=t− 2 =t− 2 c c c 7 AAPT workshop . Example: Let a rod of length L=x move in the positive x-direction with speed v.

x’ z z’ July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 8 .Breakdown of simultaneity y y’ Event * vx t'≃t− 2 c x.

. 2006 9 ...Relation Between Doppler Effect and Relativity of Simultaneity Wavefronts are marked simultaneously by the “non-moving” observer: c x = 0 λ 2λ 3λ ... c c AAPT workshop July 20. To the moving observer.. the wavelength is: v v λ ' = λ + λ = (1 + )λ ... Moving observer says the wavefronts are marked differently: So the wavefront at t =0 vnλ t'= − 2 c x = λ ( n = 1) needs to move an additional distance vλ v c 2 = λ c c before it gets into the right position to be marked at t’ = 0.nλ.

2006 AAPT workshop 10 . the frequency decreases. So when lambda increases.Doppler frequency shift c = f λ . f λ c July 20. ln c = ln f + ln λ . Taking the differential of the logarithm function gives ∆f ∆λ v =− =− .

a fictitious gravity field induced by acceleration cannot be distinguished From a gravity field produced by mass.Equivalence Principle and Gravitational Frequency Shifts Over a small region of space and time. July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 11 .

Gravitational Frequency Shift July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 12 .

The fractional frequency difference between the clocks is ∆f ∆Φ =+ 2 . f c July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 13 . c v gL ∆f ∆Φ =− =− 2 =− 2 .Gravitational Frequency Shift t = L/c v = gt = gL . f c c c − GM GM J −− (1 + 2 ) r a1 2 ∆f =− f c2 The situation in the rocket is static.

2006 is earth’s quadrupole moment coefficient. and r be the radius of a GPS satellite.Frequency shifts due to Gravitational Potential Differences Let Φ 0 be the gravitational potential on earth’s geoid--at mean sea level. J 2 ≃ . GM E ∆Φ = − − Φ0 r Φ0 includes contributions from earth’s oblateness as well as its mass: GM 1 Φ0 = − (1 + J 2 ). a1 2 where: a1 is the equatorial radius of the earth. AAPT workshop 14 .001086 July 20.

(≈ 13km navigation error per day) f July 20.378 km ∆f ≃ 5 ×10−10 .How big are gravitational frequency shifts in the GPS? To get a rough estimate. ∆f 1 GM GM = 2 − − (− ) f c a a1 where GM = 3. a = 26.986 × 1014 m 3/s2 .562 km. assume the satellite orbit is circular and the reference clock is on earth’s equator. a1 = 6. 2006 AAPT workshop 15 .

Best IIR Rbs Navs 51. 54 July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 16 .

how far would light travel in this amount of time? July 20.Question: If a clock makes an error in one day of 1 part in 10^14. 2006 AAPT workshop 17 .

64 × 10−10 sec) = 0. the error is: 10 −14 × 86400sec = 8.64 × 10−10 sec) = 299792458m/sec × (8. 2006 AAPT workshop 18 . how far would light travel in this amount of time? Answer: In one day.Question: If a clock makes an error in one day of 1 part in 10^14.64 × 10 −10 sec. In this amount of time. light travels a distance d = c × (8.26 m July 20.

rj = c (t − t j ) . 2006 AAPT workshop 19 . j = 1. 4 July 20.Constancy of c r .3. 2.

270 15908390.546 20959777. 20450127.642 18997823.668 929 346 353 9 3486595. 13799439.294 -8705178.875 920 713 391 8 37239. 13004579.245 925 307 870 0 37239. 20982631.566 16360459.721 924 422 365 6 37239.Sample data SV # 1 2 3 4 Transmission Epoch ti (s) Transmitter Position xi (m) Transmitter Position yi (m) Transmitter Position zi (m) 37239.895 13246718.407 Question: Where is the receiver and what is the time at the receiver? July 20.358 -4436309. 2006 AAPT workshop 20 .

2006 AAPT workshop 21 .Reciprocity rj .r = c (t j − t ) July 20.

2006 AAPT workshop 22 .The constancy of the speed of light implies time dilation July 20.

Einstein’s Light Clock c2 − v2 t = L/ c −v = 2 2 L/c 1− v / c 2 2 . 2006 AAPT workshop 23 . t ' = L / c = 1 − v2 / c2 t This is just Euclidean geometry and the constancy of c. July 20.

2 2 2 1v −11 − 2 = −3. 2006 AAPT workshop 24 . 2 2c v = 4000 m/s.How Big is Time Dilation in the GPS? 1v 1− v / c ≈ 1− .5 ×10 2c 2 July 20.

2006 AAPT workshop 25 . dt = 1 − v / c ( 2 2 ) −1/ 2 dτ 1 v2 ≃ 1 + dτ . 2 2c Elapsed Coordinate time: 1 v2 ∆t = ∫ dτ 1 + 2 2 c path Observed Proper Time July 20.Accounting For Relativistic Effects Example: Time Dilation: dτ = 1 − v 2 / c 2 dt .

GPS Satellite in a circular earth-bound orbit Newton’s law of motion: Force toward the earth is gravitational. − 3 r = mɺ r r The mass of the satellite cancels out (a consequence of the Principle of Equivalence). 2006 AAPT workshop 26 . Solution of the above equation shows that the energy is constant: 1 2 GM GM v − =− 2 r 2a where a is the semimajor axis. July 20. GmM ɺ. The orbit is nearly a Kepler ellipse.

=− − + × 2 c a r The first term depends on orbital eccentricity and gives rise to a periodic time error that is (E is the eccentric anomaly) ∆trel July 20.4647 10 .Frequency shift of GPS satellite clocks relative to reference clock on equator 2 ∆f Φ − Φ 0 1 v 2 1 (ωE a1 ) = − −− 2 f c2 2 c2 2 c Putting in everything that is known about these quantities and adding and subtracting some terms. ∆f 1 1 2 1 1 3GM E GM E = 2 −2GM E − − + (1 + J 2 / 2) + (ωE a1 ) f c 2a a1 2 a r 2GM E 1 1 −10 4. 2006 2e = − 2 GM E a sin( E ) + const. c AAPT workshop 27 .

Clocks on earth’s geoid beat at equal rates July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 28 .

Orbit adjustments in GPS 3GM E ∆ = ∆− 2 f 2c a δf 3GM E δ a . This effect is now understood and the clock frequency is adjusted when the orbit is changed. the change in frequency is ∆ δf f ≃ 1. 2006 AAPT workshop 29 . = 2 2c a a For an increase in altitude of 20 km. (Back-of-the-envelope calculation!) July 20.88 ×10−13.

. coordinate time. 2006 AAPT workshop 30 . END July 20. show how the effects can be obtained from the metric….Further development--introduce the metric 2Φ 2 2 2 2 ds = −(1 + 2 )( c dt ) + dx + dy + dz . c 2 Discuss proper time.

2006 AAPT workshop 31 .Sagnac effect July 20.

2006 2ω Az 2 c AAPT workshop 32 .Sagnac Effect on Synchronization in a Rotating System Sagnac Correction = July 20.

c2 ∆T c 2 c Induced potential difference/c 2 = July 20.Principle of Equivalence V+∆V V r Local Inertial Frame Acceleration Air ∆V ir = . c Air + ∇Φ ir 1 ∆V ir ∇Φ ir Net potential difference/c2 = = + 2 = 0. 2006 AAPT workshop 33 . c2 ∆Tc 2 ∇Φ ir Gravitational potential difference/c2 = 2 .

Common-view time transfer July 20. 2006 AAPT workshop 34 .

July 20.Why are atomic clocks needed? To reduce the effect of clock error to < 2 meters.5 x 10-13. Only atomic clocks can achieve such stability. 2006 AAPT workshop 35 . Half a day = 43200 seconds.7 x 10-9 sec. the clock error must be less than 2/c = 6. so the fractional clock error must be less than: (2 m)/(43200 s x c) = 1.

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