0
and
0
are the maximum strain and stress in one cycle.
is circular frequency of vibration.
For continuous and discontinuous distribution, the
total energy dissipated by viscoelastic material can be
expressed by Eq. (2) and (3), respectively,
2
2
1 1 1 0 1
1
c
F
Q V E A L E
E Lb
e c e
 
'' '' = t = t

'
\ .
(2)
2
2
2 2 2 0 2
2
c
F
Q V E A nl E
E nlb
e c e
 
'' '' = t = t

'
\ .
(3)
where A
c
is the cross sectional area of viscoelastic
material, and L is the length of cable. E' is elastic
modulus, b is the depth of viscoelastic material in
transversal direction of cable, l is the length of
individual viscoelastic damping, n is the number of
viscoelastic damping.
Due to the limitation of gap between inner and outer
cable, the maximum strain of viscoelastic material is
certain. Assuming the total interaction force F between
inner and outer cable is constant because it is only
dependent on the property of inner and outer cable. To
achieve allowable maximum strain of viscoelastic
material, the elastic modulus of
1
E' must be much lower
than that of
2
E' .
Let
1 2
F F
E Lb E nlb
=
' '
, thus
1 2
E L E nl ' ' = (4)
Substitute Eq. (4) into Eq. (2) and (3), the ratio of Q
1
and Q
2
is
1 2
2 1
1
Q E nl
Q E L
'
= =
'
(5)
From Eq. (5), the dissipated energy of discontinuous
damper is equivalent to that of continuous damper by
changing elastic modulus of viscoelastic material.
3 THEORETICAL DERIVATION OF
MODAL DAMPING RATIO
3.1 Assumptions
It is generally more convenient and physically reasonable
to define the damping of a MDOF system using the
September 2729, 2010, Beijing, China
245
damping ratio for each mode rather than to evaluate the
coefficients of the damping matrix because the modal
damping ratios can be determined experimentally or
estimated with adequate precision (Clough and Penzien
2003). Based on the previous study of dynamic
characteristic of hybrid B/CFRP cable for longspan
cablestayed bridge, only the first order of cable mode
has potential risk of resonance between cable and bridge
(Wang and Wu 2010a), and additionally, inplane
vibration is more common and important (Caetano 2007)
so that in this study, the first order inplane vibration is
considered to evaluate damping effect of smart damper
of hybrid B/CFRP cable.
Since the objective is to evaluate the damping effect
of hybrid B/CFRP cable with smart damper, only the
internal damping generated by inserted viscoelastic
material will be considered, and the other sources of
damping including material damping of cable, friction
among each wires and aerodynamic damping are not
taken into consideration. The energy dissipated by axial
and bending deformation of viscoelastic material will be
neglected due to their discontinuous distribution inside
the cable.
3.2 Derivation of dynamic equilibrium equations
The dynamic response of cable directly described by
logarithmic decrement damping of cable can be derived
by applying the Hamiltons principle (Clough and
Penzien 2003)
2 2
1 1
( )d d
T T
T V
T T
T W T o o H H =
} }
(6)
where
T
,
V
, W denote the cable kinetic energy, cable
potential energy and the work done by nonconservative
force, respectively. The cables in cablestayed bridge are
applied with initial tension in order to maintain static
equilibrium. This initial tension gives rise to the
geometrical stiffness which constitutes a dominant part
in the total stiffness of the cable. Therefore, the potential
energy of cable is consisted of strain energy generated
by initial tension and vibration, and gravitational
potential energy. Herein, when we use freevibration
decay method to determine modal damping ratio, the
work done by nonconservative force is equivalent to the
energy dissipated by viscoelastic material as show
below,
2 2
1 1
d ( )d
T T
T T
W T Q t T o =
} }
(7)
The potential energy
V
can be presented by the
summation of
S
and
G
.
2
1
2
0
( )d
L
i
S S d d
P EA S c c H = H + +
}
(8)
0
d
L
i
G G v
mgU S H = H +
}
(9)
where
S
i
and
G
i
are strain energy and gravitational
potential energy under static equilibrium, respectively
(Perkins 1992). P is the static cable force. E and A are
elastic modulus and crosssectional area of cable,
respectively.
d
is the dynamic strain generated by
vibration. mg is cable weight per unit length. U
v
is
displacement along vertical direction. L is the cable
length.
T
can be expressed as
2 2 2
1
1 2 3 2
0
( )d
L
T
m V V V S H = + +
}
(10)
where V
1
, V
2
, V
3
are velocity of differential element in
three directions, respectively.
The energy dissipated by viscoelastic material per
unit volume in one cycle is presented by Eq. (3).
Considering the difference of amplitudes within n
cycles, the dynamic equilibrium equation in Eq. (6) can
be expressed as
( )
0 0
d ( )d
nT nT
T V
T Q x T AH AH =
} }
(11)
The start point is set to be the first maximum amplitude
of vibration after release of external force/displacement,
and the end point is chosen to be the maximum
amplitude of vibration after n cycles. Because the kinetic
energy maintains zero at both of the status, the only
variation of potential energy lies in strain energy and
gravitational potential energy which are only related to
the start and end status because they both belong to
conservative force. Thus, the variation of cable potential
energy can be presented by
2 2
1
,1 , ,1 , 2
0
( ) ( ) d
L
S d d n d d n
P EA S c c c c ( AH = +
}
(12)
,1 ,
0
( )d
L
G v v n
mg U U S AH =
}
(13)
where
d,1
and
d,n
represent the dynamic strain at first
cycle and at n cycles, respectively. U
v,1
and U
v,n
represent the vertical displacement at first cycle and at n
cycles, respectively.
The first order vibration mode shape is presented by
(Caetano 2007)
( )
,
( ) 1 tan( / 2)sin( / ) cos( / )
i m i
U x U x L x L e e e ' ' ' =
(14)
where U
m,i
is maximum amplitude at the middle span in
i cycles, is given by
1/ 2
' /( / ) L P m e e = .
In terms of inplane equilibrium, the dynamic stain
can be expressed as
, , d i m i
U c q = (15)
where
cos
tan cos sin
2
2 2 2
'(1 8( / ) )
mg
x x
P d L
u e e e
q e
e
       
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
' ' '
' = +
+
Considering the dynamic equilibrium of a segment of
inner cable in y direction, the equilibrium equation is
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
246
(Clough and Penzien 2003):
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos
i
u y u
P h m f
x x t
t
u
c c c
+ =
c c c
(16)
h
}
(20)
Let U
m,n
/U
m,0
= and introduce it into Eq (20) and finally
lead to
2
' ' 4 ' '
2 '
B B A C
A
+
= (21)
2 2
,0
1
'
2
m
A EA LU q =
,0 ,0
2
' cos
m m
B P LU mgLU q u
t
=
2 2
,0 ,0 ,0
0
0
1 2
' cos
2
( )d
m m m
n
L
C P LU EA LU mgLU
Q S S
q q u = + +
t
}
Thus, logarithmical damping is
,0
,
1 1 1
ln ln
m
m n
U
U n n
o
 
 
= =



\ .
\ .
(22)
4 EVALUATION OF MODAL DAMPING
The longest cable in a 1088 m span cablestayed bridge
is selected for evaluation (Wang and Wu 2010a). The
smart damper design and corresponding dimension are
shown in Figure 3 and Table 1. A total of nineteen sections
of smartdampers are installed along the longitudinal
direction of cable. Generally, the Youngs modulus of
viscoelastic material is found in the range from 110
4
to
510
9
N/m
2
.thus, thus, thus, 610
5
N/m
2
of the elastic
modulus of viscoelastic material are adopted for this
particular calculation, considering a loss factor of 1.
40
134
252
4
0
200
Viscoelastic
material Outer cable
Inner cable
500 m 544 m
Symmetry
Length=575 m
Figure 3 Design parameters of smart dampers
The initial amplitude of vibration U
m,0
is assumed to
be 2 m according to the practical observation. Based on
Eq. (21) and (23), the first order of modal damping ratio
contributed by viscoelastic material is calculated to be
0.52%, which proves the effectiveness in comparison
with less than 0.2% of damping ratio of general cables
(even lower for long length of cable). It should be
mentioned that this damping ratio is contributed only by
smart damper, whereas other sources of damping are not
taken into account.
Table 1 Parameters of viscoelastic material
Type of cable Proportion
Sectional
area (mm
2
)
*
Cable force
(N)
Diameter
(mm)
**
Original cable
C 25%
B 75%
19692 1.19*10
7
189
Inner
cable
C 50%
B 50%
9846 7.59*10
6
134
Cable
with
smart
damper
Outer
cable
B 100% 9846 4.31*10
6
252
*
35% volume of matrix is taken into account.
**
Consider 70% packing efficiency.
5 CONCLUTIONS
Focusing on the characteristic of hybrid FRP cable, a
smart damper design was proposed to improve cables
internal damping. Theoretical derivation on damping
ratio was conducted in terms of energy principle and the
evaluation of a smart damper designed cable demonstrated
its effectiveness.
September 2729, 2010, Beijing, China
247
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