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Illustration of the SFPE Performance-Based Design Guide- A Case Study

Scott Laramee / Eric Rosenbaum NFPA World Fire Safety Congress May 2003

Agenda
Overview

of performance-based

design Outline SFPE guide and process Review application to project Questions

Why Use Performance Based Approach?


Engineering tools and methods are more available & accepted by more jurisdictions Examples of accepted tools/methods:

Empirical

calculations Zone models CFD field models

Why Use Performance Based Approach?


Provides structured means of design alternatives to prescriptive code requirements Allows for consideration of fire risks and benefits of different fire protection strategies

Advantages of Performance Based Approach


Offers

greater design flexibility Sometimes more cost effective (e.g., large complex buildings) Provides an environment which encourages new ideas (i.e., encourages engineering)

Performance Based Code Provisions in US


In 1997 (Time of Design) Case-by-case basis requiring approval of Boards in Philadelphia Alternative design methods

Performance Based Code Provisions in US


Now (2003) NFPA 5000 and NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code) Other NFPA Codes ICC Performance Code SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings

Performance Based Approach Used


Design pre-dates release Similar approach used

Performance Based Approach Used


SFPE PBD Guide: Outlines process Provides guidance for engineers and AHJ Identifies parameters to considered Provides possible references

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Defining Project Scope

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Identifying Goals

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Defining Objectives

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance Criteria


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Design Fire Scenarios


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Trial Designs

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Evaluating Trial Designs

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria?


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Modify Design or Objectives


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Select the Final Design

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Performance-Based Design Report

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Prepare Design Documentation


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Specifications, Drawings, and operations and Maintenance Manual

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Defining Project Scope

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Project Scope
Identify stakeholders and role Consider project attributes Boundaries of the PBD portion of the design

Stakeholders
Department

of Licenses and

Inspections Fire Department Building owners and management Insurance Designers; Architect and Engineers

Project Attributes

Building characteristics Occupant characteristics

Cultural/social value Applicable regulations

Overview of Building Design


Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts Large performing arts center (assembly) Areas of two city blocks Atrium space with two inner buildings

2,500

person concert hall 700 person stage theater

Overview of Building Design

Overview of Building Design

Overview of Building Design

Overview of Building Design


Key Prescriptive Code Provisions High-rise building Modified Type 2A construction building Automatic sprinklers required in all areas Smoke control required for atrium

Reasons for Seeking Performance Alternatives


Intent of code provisions met through alternative means Unique, architecturally significant atrium

Overview of Building Design

Atrium Smoke Control Issues


Unconditioned, large upper atrium (stratification) Exhaust locations problematic for design Maintenance and system testing an issue

Building Characteristics

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Identifying Goals

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Fire Safety Goals


Fundamental fire safety (societal) goals:

Life safety Property protection Continuity of operations Limit environmental impact of fire

Fire Safety Goals


Goals for this building: Life safety of building occupants Fire fighter operations Property protection (Stakeholders accepts increased property risk)

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Defining Objectives

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Objectives
More detailed than a goal Often stated as acceptable loss or risk May be injury or death, cost, or loss of downtime or critical equipment Might be equivalency to a prescriptive code or insurance requirement

Stakeholders Objectives
No loss of life outside of area of fire origin No significant thermal damage outside of room of fire origin Design in fiscally responsible manner Maintain creative design for intended function (performing art center)

Design Objectives
Result from quantification of stakeholder objectives Can be deterministic or probabilistic Focus is on the damage target(s)

Building,

compartment, contents, process, or occupant

Serve as benchmarks for evaluating predicted performance of trial designs

Design Objectives
Maintain tenable conditions during egress Prevent flashover of the area of fire origin Minimize the likelihood of fire spread beyond the space/room of fire origin Limit the thermal damage to areas beyond the area of fire origin

Atrium Smoke Control


Prescriptive Code Requirements Designed to maintain smoke layer 6 ft above highest level of exit access for 20 min. Passive smoke control (i.e., no mechanical exhaust) allowed by code Alternative approaches allowed which achieve same level of smoke control as other methods

Atrium Smoke Control


Intent of applicable code Maintain smoke layer above a level that will:
Not

affect occupant ability to egress (life safety) Prevent smoke migration to other areas of the building (property protection)

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance Criteria


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Performance Criteria
Threshold values, ranges, or distributions Used to evaluate trial designs Forms the basis for identifying the set of candidate designs from which the final design will be selected

Type of Performance Criteria


Temperature Smoke concentration or obscuration Evacuation time Toxic or corrosive species Level of smoke layer Radiant flux

Example Performance Criteria


Parameter Carbon Monoxide Concentration Lower Oxygen Limit Temperature (occupants immersed in layer) Temperature (occupants below smoke layer Visibility Hazard Limit 5,000-8,000 ppm 12% 149F 325F 30 ft

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Design Fire Scenarios


No Modify Design or Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Develop Design Fire Scenarios


Possible Fire Scenarios Building Characteristics Occupant Characteristics Fire Characteristics Design Fire Scenarios Building Characteristics Occupant Characteristics Design Fire Curves Evaluate Candidate Designs

Develop Candidate Designs

Identify Possible Design Fire Scenarios


Possible Fire Scenarios Building Characteristics Occupant Characteristics Fire Characteristics Architectural Features Structural Components Fire Protection Systems Building Services/Processes Operational Characteristics Fire Department Response Environmental Factors

Building Characteristics

Building Characteristics

Building Characteristics

Occupant Characteristics
Human behavior Response characteristics Evacuation times

Design Fire
3000
Sofa

2500 Heat Release Rate (Btu/s)


Steady Fire

Steady and Medium Fire

2000

1500

1000
Medium Fire Kiosk

500

200

400

600 Time (seconds)

800

1000

1200

Design Fire
Smoke Yield (kg/kg)1 Heat of Combustion (Btu/lbm)2 13,030
2Tewarson[1995] 3Babrauskas

Carbon Dioxide Yield (lbm/lbm)2 1.9


[1986]

Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio (lbm/lbm)3 0.16

0.013
1Nelson

[1990]

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Developing Trial Designs

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Developing Trial Designs


Consider context in which the design will be evaluated Select features that achieve performance criteria

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief


Developed by engineer and presented to stakeholders Documents agreements between stakeholders prior quantitative analysis

Form of the Design Brief


Formal submittal Meeting minutes

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Evaluating Trial Designs

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Evaluating Trial Designs


Process of determining if a trial design meets the performance criteria in the design fire scenarios Trial design(s) tested against design fire scenarios

Evaluating Trial Designs


Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives

Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria? Yes Select Final Design

Atrium Smoke Control


Fire Models Hand Calculations CFAST CFD

Final Design

Atrium Smoke Control


Given fire produces the same amount of particulate Amount of smoke increases because of air entrainment

V = 20.8 Qc H
3

+ 3.98Qc

Atrium Smoke Control


Air Air Air Air
Air entrained into plume H2

Fire

Atrium Smoke Control


1 Volume of S 2 50 Particulate in S1 = Particulate in S 2 Volume of S1

Dilute Smoke = S2

Dense Smoke = S1 10 ft

100 ft

Atrium Smoke Control


Smoke

Roof Garden

Estimated Layer Decent Time 2-3 minutes Estimated Smoke Properties:


CO concentration O2 Temperature Visibility ~100 ppm ~20.5% <100F 1,500 ft.

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Developing Performance

Select the Final Design

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

Performance Based Design Approach (Final Design)


Passive smoke control in atrium
Use

of large ceiling as smoke reservoir Verification of tenability (computer modeling) Manual vents provided

Atrium Smoke Control


Solution Control fuel loads in atrium Verify occupant tenability
Fire/smoke

modeling Timed egress analysis

Owner/insurance acceptance of increased property risk

Atrium Smoke Control


Results Untenable conditions do not occur for at least 20 min. Total bldg. evacuation (including safety factor 2.0) in less than 20 min. Analysis demonstrates occupants not exposed to hazard prior to egress

Atrium Smoke Control


Other design features Fire department venting Building owner accepts risk of possible property damage due to smoke migration

PBD Process
Defining Project Scope Identifying Goals Design Brief Defining Objectives

Performance-Based Design Report

Developing Performance

Developing Design Fire

Developing Trial Design(s)

Evaluating Trial Design(s)

No Modify Design or Objectives Selected Design Meets Performance Criteria Yes Select Final Design Performance Based Design Report (Chapter 12)

Prepare Design Documentation

Specifications, Drawings, and Operations and Maintenance Manual

PBD Report

Formal submittal
Details

of approach Evaluation Results

Other Documentation

Drawings and specs prepared by


Architect Design

engineers

Summary / Conclusions
Process in SFPE Guide works Specific application for smoke control Used for other features also

Summary / Conclusions

Questions