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Arecibo Observatory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coordinates: 18°20′39″N 66°45′10″W
The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, USA. This observatory is operated by SRI International, USRA and UMET, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). This observatory is also called the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, although "NAIC" refers to both the observatory and the staff that operates it. The observatory's 1,000 ft (305 m) radio telescope is the world's largest single-aperture telescope. It is used in three major areas of research: radio astronomy, aeronomy, and radar astronomy. Scientists who want to use the telescope submit proposals that are evaluated by an independent scientific board. The telescope has made appearances in motion picture and television productions and got more recognition in 1999 when it began to collect data for the SETI@home project. It has been listed on the American National Register of Historic Places beginning in 2008. It was the featured listing
Arecibo Radio Telescope
Aerial view of the Observatory Organization SRI International USRA UMET Arecibo, Puerto Rico, USA electromagnetic spectrum: (3.00 cm to 1.00 meter) completed in 1963 1,000 ft (300 m)
Location Wavelength Built Diameter
Telescope style spherical reflector Collecting area 73,000 square metres (790,000 sq ft) Mounting semi-transit telescope: fixed primary with secondary (Gregorian reflector) and a delayline feed, each of which moves on tracks to point to different parts of the sky. none
00 for adults and $6. Website www.000 m2) Gordon.1 The Arecibo message 4. Historic district Contents 1 Ángel Ramos Foundation Visitor Center 2 General information 3 Design and architecture 4 Research and discoveries 4. Ángel Ramos Foundation Visitor Center Governing body: Federal NRHP Reference#: 07000525 Added to NRHP: September Opened in 1997.naic. National Register of Historic Places U.C.S. 2008. William E.S.2 Other uses 5 Funding issues 6 In popular culture 7 Arecibo Observatory Directors 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Coordinates: Area: Architect: 18°20′39″N 66°45′10″W 118 acres (480. with additional opening hours on many holidays and school breaks. astronomy.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory . en. Kavanaugh. the owner of the El Mundo newspaper and the founder of Telemundo. the admission fee is $10. the Ángel Ramos Foundation 23.naic.edu) National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center U.Wikipedia. and atmospheric science. 2008 Visitor Center features interactive exhibits and displays about the operations of the radio telescope.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 2/17 . with the rest coming from private donations and from Cornell University.wikipedia. It is normally open Wednesday-Sunday. The center is named after the financial foundation that honors Ángel Ramos. This foundation provided half of the money to build the visitors center. The center was named an IEEE Milestone in 2001. T. the free encyclopedia in the National Park Service's weekly list of October 3. As of 2012.edu (http://www.00 for seniors and children under 10.
not a parabolic reflector. This design would have limited its use in other areas of research.5 TW (pulse peak) at 430 MHz. one 110 m (365 ft) high and the other two 80 m (265 ft) high.Wikipedia. though the round trip light time to objects beyond Saturn is longer than the time the telescope can track it. called the azimuth arm. Ward Low of the en. the free encyclopedia General information The main collecting dish is 1. the receiver is moved to intercept signals reflected from different directions by the spherical dish surface.000 ft (305 m) in diameter.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 3/17 . giving Arecibo the largest electromagnetic-wave-gathering capacity. 2. A parabolic mirror would have varying astigmatism when the receiver is off the focal point. The dish surface is made of 38. The telescope has three radar transmitters. Gordon of Cornell University. preventing radar observations of more distant objects. which require the ability to point at different positions in the sky and to track those positions for an extended period as Earth rotates. Puerto Rico's location near the equator allows Arecibo to view all of the planets in the Solar System.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory . constructed inside the depression left by a karst sinkhole. placing their tops at the same elevation.wikipedia. each about 3 by 6 feet (1 by 2 m). with effective isotropic radiated powers of 20 TW at 2380 MHz. such as planetary science and radio astronomy. The receiver is on a 900-ton platform suspended 150 m (500 ft) above the dish by 18 cables running from three reinforced concrete towers. who intended to use it to study Earth's ionosphere.778 perforated aluminum panels. To aim the telescope. supported by a mesh of steel cables. Design and architecture The Arecibo telescope was built between mid-1960 and November 1963. carrying the receiving antennas and secondary and tertiary reflectors. pointing in a fixed direction with a 150 m (500 ft) tower to hold equipment at the focus. by William E. Originally. but the error of a spherical mirror is the same in every direction. The telescope is a spherical reflector of radius 870 ft. This allows the telescope to observe any region of the sky in a forty-degree cone of visibility about the local zenith (between −1 and 38 degrees of declination). a fixed parabolic reflector was envisioned. It contains the largest curved focusing dish on Earth. and 300 MW at 47 MHz. The platform has a 93-meter-long rotating bow-shaped track.
The RFP suggested a tripod or a tower in the center to support the feed. New York. and the entire feed could be lowered and raised if a hurricane were present. having along its edge a rail track for the azimuthal positioning of the feed. Cornell University and Zachary Sears published a request for proposals (RFP) asking for a design to support a feed moving along a spherical surface 435 feet (133 m) above the stationary reflector. and the azimuth arm rotates beneath it. and studied the idea of suspending the feed with his brother. A counter-weight would move symmetrically opposite to the feed for stability. and put Gordon in touch with the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL) in Boston. the most important area of the reflector. To the left is the Gregorian sub-reflector. George Doundoulakis. The arc also had rails on which the unit supporting the feed would move for the elevational positioning of the feed. received the RFP from Cornell University for the antenna design. A second truss. in the form of an arc. Gordon had also envisioned a 435 ft (133 m) tower centered in the 1. and devised a better approach by suspending the feed. The triangular platform at the top is fixed. . where one group headed by Phil Blacksmith was working on spherical reflectors and another group was studying the propagation of radio waves in and through the upper atmosphere. Helias Doundoulakis designed the cable suspension system which was finally adopted. the free encyclopedia Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) pointed out this flaw. who directed Internal Design at Digital B & E Corporation.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 4/17 steering mechanism and some antennas.000 ft (300 m) reflector to support the A detailed view of the beamfeed. Cornell University proposed the project to ARPA in mid-1958 and a contract was signed between the AFCRL and the University in November 1959.wikipedia. Helias Doundoulakis. which would rotate on the rails through 360 degrees. Massachusetts. Although the present configuration is substantially the same as the original en.Wikipedia. and to the right is the 96-foot-long (29 m) line feed tuned to 430 MHz. was to be suspended below. At Cornell University on the day the project for the design and construction of the antenna was announced. New York. or arch. He presented his proposal to Cornell for a doughnut truss suspended by four cables from four towers above the reflector. Just visible at the upper right is part of the rectangular waveguide that brings the 2. George Doundoulakis identified the problem that a tower or tripod would have presented around the center. who directed research at General Bronze Corporation in Garden City. a civil engineer.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .5 MW 430 MHz radar transmitter's signal up to the focal region. along with Zachary Sears.
William J. 1964. In 1974 a high-precision surface consisting of thousands of individually adjustable aluminum panels replaced the old wire mesh. and until the discovery of PSR J1748-2446ad in 2005. with the official opening on November 1.400 MHz transmitter was installed. covering the whole 1–10 GHz range. its focus is along a line rather than at a single point (as would be the case for a parabolic reflector). an accomplishment for which they later received the Nobel Prize in Physics. en. Construction began in mid-1960. Michael Davis.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .000 MHz. This object spins 642 times per second. A Gregorian reflector system was installed in 1997. but only 59 days. the free encyclopedia drawings by George and Helias (though with three towers instead of the original four). 1963.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 5/17 . This allowed the installation of a suite of receivers. complicated line feeds had to be used to carry out observations. The telescope has been upgraded several times. Shrinivas Kulkarni. a ground screen was installed around the perimeter to block the ground's thermal radiation from reaching the feed antennas. the U. Backer. PSR B1937+21. Carl Heiles. Initially. Gordon Pettengill's team used it to determine that the rotation rate of Mercury was not 88 days. incorporating secondary and tertiary reflectors to focus radio waves at a single point.S. the surface consisted of half-inch galvanized wire mesh laid directly on the support cables. it was the fastest-spinning pulsar known. and a more powerful 2. In 1974. Hulse and Taylor discovered the first binary pulsar PSR B1913+16. Patent office granted Helias a patent for the brothers' innovative idea. In 1982. therefore. giving Arecibo more flexibility. In 1968. as previously thought. was discovered by Donald C. that could be easily moved onto the focal point. Each line feed covered a narrow frequency band (2–5% of the center frequency of the band) and a limited number of line feeds could be used at any one time.wikipedia. shortly after it began operations. was also an assignee on the patent. the first millisecond pulsar. later to be the director of the Central Intelligence Agency under President Ronald Reagan.Wikipedia. At the same time. Casey. Research and discoveries Many scientific discoveries have been made using the Arecibo telescope. As the primary dish is spherical. and the highest usable frequency was raised to about 5. and Miller Goss. limiting the flexibility of the telescope. when the maximum expected operating frequency was about 500 MHz. On April 7. the discovery of the periodicity of the Crab Pulsar (33 milliseconds) by Lovelace and others provided the first solid evidence that neutron stars exist.
6/17 . Arecibo is the source of data for the SETI@home and Astropulse distributed computing projects put forward by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California. the free encyclopedia In August 1989.wikipedia.000 lightyears away. the observatory directly imaged an asteroid for the first time in history: 4769 Castalia. detection of prebiotic molecules methanimine and hydrogen cyanide were reported from Arecibo Observatory radio spectroscopy measurements of the distant starburst galaxy Arp 220.679 bit pattern of 1s and 0s defined a 23 by 73 pixel bitmap image that included numbers. Polish astronomer Aleksander Wolszczan made the discovery of pulsar PSR B1257+12. The following year.The telescope also has had military intelligence uses. among them. In January 2008. The Einstein@Home distributed computing project has discovered more than 20 pulsars in Arecibo data. the Arecibo message. The Arecibo message Main article: Arecibo message In 1974. The actual binary transmission carried no color information. Berkeley and was used for the SETI Institute's Project Phoenix observations. In 1994. stick figures. These were the first extra-solar planets discovered.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .Wikipedia. was transmitted from the radio telescope toward the globular cluster M13.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory The Arecibo message with added color to highlight the separate parts. Other uses Terrestrial aeronomy experiments at Arecibo have included the Coqui 2 experiment. John Harmon used the Arecibo radio telescope to map the distribution of ice in the poles of Mercury. an attempt to communicate with potential extraterrestrial life. and a crude image of the telescope itself. locating Soviet radar installations by detecting their signals bouncing off the Moon. chemical formulas. which were supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). which later led him to discover its three orbiting planets and a possible comet. en. The 1. about 25.
José Enrique Serrano. At town hall meetings about the potential closure. The Governor of Puerto Rico signed the measure into law in August 2008. on the first day of a special session called by Aníbal Acevedo Vilá. These funds were made available in the second half of 2009. showcase the broad impact and far-reaching implications of the science currently carried out with this unique instrument. recommended substantially decreased astronomy funding for Arecibo Observatory. NASA gradually eliminated its share of the planetary radar funding at Arecibo from 2001 thorough 2006.S. They established the Arecibo Science Advocacy Partnership (ASAP). reducing the time available for other scientific work. which was meant to advance the scientific excellence of Arecibo Observatory research and to publicize its accomplishments in astronomy. en. asked the National Science Foundation to keep Arecibo in operation in a letter published on September 19. aeronomy and planetary radar. pending inclusion in the next bond issue.0 million appropriation. the observatory would close. a member of the U.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 7/17 . was approved by the Senate of Puerto Rico on November 14. the free encyclopedia Funding issues A report by the division of Astronomical Sciences of the National Science Foundation. Puerto Rican Senate President Kenneth McClintock announced an initial local appropriation of $3. 2007. 2007. If other sources of money cannot be obtained.Wikipedia. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee. the broad scientific community.0 million in 2011. ASAP's goals include mobilizing the existing broad base of support for Arecibo science within the fields it serves directly. Academics and researchers responded by organizing to protect and advocate for the observatory. provide a forum for the Arecibo research community and enhance communication within it.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .wikipedia. but are controversial and uncertain. The Puerto Rico House of Representatives repeated this action on June 30.0 million during fiscal year 2008 to fund a major maintenance project to restore the three pillars that hold up the antenna platform to their original condition. with the $3. promote the potential of Arecibo for groundbreaking science. made public on 2006-11-03. 2008. ramping down from $10. suggest the paths that will maximize it into the foreseeable future.5 million in 2007 to $4. Contributions by the government of Puerto Rico may be one way to help fill the funding gap. The report also advised that 80 percent of the observation time be allocated to the surveys already in progress. The bond authorization.
in support of full federal funding of the observatory. was still very much alive.1 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. new Klystron amplifiers for the planetary radar system. Senate in April 2008 by the junior Senator from New York. The SETI@home program is using the telescope as a primary source for the research. direct donations by private or corporate donors cannot be made.S. Since the Arecibo observatory is owned by the Government of the United States. The Planetary Society urged the U. filed legislation to assure the continued operation of the observatory.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory . much smaller. antenna to be used for very long baseline interferometry. The NAIC received $3. In July 2008. as non-profit (501(c)(3)) "public charities" under US law. the NSF clarified the status of the budget for NAIC. Puerto Rico's then-Resident Commissioner. The program is urging people to send a letter to their political representatives. A similar bill was filed in the U. In November 2007. In October 2007.wikipedia. the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph reported that the funding crisis. Hillary Clinton. and this was used for basic maintenance and for a second. the free encyclopedia Language similar to that in the letter of September 19 was included in the FY-2008 omnibus spending bill. deflection of a near-Earth asteroid on collision to Earth).S. along with Dana Rohrabacher. and for student training. This allotment was an increase of en. No mention of private funding was made. in an open letter to researchers. Cornell University and subsequently SRI International can accept contributions on behalf of the Arecibo Observatory.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 8/17 . However. it need be noted that the NSF is undertaking studies to mothball or demolish the observatory to return it to its natural setting in the event that its budget target is not reached.Wikipedia. However. stating that the present plan could hit the targeted budgetary revision. Luis Fortuño. Also in November of that year The New York Times described the consequences of the budget cuts at the site. In September 2007. should that be necessary. The Planetary Society believes that continued operation of the observatory will reduce the cost of mitigation (that is. due to federal budget cuts. Congress to prevent the Arecibo Observatory from closing because of insufficient funding since its radar contributes greatly to the accuracy of predictions of asteroid impacts on the Earth.
However. the free encyclopedia around 30 percent over the FY-2009 budget. NASA implemented this funding through its Near Earth Object Observations program." The Arecibo Observatory is featured at the end of James Burke's TV series Connections in Part 3 "Distant Voices. The 2011 NSF budget was reduced by a further $1.0 million reduction projected by FY-2014. At that time. where the main character uses the facility as part of a SETI project. Fox Mulder was sent to the Arecibo Observatory in The X-Files episode "Little en. and thus of the Arecibo Observatory.5 percent) over the FY-2009 budget) in light of their continued plans to reduce funding. Beginning in FY2010. with a further $1. the FY-2010 funding request by NSF was cut by $1. with a number of other collaborators. 2011.6 million. with the stated goal of providing the NAIC with greater freedom to establish broader scientific partnerships and pursue funding opportunities for activities beyond the scope of those supported by the NSF. NSF also decertified NAIC as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). Also in 2010.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 9/17 . On May 12.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .0 million per year for planetary science. −15 percent compared to 2010. the agency informed Cornell University that it would no longer be the operator of the NAIC.wikipedia. at Arecibo.2 million (−12." Arecibo Observatory was used as a filming location in the climax of the James Bond movie GoldenEye and as a level in the accompanying Nintendo 64 videogame GoldenEye 007. along with two other managing partners. particularly the study of near-Earth objects. 2011. and similarly ended the plot at the Arecibo Observatory The film Contact features Arecibo. Upon the award of the new cooperative agreement for NAIC management and operation. Cornell transferred its operations to SRI International. as of October 1. In popular culture The Arecibo Observatory was featured on Cosmos: A Personal Voyage in Part 12 "Encyclopaedia Galactica.Wikipedia. Universities Space Research Association and Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico. NASA began contributing $2. Season 2 episode 22 of the cartoon Jackie Chan Adventures featured a spoof of the James Bond movie GoldenEye. the NSF issued a call for new proposals for the management of NAIC beginning in FY-2012.
Arecibo Observatory also featured in the action movie The Losers (2010)..D.D.D.. Songwriter and author Jimmy Buffett mentions the "giant telescope" in his book Where Is Joe Merchant?. Leiden University) 1992–2003. Cornell University) 1981–1987. Sixto A. Harold D.. the Robert J.com) The Arecibo Observatory was featured in an episode Covert Affairs called "Loving the Alien" as a stand-in for the Lourdes SIGINT Station.Wikipedia. Dr. Cornell University) 1965–1966. (Ph. the James Gunn novel The Listeners (1972).D. Gordon (Ph. Lustmord.. Cornell University) 1988–1989 (interim) Dr. Brandeis University) 2003–2006.. Arecibo Observatory Directors 1963–1965. and Little Boots have all released albums named Arecibo. Dr. In the video game Just Cause 2 there is a large radio observatory called PAN MILSAT that is very similar in appearance to Arecibo Observatory. (interim 2008) Dr. The observatory is featured in the film Species. University of California at San Diego) 2007–2008. Daniel R. University of Oslo) 1973–1981.D. University of Michigan) 2008–2011.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 10/17 . University of Arizona) 2011–present. Tor Hagfors (Ph. Dr. Davis (Ph. Donald B.wikipedia. González (Ph. Gordon Pettengill (Ph. Michael C. Nolan (Ph. Campbell (Ph...D.D. (http://areciboradio.. and the Mary Doria Russell novel The Sparrow. The musicians Boxcutter. Kerr (Ph.. Dr. UC Berkeley) 1971–1973. Robert B. Dr. Dr. Kerr (Ph. Dr. University of Michigan) See also en.. John W. Craft Jr.. the free encyclopedia Green Men"..D. Frank Drake (Ph.. Dr. University of Bologna) 1988–1992.D. Hankins (Ph.D. Utah State University) 2006–2007 (interim) Dr. Timothy L. Sawyer novel Rollback.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .. Findlay (Ph. Internet radio station Arecibo Radio is named after the observatory.D. Robert B. and in the lyrics to the song "Desdemona's Building A Rocket Ship". Dr. William E. Altschuler (Ph. Riccardo Giovanelli (Ph. Harvard University) 1968–1970.D.D. Dr. Dr. Michael M..D. University of Cambridge) 1966–1968.D.
ieeeghn.edu/releases/Jan03/NAIC.cornell. Gordon. National Park Service. IEEE Global History Network. Science.sri.news. 3.com/newsroom/press-releases/sri-international-selected-national-sciencefoundation-manage-arecibo-observ) (Press release). Retrieved 2013-07-10. the free encyclopedia Air Force Research Laboratory List of radio telescopes Sixto A. former director of the Arecibo Observatory (2003–2006) William E. SRI International.nps.org/wiki/index. Yudhijit (20 May 2011). Cornell University.pdf).gov/history/nr/feature/weekly_features/IonosphereCenter.sciencemag. 1963" (http://www. 8. ^ David Brand (21 January 2003).html). Archived (http://web.director. Retrieved 2012-01-11.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory . ^ "Ángel Ramos Foundation Visitor's Center Schedule and Hours" (http://www.nps.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=162:vcdescription&catid=107&Itemid=638).org/web/20091202223221/http://www. 2007). 2011.htm). Helias Doundoulakis UPRM Planetarium References 1. Retrieved October 21. 7. IEEE. "New Consortium to Run Arecibo Observatory" (http://news.nps. 9. National Park Service. former director of the Arecibo Observatory (1971–1973) and also of NAIC (October 1982 to September 1992).archive. González. (72 pages. "Weekly List Actions" (http://www._1963). Retrieved 2008-10-03.gov/history/nr/nrlist.nsf. "National Register of Historic Places Registration: National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center / Arecibo Observatory" (http://www. 2012.php/Milestones:NAIC/Arecibo_Radiotelescope. ^ Bhattacharjee.htm) from the original on December 02 2009. leader in telescope development. ^ a b "NSF request for proposals issued in 2010" (http://www.pdf) (PDF). Arecibo Observatory" (http://www. Retrieved April 21. 2.HTM). Retrieved 2011-09-02.deb. ^ a b "SRI International to Manage Arecibo Observatory" (http://www. ^ a b National Park Service (3 October 2008). 5.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 11/17 . named to head NAIC and its main facility.wikipedia. founder and first director of the observatory (AIO 1963– 1965) Tor Hagfors. 2009. en. Retrieved October 21. 2013-07-10.nps.gov/history/nr/nrlist.org/scienceinsider/2011/05/new-consortium-to-run-areciboob.edu/general/index.naic. 2009. ^ Juan Llanes Santos (March 20.html). "Astrophysicist Robert Brown. ^ "Milestones:NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope.gov/history/nr/listings/20081003. Retrieved July 29.gov/pubs/2010/nsf10562/nsf10562. 4. with many historic b&w photos and 18 color photos) 6.Wikipedia. ^ "Weekly List Actions" (http://www.
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Retrieved July 19. Radio Telescope having a scanning feed supported by a cable suspension over a stationary reflector" (http://patft.bpf.naic.telegraph.edu/science/new12m_antenna_arecibo. (1997-11-14).uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/2291068/Threatto-world%27s-most-powerful-radio-telescope-means-we-may-not-hear-ET.wikipedia.jsp?pims_id=5652) retrieved 2013 Apr 6 ^ "3.pdf) retrieved 2011 July 7 ^ "SRI International to manage Arecibo Observatory" (http://www. Cornell University.news.planetary. including an experiment from Cornell. 28 June 2010.nsf. Daily Telegraph.org/programs/projects/advocacy_and_education/space_adv en. Cornell Chronicle. 44.html). are scheduled for launch into the ionosphere next year from Puerto Rico" (http://www. 46. 47. Retrieved 2010 Feb. Retrieved 2012-01-11.html). Blaine P.edu/arecibo_letter. 2008 ^ "12-m Phase Reference Antenna" (http://www.cornell.edu/releases/Nov97/CoquiII. ^ "Management and Operation of the NAIC" (http://www.co.S. the free encyclopedia 43.edu. 3 June 2011. Amir Alexander (July 3.pdf) p. Retrieved 2012-05-11. 35–38.156 (1966-09-13) Helias Doundoulakis. 50. "Budget Cuts Threaten Arecibo Observatory" (http://www.Wikipedia. Carmelo (1998-03-03).gov/media/medialibrary/2010/04/27/NASAsupport_to_Planetary_Rada r. 2008 ^ "Save Arecibo: Write to Congress" (http://setiathome. "Threat to world's most powerful radio telescope means we may not hear ET" (http://www.nsf. 2008). Global Network Against Weapons and Nuclear Power in Space.htm).globenet. November 20. 51.&OS=PN/3273156&RS=PN/3273156). Further reading Friedlander. Patent Office. Ruiz. Jr. 2007 ^ Jacqui Goddard.uk/actions/prico2.gov/about/budget/fy2011/pdf/22-Facilities_fy2011. 48. 2009 ^ a b "Major multi-user research facilities" (http://www.edu/stories/June11/AreciboStmt.news. Naic.nasa. "Activists protest US Navy radar project" (http://www. 49.free-online.html).co. 10 ^ "NASA Support to Planetary Radar" (http://science.berkeley. Retrieved May 26.273. July 12. "Research rockets.uspto.nsf. ^ "FY2010 Budget Request to Congress" (http://www. U.gov/about/budget/fy2010/toc.gov/funding/pgm_summ.php). 45.PN.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .gov/netacgi/nph-Parser? Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html).h tm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3273156. Times.cornell.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 15/17 .jsp).
berkeley.clintons.ssl.org/wiki/Arecibo_Observatory 16/17 .nps. "Arecibo joins global network to create 6.000-mile (9. 2008).php? title=Arecibo_Observatory&oldid=566928267" Categories: Historic districts in Puerto Rico Buildings and structures completed in 1963 Astronomical observatories in Puerto Rico Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmarks National Register of Historic Places in Puerto Rico National Science Foundation Radio telescopes Search for extraterrestrial intelligence Science museums in Puerto Rico University museums in Puerto Rico en. the free encyclopedia ocacy/20080703.com/2007/12/25/science/25obtele._1963) Lofar (http://www. The Planetary Society.700 km) telescope" (http://www. 2008). EurekAlert. 2007).naic. Blaine Friedlander (June 10. New York Times. Cornell university.org) Letter to save Arecibo Observatory (http://setiathome.gov/history/nr/feature/weekly_features/IonosphereCenter.eurekalert.Wikipedia.org) Angel Ramos Foundation Visitor Center (http://www. former president urges more federal funding for basic sciences" (http://www. Entry into the National Register of Historic Places (http://www.php) Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/index.edu/outreach/describe_fset.php).pdf) External links Arecibo Observatory (http://www.ieeeghn.edu/arecibo_letter.html).lofar.edu) Arecibo Science Advocacy Partnership (http://areciboscience.php/Milestones:NAIC/Arecibo_Radiotelesco pe. "Clintons (minus Hillary) visit Arecibo.edu) IEEE History Center – IEEE Milestones: NAIC/Arecibo Radiotelescope (http://www.wikipedia.org/pub_releases/200806/cuc-ajg061008.wikipedia.news.nytimes.berkeley.html). Lauren Gold (June 5.htm) SETI@home (http://setiathome.naic. Henry Fountain (December 25.nl) The Arecibo Observatory Contributions Site (http://arecibo-observatory.org/w/index.cornell.edu/stories/June08/arecibo. "Arecibo Radio Telescope Is Back in Business After 6-Month Spruce-Up" (http://www.8/2/13 Arecibo Observatory .html).
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