The Blue Cliff Record
Setcho Juken

Hekiganroku (E. The blue cliff record, C. Pi-yen-lu)
A collection of 100 koans originally compiled, with appreciatory verses, by Setcho Juken (C. Hsüeh-tou Ch'ung-hsien) under a name of the 'Priest Hsüeh-tou 's Capping Verses on One Hundred Cases'. Although it is a text of fundamental importance for koan study in the Rinzai School it was also studied by Eihei Dogen, the founder of the japanese Soto school, who on the return from Zen studies in China brought with him to Japan a handwritten copy of the document. Hekiganroku - Case 1: Bodhidharma's "Clear and Void" Emperor Bu of Ryo [1] asked Great Master Bodhidharma, "What is the highest meaning of the holy reality?" Bodhidharma replied, "Clear and void, no holiness." The emperor said, "Who are you in front of me?" Bodhidharma said, "I don't know." The emperor did not match him. Finally, Bodhidharma crossed the Yangtse River and came to the kingdom of Gi. Later, the emperor asked Shiko for his view. Shiko said, "Does Your Majesty know who this man is?" The emperor said, "I don't know." Shiko said, "He is the Mahasattwa Avalokitesvara transmitting the seal of Buddha's Mind." The emperor regretted and wanted to send an emissary to invite Bodhidharma back. Shiko said, "Your Majesty, do not intend to send an emissary to fetch him back. Even if all the people in the land were to go after him, he would not return." [1]: Emperor Bu reigned over the land of Ryo between 502-509 Hekiganroku - Case 2: Joshu's "Supreme Way" Joshu, instructing the assembly, said, "The supreme Way is not difficult; it simply dislikes choosing [1]. But even if a word is uttered, it is already an action of 'choosing' or of adhering to 'clarity'. This old monk [2] doesn't dwell in clarity. Do you monks want to keep a firm hold on 'clarity' or not?" At that time a monk asked,

"You say you do not dwell in clarity. If so, what is there to keep a firm hold on?" Joshu said, "I don't know, either." The monk said, "If you, Master, don't know, why do you say that you don't dwell in clarity?" Joshu said, "You have already asked amply. Bow and withdraw." [1]: Cf. the beginning of the Shinjinmei (Believing in the Mind; Poem composed by the third Patriarch Sosan): "The supremet Way is not difficult; it simply dislikes choosing. Only if there is no love or hatred, all is complete clarity." [2]: "this old monk" i.e. "I" Hekiganroku - Case 3: Master Ba Is Ill Great Master Ba was seriously ill. The chief priest of the temple asked him, "Master, how are you feeling these days?" Great Master said, "Sun-face Buddha, Moon-face Buddha" [1]. [1]: The "Sun-face Buddha" is a buddha, who is said to have a life of 1800 years, while the "Moon-face Buddha" lives only 24 hours. Case 4: Tokusan with His Bundle Tokusan arrived at Isan. Carrying his bundle under his arm, he stepped into the Dharma hall. He walked across it from east to west and from west to east. Looking around he said, "None, none!" and went out. (Setcho [1] commented: "Seen through!") But when he got to the entrance gate, Tokusan said, "Still, I shouldn't be so hasty." So, he dressed formally and entered again to meet Isan. As Isan sat at his place, Tokusan held up his sitting cloth in a ceremonial manner and said, "Master!" Isan was about to take his whisk, when suddenly Tokusan shouted, "Kaatz!" Then he flourished his sleeves and went out. (Setcho commented: "Seen through!") Turning his back on the Dharma hall, Tokusan put on his straw sandals and left. In the evening, Isan asked the head monk, "Where is the newcomer who was here a while ago?" The head monk said, "He soon turned his back on the Dharma hall, put on his straw sandals and went away." Isan said, "One day that fellow

"When you pick up the whole earth in your fingers. [2]: According to the popular belief a great criminal should lose his eyebrows as a sign of his coming punishment in hell. "You are Echo. Echo. [3]: Literally kan means "barrier" (cf." Case 7: Echo Asks about Buddha A monk asked Hogen. said. saying. Like in a black lacquer bucket. my brothers. "All summer I've preached to you. and scold the buddhas and abuse the patriarchs. ask you. "Watch out!" or "There!" . you don't recognize it any more. "Kan!" [3] [1]: Summer-sesshin for 3 months. "I. Master. [2]: In Japanese: hossu i. giving instruction. a stick with a flexible whisk on top Hekiganroku .") [1]: Setcho Zenji is the compiler of the Hekiganroku.Case 5: Seppo's "Grain of Rice" Seppo. I cast it down before you." (Setcho commented: "Piling up frost on top of snow." Case 8: Suigan's "Eyebrows" Towards the end of summer [1]. teaching the assembly. "I don't ask you about before the fifteenth day. "The robber's heart is terrified!" Chokei said. call everyone to look for it!" Hekiganroku . bring me a phrase about after the fifteenth day. Beat the drum." Unmon himself answered in the monks' stead. it's the size of a grain of rice. In those days this Chinese word colloquially meant also.will build a grass hut upon a lonely peak. Suigan instructed the assembly. are Suigan's eyebrows still there? [2]" Hofuku said. Mumonkan).e. "They are well grown!" Unmon said. said. What is Buddha?" Hogen said. "Every day is a good day. Look here.Case 6: Unmon's "Good Day" Unmon.

"What is Joshu?" [1] Joshu said. "What would you say to the fact that in various places there are people who accept students and direct their assemblies?" Obaku said. "Kaatz!" Bokushu said. instructing the assembly. north gate. near which he taught. "Where have you come from?" At once the monk shouted. If you continue to go on your Way like this. south gate. "What is Buddha?" Tozan said. I only say that there is no master. "You idiot!" Case 11: Obaku's "Drinkers of Lees" Obaku. Bokushu hit him saying. "Kaatz!" Bokushu said. "You are all drinkers of lees. west gate. case 18 of the Mumonkan [2]: In Japanese: masagin .Hekiganroku . "Three pounds of hemp." [2] [1]: cf. "The old monk has been scolded by you with a 'Kaatz'!" The monk shouted again. where will the 'Today' [The world of nirvana] be? Do you know that in this great empire of Tang there is no Zen master?" Now a monk came forward and said. "I don't say that there is no Zen. then what?" The monk was silent.Case 12: Tozan's "Three Pounds of hemp" [1] A monk asked Tozan. Case 10: Bokushu's "Idiot" Bokushu asked a monk." [1]: The name of the Zen Master Joshu is taken from the city "Joshu". "East gate. "After three or four shouts of 'Kaatz'." Hekiganroku .Case 9: Joshu's Four Gates A monk asked Joshu. said.

] Hekiganroku . "What would you wish me to do after a hundred years ?" [2] The national teacher said. "I am tired from sitting for a long time." [1]: Cf. the national teacher. people would all laugh. Case 14: Unmon's "Preaching Fittingly" A monk asked Unmon. "I." Hekiganroku . Master." [In Japanese: Tai-issetsu. am picking from inside the shell.Case 18: The National Teacher's Gravestone Emperor Shukuso [1] asked Chu." Kyosei said. please peck from outside." The emperor said. I beg you. "But will you be alive or not?" The monk said. "Preaching in the reverse. "What is the meaning of the Patriarch's coming from the West?" Kyorin said. "Make a seamless gravestone [3] for this old monk. "Heaping up snow in a silver bowl. "What is the teaching of the whole lifetime of Shakyamuni?" Unmon said." Kyosei said. "What is the Deva Sect?" Haryo said. "Preaching one thing. Case 22/a in the Miscellaneous Koans. "If I were not alive. "You fool in the weeds!" Case 17: Kyorin's "Sitting for a Long Time" A monk asked Kyorin.Case 15: Unmon's "Preaching in the Reverse" A monk asked Unmon. your student.Case 13: Haryo's "Silver Bowl" [1] A monk asked Haryo. "What is it that's not the function of the mind in me nor a thing before me?" Unmon said." [1] [1]: In Japanese: Toissetsu Case 16: Kyosei and "Picking and Pecking" A monk asked Kyosei. .

who is well versed with this matter. Master Gutei simply stuck up one finger. "The speech is finished. (Setcho commented. "The sea is peaceful. "A staff. Tangen responded: "The south of the river. "The single hand does not sound without reason. "What is the meaning of the Patriarch's coming from the west?" Suibi said. [1]: see case 3 of the Mumonkan Case 20: Suibi and the Chin Rest Ryuge asked Suibi. "I have a Dharma successor.Case 19: Gutei's One Finger [1] Whatever he was asked about Buddhism. Suibi took it and hit him. "What is the meaning of the Patriarch's coming from the west?" . Let him come to you and ask him about it." Ryuge brought one and gave it to him. It was often made for deceased monks. for a design. Then he said.") In the crystal palace there is no one who knows.") Under the shadowless tree all people are in one boat. After all there is no meaning to the Patriarch's coming from the west." The national teacher said. master. "Did you understand?" The emperor said. "Bring me a chin rest. which fills the whole land.") In between there's gold." After the national teacher passed away."I should like to ask you. "I didn't understand anything. "You may hit me as you like. (Setcho commented. the emperor called Tangen and asked him about the meaning of this." Ryuge also asked Rinzai. north of the lake: (Setcho commented. hewn freshly from the mountain forest." The national teacher remained silent for a long time. [2] after your death [3] an egg-formed gravestone which is made out of a single piece of stone. the river clear. Ryuge said. my disciple Tangen.")" [1] historically speaking it was Emperor Daiso the oldest son and successor of Shukuso. Hekiganroku . (Setcho added.

said. However. Chokei Hekiganroku .e.e. "Right here is the summit of Myo Peak. said." [1] Literally: "Zen board" i. "Lotus flowers. . "Today in the Zen hall there are many people. "What then would you say. "Lotus leaves.Rinzai said. I wouldn't talk like that. "You may hit me as you like. "There's a poisonous snake on the southern side of the mountain. "Why does it have to be 'the southern side of the mountain'?" Unmon threw his staff in front of Seppo and acted frightened. instructing the assembly. Hofuku. "What is it when the lotus has not yet come out of the water?" Chimon said." The monk asked." The monk asked. [2]: i. a narrow board used so as to let one sleep in the sitting posture." Ryuge got one and gave it to Rinzai. [1]: see case 24 of Shoyoroku. After all there is no meaning to the Patriarch's coming from the west. who said. Master"? Gensha replied. pointing with a finger." [1] Chokei said. They have lost their body and life. All of you should look at it carefully!" Chokei said. "What is it after the lotus has come out of the water?" Chimon replied." Hekiganroku . Hekiganroku ." A monk told this to Gensha. "Bring me a sitting cushion. Ryuge said.Case 21: Chimon's "Lotus" A monk asked Chimon. "Only Elder Brother Ryo [2] could say something like that.Case 23: Hofuku and Chokei Go on a Picnic Once Hofuku and Chokei went out on a picnic in the hills. Rinzai took it and hit him.Case 22: Seppo's "Poisonous Snake" [1] Seppo.

paying other people no heed. "When the old ones [2] reached this point. "Old Cow. saying. it's regrettable. the Cow Ryu Tetsuma [1] came to Isan. why didn't they dare to remain here?" The assembly was silent. a Dharma grandson of Unmon Zenji [2] The great Zen personages of old. saying. you have come!" Tetsuma said. "With my staff across my shoulders."Exactly. "If it weren't for the Reverend Son [2]. "Hundreds and thousands of years from now. only that there will be very few. I don't say that there will be none like him. Gotai. Hekiganroku . "After all. saying. "Tomorrow there will be a great feast at Mt Tai [2]. Master?" Isan lay down and stretched himself out. Will you go there. But. "What's the use of making an excursion with these fellows today?" He again said. and. Tetsuma left immediately. the iron grindstone. how is it?" Once more he himself answered in their place." Again he said. Kyosei said." His real name was Sho. which is far away in the northern part of the country. . [1] A famous Zen person.Case 24: Tetsuma. Case 25: The Hermit of Lotus Peak The hermit of Lotus Peak [1] took up his staff and showed it to the assembly. Isan said." [1] Literally: "the Peak of Wonder. they reported to Kyosei about it. Her name means "Ryu. once a student of Isan. He himself answered in their stead. I go straight into the thousand and ten thousand peaks." (Setcho commented saying.") Later." [2] Namely Chokei. "Because that has no power on the Way. you would see only skeletons in the field." [2] More exactly: Mt." [1] Originally "Rengeho.

this is not thing.Case 27: Unmon's "Complete exposure" A monk asked Unmon. How about you. How am I to know whether there is a Dharma that has been preached or that has never been preached?" Nansen said. [1]" [1] The autumn wind was also called "golden wind".Hekiganroku . "This is not mind." Hyakujo said. this is not Buddha. "Sitting alone on Daiyu [1] Peak!" The monk made a deep bow." Nansen said. "That's how it is with me.Case 26: Hyakujo on Daiyu Peak A monk asked Hyakujo. "I have already preached to you fully. "You did preach like that. "I don't understand. where Hyakujo's monastery was located." Hyakujo said. "What is it when the tree withers and the leaves fall?" Unmon answered. Hyakujo asked. Hyakujo thereupon hit him." . "There is. Hekiganroku . "What is the matter of extraordinary wonder?" Hyakujo said. "Complete exposure of the golden wind. Master?" Hyakujo said. Case 28: Nansen's "Dharma That Has Never Been Preached" Nansen went to see Master Hyakujo Nehan." Hyakujo asked. [1] The name of the mountain. "I am not a man of great wisdom. "What is this Dharma that has never been preached to the people?" Nansen said. "Is there any Dharma that the sages of the past have never preached to the people?" Nansen said.

I wonder if 'that' will also be destroyed or not. . the whole universe [1] will be destroyed. "Master Shokei said. "Wrong!") Mayoku then came to Nansen. "Wrong!") Then. Mayoku said.. This is nothing but a whirling of the wind [1]." [1]: one of the four elements in Chinese physics (earth." [1] I. wind). "Right.Case 29: Daizui and the "Kalpa Fire" A monk asked Daizui. will 'that' be gone with the other?" [2] Daizui said. Is it true or not?" Joshu replied. Joshu's monastery was also located in that area.Case 30: Joshu's "Giant Radishes" A monk asked Joshu. In the end. shook the ring-staff and stood there bolt upright. do you say. not right!" (Setcho comments. Master." The monk said. not right!'?" Nansen said." [2] The province of Chin was famous for producing great radishes." Hekiganroku . "If so." [1] Literally: "a billion worlds" [2] The word "the other" means "the universe. fire. He circled Nansen's dais three times. wind is the element of movement. "With Shokei it is right.e. but with you it is not right. 'Not right. "Not right. "I've heard that you personally met Nansen [1]. Shokei said.Hekiganroku . right!' Why. 'Right. that you were a student of Nansen.Case 31: Mayoku Circles Around the Master's Dais Mayoku. air. it will perish.. "When the great kalpa fire is inflamed. shook the ring-staff and stood there bolt upright. right!" (Setcho comments. ". He circled Shokei's dais three times. Hekiganroku . "The province of Chin [2] produces giant radishes. "Gone with the other. came to Shokei. Nansen said.. "Destroyed." Daizui said. with his ring-staff in hand.

"Where have you come from?" Mujaku answered." [1] Manjusri said. "Senior monk Jo! Why don't you make a deep bow?" As he made a deep bow. Jo suddenly attained a great enlightenment. "Because of too much compassion these words have fallen into grasses. I have never been there. "Then you have never been to the mountains at all!" Unmon said. "Chinso has but one eye." [1]: One of the most beautiful and most famous mountains in the southern part of China with many Zen monasteries. "No. [2]: The Goroho Peak. Case 35: Manjusri's "Three Three" Manjusri asked Mujaku. When Shifuku saw him coming. "From Mount Ro. he drew a circle. "It is already straying from the essence that your student has come to you at all. Jo stood there as if rooted to the spot. "How is the Buddhist Dharma in the South maintained?" . "Have you been to the Goroho Peak?" [2] The monk said. A monk standing nearby said. "What is the essence of Buddhism?" Rinzai came down from his seat.Case 32: Jo and the "Essence of Buddhism" A senior monk Jo asked Rinzai.") Case 34: Kyozan's "Not Wandering" Kyozan asked a monk. "Where have you come from?" The monk said. Why do you draw a circle in addition to that?" Thereupon Shifuku closed the door of his room." Kyozan said. Hekiganroku . grabbed him by the lapels. translated as "Five Elder" Peak. Chinso said. is the most noted peak of Mt.Case 33: Chinso Has One Eye National Secretary Chinso went to see Shifuku." [1] Kyozan said. Ro. "From the south. slapped him and thrust him away. (Setcho said.

" Mujaku said. . "Three hundred here. When he returned to the gate. "How many monks are here?" Manjusri said.Mujaku said. I went following the scented grass. and the World of non-materials. "Worldly and Saints live together. the World of materials." Manjusri said.") Case 37: Banzan's "Not One Thing in the Three Worlds" Banzan. five hundred there." The head monk said. giving instruction." (Setcho commented. Where should one seek the mind?" [1]: The World of desires." [1]: The South of China. "Where have you been. "Three three before. Chosa went for a walk in the mountains. said. "Where did you go?" Chosa said. "In the Three Worlds [1]. then came back through the falling flowers. Hekiganroku ." Chosa said. "It sounds very much like a spring mood. dragons and snakes are mixed with each other. "I was out walking about in the mountains. "First. the head monk said. "The monks of this age of the corrupted Dharma are venerating the precepts a little. "I am grateful for that answer. "How is the Buddhist Dharma maintained here?" Manjusri said. namely the region of Konan. "It's better than the autumn dew dropping on the lotus flower." The head monk said. Master?" Chosa said. three three behind. there is not one thing." Mujaku asked Manjusri.Case 36: Chosa Goes Picnicking One day. "How many monks are over there?" Mujaku said.

If it neither goes away nor stays. But. when it stays there. "Buddha's law and the King's law are of the same nature. . Master. Fuketsu shouted "Kaatz!" and said. The Magistrate said." Rohi stood there considering.Hekiganroku . "I have the activities of the iron ox. Fuketsu hit him with his whisk and said. When it goes away. "If you do not make a decision where a decision should be made. I'll check it for you. "Why don't you say anything else. Fuketsu entered the hall [to preach] and said. not to give me the seal. [However." Fuketsu said. "Do you remember what you said? Say something. would it be right to give a seal [of approval] or not?" Then Elder Rohi came up and said. "The heart seal [1] [stamp] of the patriarch [2] resembles the activity of the iron ox [3]. you are inviting disorder.Case 38: Fuketsu's "Heart Seal" When he was staying at the government office of the Province Ei." Rohi tried to say something." Fuketsu descended from the rostrum. alas. "What principle do you see in them?" The Magistrate said." Fuketsu said. Elder?" Rohi was perplexed. Fuketsu hit him again with his whisk. the [impression of the] seal is brought to naught. now I find instead a frog wriggling about in the mud. the [impression of the] seal remains.] I ask you. "I am accustomed to leveling the great ocean through fishing whales.

" Hekiganroku . "What is it if a man who has died a great Death comes back to life?" Tosu said. "What is the Pure Dharma-body [1]?" Unmon said. [2]: Bodhidharma.they don't fall on any other place. "I don't allow walking about in the night." Case 41: Joshu's "Great Death" Joshu asked Tosu. called to Rikuko and said. all things and I are one single body. Hekiganroku . [2]: In Japanese: Kayakuran. "A golden-haired lion. sk. "Beautiful snow-flakes! -. "Flower fence" [2]. "People of our time [1] see these flowers as in a dream. dharmakaya) or one of the three bodies of Buddha." [1]: The body of the ultimate Truth (Jap.e. It actually was a flower fence around a restroom. "Dharma-teacher Jo said.' How wonderful this is!" Nansen pointed at the flowers in the garden. [3]: An "iron ox" is a massive construction which lay at the bottom of the Yellow River. Come in the daylight. It stood against the great stream and protected the area from flood." ." [1]: I. "What if I understand the point that way?" Unmon said.[1]: The form of the heart-mind. Case 40: Nansen and the Flower Minister Rikuko talked with Nansen. The latter ordered ten of his Zen students to see Koji off at the temple gate. 'Heaven and earth and I have one and the same root. Koji pointed to the falling snow in the air and said.Case 39: Unmon's "Garden Fence" A monk asked Unmon. The monk said.Case 42: Ho Koji's "Beautiful Snow" Ho Koji [1] was leaving Yakusan. "you. Rikuko said. hoshin.

who said. "What then would you say. "What is the 'true passing'?" Kasan said. "Why not go to a place where there is neither cold nor heat?" The monk said. "If you name yourself Zen student in such a condition. Koji?" Koji slapped him again and said. I immediately would have made a snowball and threw it against him. "Koji.") [1]: Koji is an honorific for a lay practitioner of Buddhism.it is called 'being next [to the fact]' (rin). He is supposed to be the fearful judge at the entrance of the realm of the dead. "You see with your eyes but you are just like a blind man. how should one avoid them?" Tozan said. [2]: Usually named Emma-Daio (the King of hell Emma). "What kind of place is it where there is neither cold nor heat?" Tozan said. when it is hot. "When it is cold. " A monk stepped forward and asked.At that time there was a student named Zen. "Where then do they fall?" Koji gave him a slap. the cold kills you. When you have passed through these two. Zen said. but you are just like a dumb man. "What is the true Reality?" Kasan said." (Setcho added his comment. it is called 'true passing' (shinka). Case 43: Tozan's "Cold and Heat" A monk asked Tozan. . You speak with your mouth. the heat kills you. "When cold and heat come. Old En [2] will never release you!" Zen said. completing learning -. "Practicing and learning -.Case 44: Kasan's "Beat the Drum" Kasan. "Beat the drum. "At the first words. giving instruction." He asked again.it is called 'hearing' (mon). said." Hekiganroku . don't be so rough." Koji said.

" [1]: The word "Dharma" means here "phenomenon". "all things that exist in the world of phenomena". I made a cloth robe. Hekiganroku . But to express fully the bare substance is difficult. What does the one come down to?" Joshu said. It weighed seven pounds. "To break through [into the world of Essence] may be easy. "What about you.'[1] [But] What does 'Neither Mind nor Buddha'[2] mean?" Kasan said. Hekiganroku . "I was on the brink of losing myself in such delusions about myself. They lose themselves in delusion about themselves and only pursue [outside] objects.Case 45: Joshu's "Cloth Robe" A monk asked Joshu. "I do not ask about the sentence." The monk said. "When someone who knows the ultimate Truth comes.Case 46: Kyosei and the Raindrops Kyosei asked a monk. "Ten thousand Dharmas" means. "Beat the drum!" [1]: Cf." He asked again. 'Mind itself is Buddha." . Master?" Kyosei said." The monk said. "The ten thousand Dharmas [1] come down to one." He asked once more. "What do you mean."Beat the drum." Kyosei said. Case 33 in the Mumonkan. "What is that sound outside?" The monk said. "People live in a topsy-turvy world. 'on the brink of losing myself in such delusions about myself'?" Kyosei said. "Beat the drum. "That is the sound of raindrops. Case 30 in the Mumonkan. therefore. how should we receive him?" Kasan said. [2]: Cf. "When I was living in the Province of Sei.

the "deities who hold up the hearth". tongue. touch. where he offered tea. [2]: Myosho was senior to Ro. "Thousand days of good service -." [1]: (same note as Case 39) The body of the ultimate Truth (Jap.Case 47: Unmon's "Six" A monk asked Unmon. and/or "six functions" (see.Hekiganroku . ear. dharmakaya) or one of the three bodies of Buddha." The minister said. "What is there under the tea hearth?" Ro said. "six objects" (color. The senior monk Ro took up the kettle to serve Myosho [2]. voice. Myosho said. Master?" Myosho said. feel. you have eaten plenty of rice in Shokei Temple." Ro said. taste.all is lost in one morning. "At that moment I would have kicked over the tea hearth. hoshin.Case 48: Tea at Shokei Temple Minister Ô [1] visited Shokei Temple. "These non-human beings [4] wreaked havoc. [3]: The legs of the tea hearth were shaped like demi-gods. sk. body. phenomenon). But Ro overturned the kettle [over the tea hearth]. Or it could be any other "six"-ness. consciousness). "What is the Dharma-body [1]?" Unmon said. The minister saw this and asked the senior monk.. "If they are deities holding up the hearth. [2]: The "Six" means "six roots" (eye." The minister flourished his sleeves and went out. [4]: I. taste. "What would you have said. "Elder Ro. know). Hekiganroku . smell. "The six [2] can't grasp it. "Deities holding up the hearth [3]. .e. odor. why did they overturn the kettle?" Ro said. nose. and yet you are simply a [useless] stump in the field." (Setcho said. hear. He was the abbot of the neighboring temple and was apparently invited to the tea too.") [1]: Minister Ô was a patron of Shokei Temple.

"A great Zen master with 1500 disciples doesn't know how to speak. jumped out. "I" Hekiganroku . When he saw them coming. the monks came to Ganto. He asked them. two monks came to pay their respects. "What is this?" Seppo hung his head and retired into his hermitage.e." [1]: I. "Where have you come from?" The monks said. which means the same thing as the "six objects" (cf. and said. note to Case 47). we visited him." Ganto said. Seppo thrust open the gate of his hermitage with his hands. "Did you ever visit Seppo?" The monks said." Sansho said. "What did he say?" The monks related what had happened." Ganto said. "What is the dust-dust samadhi [1] ?" Unmon said. "The old monk[1] is just too busy with temple affairs. Ganto said. what should it get for food?" Seppo said. "Rice in the bowl.. "When a fish with golden scales has passed through the net." Seppo said." [1]: The word "dust" comes from the expression "six dust particles". Hekiganroku . . "What is this?" The monks also said. Later.Case 49: Sansho's "Net" Sansho asked Seppo. "I will tell you when you have passed through the net. "From Reinan [1]. "Yes. water in the pail. "What else did he say?" The monks said.Case 51: Seppo's "What Is This?" When Seppo was living in a hermitage.Hekiganroku .Case 50: Unmon and the "Dust-Dust Samadhi" A monk asked Unmon.

"For a long time." Joshu said. But now that I've come here. it is just this. "You simply see a log bridge. Ganto said. "Ah." The monk said. I just see a log bridge. Case 52: Joshu's Stone Bridge A monk asked Joshu. "We could not dare to ask you about it. [2]: Seppo and Ganto were both students of Tokusan. he saw wild ducks flying by." [1]: A region in the south. Hyakujo cried out in pain. Hekiganroku .Case 53: Hyakujo and the Wild Ducks When Great Master Ba was walking with Hyakujo. "Why flew away?" . no one under heaven could do anything against him. near which he taught." At the end of the summer practice period the monks came back to this conversation and asked him about its meaning. Case 13 in the Mumonkan. he hung his head and retired into his hermitage. how I regret now that in those days I did not tell him the last word! If I had told it to him." Ganto said." The Great Master said. but he will not die on the same stem. you don't see the stone bridge yet. "It lets donkeys cross. The Great Master said." Ganto said. "Why didn't you ask me about it sooner?" The monk said. it lets horses cross. cf. where Seppo was living at that time. "Seppo was born on the same stem as I [2]. "Where did it go?" Hyakujo said. "They flew away. "Wild ducks." [1]: (same note as case 9) The name of the Zen Master Joshu is taken from the city "Joshu". The Great Master said." The Great Master twisted Hyakujo's nose tip. If you want to know the last word. "What is that?" Hyakujo said."Not a word. the stone bridge of Joshu [1] has echoed in my ears. "What is the stone bridge?" Joshu said.

" . Sekiso said. Zengen tapped on the coffin and said. "Is this life or death?" Dogo said. "Why don't you?" Dogo said. "I am seeking the sacred bones of the late master. "Master. I don't say death. please say it to me right away. If you don't. "What are you doing?" Zengen said." Zengen said. I shall hit you. One day. The monk remained silent. I don't say death. Then Unmon hit him. "I have something to say about it. I won't say. I won't say. "What words does Saizen say lately?" The monk stretched out his arms." With these words. Sekiso said." Thereupon Zengen hit him. "I don't say life. Zengen came suddenly to an insight." On the way back Zengen said. "Why don't you?" Sekiso said. Zengen went to Sekiso and told him what had happened. "I don't say life.Hekiganroku . "I won't say. "Where have you come from?" The monk said. "I won't say." Unmon said.Case 54: Unmon Stretches His Arms Unmon asked a monk. "From Saizen. Zengen took a hoe and walked in the Dharma-hall from east to west and west to east." Dogo said. Case 55: Dogo's Condolence Visit Dogo and Zengen came to a house to express condolences. "If you want to hit me." Unmon then stretched out his own arms. you can hit me. But I will never say. Some time later Dogo passed away. Unmon slapped him. The monk said." Zengen said.

"Above the heavens and under the heavens I am the only one. whitecaps swelling up to heaven. but no one could see the arrow. Kinzan said.Sekiso said. "You stupid bumpkin. What is non-choosing?" Joshu said. "Wait." Ryo turned his head. "I will allow this fellow to keep puzzling for thirty years." The monk said. "If so. sir. "That was very good for me in order to gain power. What sort of sacred bones of your late master are you searching for?" (Setcho commented. Just shoot an arrow for me. "Let's put aside the story of the arrow which breaks through three barriers. "Heavens! heavens!") Zengen said. . "Till when do you want to wait?" Ryo said. "Giant billows far and wide." [1]: He stood in the Dharma line of Seppo." Hekiganroku ." Kinzan said. alone and exalted. it simply dislikes choosing'.Case 57: Joshu and the "Bumpkin" A monk asked Joshu. "What is it when one single arrow breaks through three barriers?" Kinzan said. "'The supreme Way is not difficult. I will acknowledge my failure and correct it. Kinzan hit him seven times with a stick and said. "That is still choosing. "The sacred bones of the late master are still there. Hekiganroku . so that I may see it." and he went out." Taigen Fu [1] said.Case 56: Kinzan and the "Arrow" A Zen devotee named Ryo asked Kinzan." Ryo said. "I made a nice shot. where is the choosing?" The monk remained silent." Ryo hesitated. Kinzan grasped him and said. "Drive out the master from behind the barriers." Joshu said. so that I may see him.

"you. "Why don't you quote the sentence to the end?" The monk said.Case 61: Fuketsu's "House and Nation" Fuketsu. said.Case 60: Unmon's Staff Unmon showed his staff to the assembly and said. "If one raises a speck of dust." Hekiganroku .'" [1] [1]: Cf. Where do mountains. Case 2. "It's only: 'The supreme way is not difficult. giving instruction.e. But even if a word is uttered.Case 59: Joshu's "Supreme Way" A monk asked Joshu.' Isn't that the pitfall of the people of our time [1]?" Joshu said.' -. "'The supreme Way is not difficult.Then how can you. it is already an action of 'choosing. "This staff has changed into a dragon and has swallowed up the heaven and the earth. Master. it simply dislikes choosing." Joshu said. rivers and the great earth come from?" Hekiganroku ." [1]: (same note as Case 40) I. it simply dislikes choosing. "Is there anyone who lives and dies with this?") . it simply dislikes choosing. the house and the nation prosper. If one does not raise a speck of dust. they perish. "Once someone asked me like that.Case 58: Joshu and the "Pitfall" A monk asked Joshu. try to lead other people?" Joshu said. Hekiganroku . "I just had this much in my mind. "'The supreme way is not difficult." (Setcho held up his staff and said. I am sorry that even after five years I still can't give an answer to it.

' [1] You take up the lantern and go to the Buddha Hall. "If you had been there. Nansen cut the cat in two.Hekiganroku . "I do not ask about words. I could have spared the cat. The non-Buddhist praised him and said." After the non-Buddhist took his leave. and asked him for his view.Case 64: Joshu and the Sandals [1] Nansen told Joshu what had happened [2]. instructing the assembly. there is one treasure hidden in a body. said. [1]: Cf. As he saw this. "What did the non-Buddhist realize so that he said you had enabled him to enter the Way?" Buddha said. you take the temple gate and put it on the lantern. "You monks! If one of you can say a word. put them upon his head and went away. "The great benevolence and great mercy of the World-Honored One have opened the clouds of my delusion and enabled me to enter the Way. ." [1]: Cf. Hekiganroku ." Buddha remained still." No one could answer. Nansen held up the cat and said. [2] Cf. Hekiganroku .Case 65: A Non-Buddhist Questions Buddha [1] A non-Buddhist asked Buddha. Ananda asked Buddha. in the midst of the universe. Case 14 in the Mumonkan. "'Within heaven and earth. case 32 in the Mumonkan." [1]: A sentence from the Hozoron by Monk Jo (?-414). case 63. case 14 in the Mumonkan.Case 63: Nansen Kills a Cat [1] Once the monks of the eastern and western Zen halls in Nansen's temple were quarrelling about a cat. Nansen said. I will not slay the cat. "He is like a fine horse that runs even at the shadow of a whip. I do not ask about no-words." [1] Cf.Case 62: Unmon's "One Treasure" Unmon. Hekiganroku . Joshu thereupon took his sandals.

received a sword from heaven on which it was inscribed. [1] The western capital of the Tang Dynasty." [1]: (Same note as case 1) Emperor Bu reigned over the land of Ryo between 502-509.Hekiganroku . "Daishi has already finished his Sutra lecture. "After Koso [2] was gone. Daishi thereupon mounted the rostrum. did you get his sword?" The monk said. Seppo asked." Shiko said. the monk came to Seppo. "The Master's head has already fallen. "Where have you come from?" The monk said." He conquered Saikyo in 880. but was killed four years later. "No. "Yes. [2]: "Daishi" means Bodhisattva [3]: Cf. "What did he say?" The monk told him what had happened. and said. Case 67: Fu Daishi Expounds the Sutra The emperor Bu of Ryo [1] invited Fu Daishi [2] and asked him to lecture on the Diamond Sutra.according to a legend -. case 1 . approached the monk." Ganto said." Ganto laughed loudly. "Ka!" The monk said. The emperor Bu was astounded. "Heaven gives Koso this sword. "Where have you come from?" The monk said. "Did Your Majesty understand it?" The emperor said. Shiko [3] asked him." Seppo asked. Seppo gave him thirty blows with his stick and drove him away." Ganto stuck out his neck.Case 66: Ganto and the "Sword" Ganto asked a monk. [2] A rebel who -. "From Ganto. struck the lectern once and descended. I got it. Later. "From Saikyo [1].

Case 69: Nansen Draws a Circle Nansen.Hekiganroku .that's me. "How does one speak with one's lips and throat closed?" [1] Goho said. but then." Hekiganroku .Case 71: Goho's "Close!" Hyakujo said to Goho. I would lose my Dharma descendants. in Zazen posture.e. "What's your name?" Sansho said. Mayoku made an informal bow. Nansen said. "My name is Enen. Kisu and Mayoku set out together to pay their respects to the National Teacher Chu. "Where there is no one. On their way Nansen drew a circle on the ground and said. Master." Kisu said. "You too.. [1]" Kyozan said. "I'd rather have you speak. [1] The complete name of Kyozan is "Kyozan Ejaku". "Ejaku -. [2] The complete name of Sansho is Sansho Enen.Case 70: Isan's "Speak." . "If you can say something." Hyakujo said. [2]" Kyozan laughed loudly. Goho and Ungan were all attending upon Hyakujo." Kisu seated himself [1] in the circle. "I might as well speak to you." Hyakujo said. I will shade my eyes with my hand [2] and look up to you respectfully. Master. then let's go farther. should close your lips and throat. "What is this all about?" [1]: I. Hekiganroku . Hyakujo asked Isan. Hekiganroku .Case 68: Kyozan and "Your Name" Kyozan asked Sansho. Master" Isan. "If it is so." Sansho said. "Ejaku. "How does one speak with one's lips and throat closed?" Isan said. then let's not go any farther.

I can't explain it to you. "Apart from the Four Phrases.[1]: Cf case 70. "I am tired today. 'Dear Bodhisattvas. Kai's head is black. Hekiganroku . "I don't understand nothing about that question." The monk told Great Master Ba about it.") A monk asked Chokei. "Now I will lose my Dharma descendants. free from all theories and concepts. case 6 in the Shoyoroku. Hekiganroku . dance there and laugh loudly. Go and ask Brother Kai. Master." [1]: cf cases 70 and 71 Hekiganroku . "An ancient worthy said. beyond one hundred Negations [2]. "How does one speak with one's lips and throat closed?" [1] Ungan said.' What does it mean?" . [2]: A gesture expressing admiration.e. do such a thing?" Hyakujo said. Great Master said. please tell me directly. "Chizo's head is white. Master. Go and ask Chizo. "Can you. I can't explain it to you. he was not being kind. [2]: I. "Why don't you ask our master?" The monk said. "Dear Bodhisattvas. Kai said. the meaning of Bodhidharma's coming from the West." The monk asked Brother Kai about it.Case 74: Kingyu's Rice Bucket At each meal." Chizo said. come and eat rice. "Although he behaved that way." [1]: Cf. "He told me to ask you. come and eat rice!" (Setcho said." Master Ba said. saying. Master Kingyu himself would bring the rice bucket to the front of the Zen hall. "I have a headache today. Chizo said..Case 72: Ungan's "Can You?" Hyakujo said to Ungan.Case 73: Ba and "One Hundred Negations" [1] A monk asked Great Master Ba." The monk asked Chizo about it.

" . The monk went out immediately. "Today I hit a right man. "There is a fellow who well deserves it. Ukyu said. "Where have you come from?" The monk answered. "I have hit a real man quite wantonly. is that right!" [1]: This is not the famous master Joshu Jushin in the Mumonkan." The monk turned and said." Hekiganroku . "Have you eaten your rice?" The monk said." Ukyu said. "Yes I have eaten it. "There is no difference. "If there isn't any difference. "Your stick should have an eye.Case 75: Ukyu's Blind Stick A monk came from Master Joshu [1] to Ukyu. return to him again.. "There is a fellow who well deserves a blind stick." Ukyu said. Ukyu asked. You should not hit a person so recklessly. etc." The monk approached him." and he hit him three more times. is that all right for you?" The monk laughed loudly and went away. "That is exactly like praising and giving thanks to the rice." and hit him. "Is that right. The monk said. "Master. snatched the stick from his hand and hit him three times." Ukyu said. "What is the difference between Joshu's Dharma-way and the Dharma-way here?" The monk said." Then the monk promptly made a bow. as the stick is in your hand?" Ukyu said. Ukyu said. "From the foot of the mountain.Chokei said. Case 76: Tanka's "Eating Rice" Tanka asked a monk. "Blind stick. "What shall I do. "If you need it. I will give it to you. Ukyu said. but Master Joshu Sekizo (718-800). Ukyu said. blind stick!" The monk said." Tanka asked.

At once they realized the cause of water. "Rice cake [1]. When the monks took a bath. Case 79: Tosu and "the Buddha's Voices" A monk asked Tosu. Hekiganroku . How then is it possible not to have an [enlightened] eye?" Hofuku said.Case 78: The Boddhisattvas Take a Bath In the old days there were sixteen bodhisattvas. "Server and receiver are both blind." [1]: In Japanese: kobyo. how do you understand this? [1] The bodhisattvas said. "What is meant by the pronouncement 'to go beyond the Buddha and the patriarchs'?" Unmon said. "The one who brought rice and gave it to you to eat did he have an [enlightened] eye?" The monk said nothing. Now. "Even if one has done everything. Hekiganroku ." Chokei said. "Wonderful feeling! Perfectly clear! We have attained the dwelling place of the children of Buddha. "Do you call me blind?" [1]: That is. [1]: It is Setcho who speaks here. they too entered the bath according to their custom.Tanka said. Chokei asked Hofuku. 'All voices are the voices of the Buddha. for the guidance already received from buddhas. "It is said.Case 77: Unmon's "Rice Cake" A monk asked Unmon." You can attain it -.' Is it true or not?" Tosu said. my Zen friends. or not?" Hofuku said. . "It is true. does one still remain blind. patriarchs and masters." The monk said. "Surely it is an act of thanksgiving [1] to bring rice and give it to the people to eat.only by breaking through seven times and digging through eight times.

" The monk said." Thereupon. the water in the valley remains blue as indigo. Yakusan said." [1]: Cf." . "The phenomenal body perishes. "May I call you.' Is this true or not?" Tosu said. the monk ran away.Case 81: Yakusan's "Look! The Arrow!" A monk asked Yakusan. Yakusan said. but he should die with the fifth step. Tosu hit him. a donkey?" Thereupon. "He is alive for three steps. How can one shoot the greatest deer of them all?" Yakusan said. "What does 'throwing a ball on the swift current' mean?" Tosu said. don't fart around so loudly. the note to case 47. "It is said. "It is true. "Does a newborn infant have the Six Functions [1] or not?" Joshu said. "This fellow will keep playing with mud balls for ever and ever!" (Setcho took up this story and said. "Attendants! Carry this dead fellow out of here." The monk asked also Tosu. "Look! The arrow!" The monk threw himself on the floor. Tosu hit him. "Throwing a ball on the swift current. He asked again. "The autumn foliage of the mountains spreads like brocade.Case 80: Joshu and a "Newborn Infant" A monk asked Joshu. Master. "On the grassy plain there gather great and small deer. What is the Dharma-body which remains solid?" Dairyu said."Master. Hekiganroku . Hekiganroku ." Thereupon.") Case 82: Dairyu and the "Dharma-Body" A monk asked Dairyu. "Every consciousness flows without ceasing. 'Rough words and gentle phrases return to the first principle.

there are neither words nor explanations.. "They are certainly right. Thereupon the monk pretended to be frightened.. "The old buddha and a pillar intersect each other. said. (Setcho said." . "You old robber!" The hermit said. "What did Vimalakirti say?" Again he said. "Clouds gather over the South Mountain. neither presentations nor knowledge. it is beyond all questions and answers. "The kitchen and the entrance gate. "I see it like this: in all phenomena." . "What if you suddenly faced a tiger here?" The hermit roared like a tiger. Now you should give your explanation. Now. what is your bright light?" He himself answered on behalf of the monks. Then Manjusri asked Vimalakirti. "What does it mean that the Bodhisattva enters the Dharma-gate of Not-Two?" Manjusri said.Case 84: Vimalakirti and "Not-Two" Vimalakirti asked Manjusri. you can't see it. "What can you do to me?" The monk said nothing further.Case 83: The Old Buddha and a Pillar Unmon. it is complete darkness. The monk said. What number of activity is that?" On behalf of the assembly he said. The hermit laughed loudly.Case 86: Unmon's "Bright Light" Unmon. When you look at it. That is what I understand with 'to enter the Dharma-gate of Not-Two'. instructing the assembly.. "Seen through!") Case 85: Toho and the "Tiger" A monk came to the hermit Toho and asked. rain falls on the North Mountain. but these two evil robbers only know how to steal a small bell while they stop their ears. "All of us have finished giving our explanations. giving instruction. "Everyone has his own bright light. What does it mean that the Bodhisattva enters the Dharma-gate of Not-Two?" (Setcho said.") Hekiganroku ." Hekiganroku . said.Hekiganroku .

" Then he said. "I understood. "You said it very well.' Suppose you face three people with different diseases." Ungan said." The monk made a deep bow and stood up. Hekiganroku . "The whole body is hands and eyes. The monk retreated." Further he said.Case 87: Unmon's "Medicine and Disease" Unmon. Buddhist Dharma has no true efficacy." Ungan said." With that. even if you speak beautiful phrases. What is your true self?" Hekiganroku . said. Unmon said. "So you are not deaf. "No." Hekiganroku . "It is like a person in the middle of the night reaching with his hand behind his head groping for his pillow." Dogo said. The dumb person can't speak. Unmon poked his staff at him. how would you attend to them? The blind person can't see. Unmon said. "Come here. "Medicine and disease correspond to each other." Unmon said. But you expressed only eight-tenths of it.Again he said.Case 89: Ungan's "Hands and Eyes" Ungan asked Dogo. The deaf person can't hear. Unmon said. How would you attend to them? If you cannot attend to these people. the monk came to an insight." A monk asked Unmon about this." The monk came closer to him. ." Dogo said. "How did you understand it?" Ungan said. instructing the assembly. even if you ask him to speak up.Case 88: Gensha's "Three Diseases" Gensha. "So you are not dumb. The whole earth is medicine. "Make a deep bow. even if you take up a gavel or raise a whisk. "All old masters said. "Have you understood?" The monk said. instructing the assembly. "So you are not blind. "It would be better not to have even the best things. 'Attend to the living beings and save them. said. "What does the Bodhisattva of the Great Mercy use so many hands and eyes for?" Dogo answered.

" (Setcho said." The attendant gave no answer.") Shifuku drew a circle and wrote the ideograph "ox[2]" in it. (Setcho said. "The entire body is hands and eyes. [2]: The Chinese character for "ox" (gyu) is one of the two characters for "rhinoceros" (saigyu = sai + gyu)." [2] [1]: A Chinese metaphor expressing how a pearl is formed. "That rhinoceros is still there." Hekiganroku ." (Setcho said. "Why didn't you bring it out sooner?) Hofuku said. but the horn on its head would not be complete. "What is the substance of Prajna Wisdom?" Chimon said. "If the fan is already broken. "I wouldn't mind bringing that. Hekiganroku . "Bring me the rhinoceros fan. "I need to see that incomplete horn.") Sekiso said. Enkan called to his attendant. "It is broken." The attendant said. "What is the use of Prajna Wisdom?" Chimon said. "Regrettable! All efforts have proved fruitless!") [1]: To this episode the following Zen personalities give their answers on behalf of the attendant. .Case 91: Enkan and the "Rhinoceros" One day. "Master.Case 90: Chimon and the "Prajna Wisdom" A monk asked Chimon. "If I brought it back to you. "The clam swallows the bright moon. [1] Tosu said. Please engage someone else. a female rabbit becomes pregnant when it swallows the light of the full moon." Enkan said. bring me the rhinoceros himself. "A female rabbit becomes pregnant."How would you say it. [2]: According to a Chinese legend. you are so advanced in years. Elder Brother?" Dogo said." [3] (Setcho said." [1] The monk asked. nothing would remain [for me].

I do not say the Tathagata has no words. [2]: Cf. then it is quite natural that it is not a thing.' [1] What did he mean?" Taiko danced. "How can a deaf man hear?" Hofuku said. "Now I know that your language belongs to the second level. The monk made a deep bow.] Hekiganroku ." Thereupon. 'That is exactly like thanksgiving at lunch. "Even if you argue that an arhat [1] still possesses 'the three poisons'. Taiko said. why do you not see what I do not see? If you [argue that you] see what I do not see. "Chokei said. "When I don't see. that is of course not what I do not see. "You stupid fox! [2]" [1]: cf case 74. the term "fox Zen". Taiko said.Case 92: The Buddha Ascends to the Rostrum One day. I only say he does not have two kinds of language. Case 2 in the Mumonkan) Case 94: "Non-Seeing" in the Ryogon Sutra The Ryogon Sutra says. Hekiganroku . the World-Honored One descended from the rostrum.Case 95: Chokei's "Three Poisons" One day Chokei said. Why is it not your self?" Hekiganroku . don't argue that the Tathagata has two sorts of language.[3]: [Since the task you give me is too harsh. Monjusri struck the table with the gavel and said. the World-Honored One ascended to the rostrum. "What are the words of the Tathagata?" Chokei said. "What have you seen that makes you bow like that?" The monk danced." Chokei said. . which means mere imitation (cf.Case 93: Taiko Dances A monk asked Taiko. "Contemplate clearly the Dharma of the Dharma-King! The Dharma of the Dharma-King is like this. If you do not see what I do not see." Hofuku said.

" "The Buddha made of wood will not pass through fire." [1]: Cf. "It is I. but in vain. Sai'in said. Sai'in said. case 19 in the Miscellaneous Koans." However." [1]: An arhat is a sacred person who has reached the spiritual dimension without any traces of "the three poisons": covetousness. . Sai'in saw him at a distance and summoned him. (He was always saying." Hekiganroku . I have sought after someone who could give correct explanations. "I have just said." "The Buddha made of metal will not pass through a furnace." Sai'in said. "Don't say you have understood Buddhism. If you are to come into hell because of your sins in your previous life. "Have some tea. Case 97: "Getting Despised" in the Diamond Sutra The Diamond Sutra says. "It is about getting despised by other people. Hekiganroku . "Please stay here for the summer [3]. Does it mean that it is I who am wrong.Case 98: Tempyo's Two "Wrong"s Master Tempyo was on an angya [1] and visited Sai'in. Sai'in said. these sins will be extinguished because you are despised by the people of this world. 'Wrong!' twice. "Jyui! [2]" Tempyo raised his head."What are the words of the Tathagata?" Hofuku said. anger. I'll examine the two 'Wrong!'s with you. or it is you?" Tempyo said. "Wrong!" Tempyo came closer. Tempyo immediately left him. folly.Case 96: Joshu's Three Turning Words [1] Joshu showed the assembly three turning words: "The Buddha made of clay will not pass through water.") One day. "Wrong!" Tempyo went on a couple more steps. "Wrong!" Tempyo said nothing. Sai'in said again.

case 22 (c) in the Miscellaneous Koans. "What is the sharpest sword?" Haryo said. I didn't believe I had done anything wrong then.Later he was the abbot of his own temple and said to his assembly.e." The emperor said. "Sir! Go beyond the head of Vairokana [1]. "The moon sits on each branch of the coral. who cried to me. Case 100: Haryo and the "Sharpest Sword" [1] A monk asked Haryo." [1]: A traditional pilgrimage in order to deepen the practice. a summer sesshin for three months. [4]: I. 'Wrong!'. [3]: I. "I don't understand it. "What is the Buddha with the ten bodies who guides the living beings?" The National Teacher said. "As I was once on an angya. Sai'in. [2]: Tempyo's personal name. he demanded that I stay with him for the summer to examine this matter with him. Moreover.Case 99: Shukuso and the "Buddha with the Ten Bodies" Emperor Shukuso asked the National Teacher Echu.. I realized quickly that I had done something entirely 'wrong'.e. Hekiganroku .." [1]: The Buddha of the pure Dharma-body." The National Teacher said. . But when I was on my way down south. "Never consider yourself to be even the pure Dharma-body. I was driven by the wind of fate and came to Elder Shimyo [4]." [1]: Cf.

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