Intro to Political Science 1.
Meaning of Political Science ‘Polis’ (in Greek ‘city-state’) where according to Aristotle, ‘is the most sovereign and inclusive association.’ (Curtis, 1965; p.59) Science which is knowledge ‘the study of influence and the influential’ (Lasswell,1958; p.13) The study about politics
Sovereignty Supreme legal power of the state to enforce or command obedience among members of society within its territory/ jurisdiction
1a. Meaning of Political Science A branch of the social sciences, dealing with the theory, organization, government and practice of the state. (Smith and Zurcher, 1949; p. 293) Politics is the art and science of the possible. (Sen. Manuel Roxas III)
1b. Understanding Politics One great wit once said that of the three major human activities – social which is the pursuit of pleasure, economic, the pursuit of profit and politics which is the pursuit of power – the last one is admittedly the most obsessive, and the lords of pleasure as well as the lords of profit almost always end up in bended knees before the lords of power. (Africa, Leopoldo)
1b. Understanding Politics ‘The essence of social existence is politics and that two or more people interacting with one another are invariably involved in a political relationship. That relationship is seen in rule, authority or power.’ (Aristotle) ‘the art of compromise to achieve certain ends.’ (Former Sen. Ernesto Maceda) Art and science of governance. (Shafritz, 1988; p. 421) Our philosophy is to create a First world Oasis in a Third World Region. We had one simple guiding principle for survival, that Singapore had to be won rugged, better organized and more efficient than others in the region.( Lee Kuan Yew- Founding Father and former PM Sing.)
1c. Political Power
A politics without character is the greatest threat against good government. 1973. combined with b) right. 7) Political legitimacy The legal and psychological right to govern Ability to sustain the faith and trust of the people (Roskin. This necessitates that government decisions and actions result from a political process. (Dannug. intellect. (Anonymous)
1e. Rule and Influence Influence – power exerted over others. Men differ about what is to be done. lead. (Aruego. rules. The differences matter. Authority. to exercise that power. (Dr. 2005. force of character or degree of accomplishments.26) ‘Men share power. p. (Webster Third New International) Of all manifestations of power. State. Law and Political Legitimacy Law is a rule of human external conduct promulgated by the supreme authority. p.
The ability or the right to do something. control. or principles of morality. Authority. (Jackson. Government and Governance
. law. Jean Houston. 30) Rule – is to govern. according to custom. restraint impresses men most. (Thucydides. 1997. 145) More than being social scientists that governance agents have become is the need to be social artists to effect real social change through governance work. command and get persons or people to act accordingly. roles.23) Governance is too complex a task to be left alone to politicians especially to the irresponsible and the corrupt. Ramon Magsaysay Jr. It implies a hierarchy of control by the stronger over the weaker. p. sometimes unconsciously and felt insensibly.’ (Allison. UN Consultant on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
1d. 1971. to exercise authority over others. often through one’s high position. a great warrior of the 12th century)
1d. institutions. 2005. (Sen. Rule and Influence Authority is a) power – the ability to control or direct the action of others. p.)
1f. p. sometimes consciously or calculatedly brought to bear.
‘Dura lex sed lex’ (the law may be harsh. transparency. permanently occupying a definite portion of territory.(Agpalo. Elect good men and good politics becomes inevitable. promulgated by competent authority. Government. 2004)
Government The institution or aggregate of institutions by which an independent society makes and carries out the rules of actions which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state. (Edmund Burke)
Law (Public Policy) Law is a rule of conduct. 1989) Governance – the exercise of political. economic. 2005. The law is the law. and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs at all levels. State. Bad politics is the way of bad politicians. predictability and participation are strong pillars that make good governance irreversible. and Governance Government – the agency through which the will of the state is formulated expressed and carried out. or which are imposed upon the people forming that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them. 1978. (Machiavelli) Accountability. (de Leon.p. (Asian Development Bank. It is the same of the affairs if the state.)
. (Mahatma Gandhi.
2. just and obligatory. 50) The only thing necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing. Public policy is what government intends to do or not to do. but it is still the law. more or less numerous. for common observance and benefit. (Garner. (United Nations Development Program) Doctors say of tuberculosis that in the early stages it is easy to cure but difficult to diagnose. Guru on active non-violence)
1f. independent of external control. 1928) What causes the world to break apart is politics without principles.
State – a community of persons. Is politics all dirty? Men by nature have dual tendencies – one towards the good and another towards the bad.6) Duality is likewise true in politics. p. (Dannug. whereas in the late stages it is easy to diagnose but difficult to cure . and possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.
knowledge and people across borders. social and gender inequality. 60-61)
A society wanting to develop at a speed parallel to the expectations of the people requires a leadership driven by a vision of a strong and prosperous tomorrow . Politics and Globalization in the 21st Century ‘Globalization is cursed by civil as a bane as it brings in its wake jobless growth. individuals have become the super sparks of power.p. services.7)
3. Politics and Globalization in the 21st Century The forces of globalization ( the changing relationships between governments and big businesses). 9) In today’s world. Hierarchies are being flattened and the playing field is being leveled. and the new information technologies are transforming the world in many ways. 2005. authority. p. Those who choose to use politics for some personal gain and benefit make it dirty.” Ignorance of the law excuses no one from compliance therewith. Rene)
3. Is politics all dirty? Politics is good. (Stiglitz. The most important
. movers of capital. (Dannug.Dr. crass global cultural commercialism and environmental despoliation. 2000. It is to create order and to have the ability to predict what will happen next. (Dannug. drivers of development and the engines of growth. Its aim is to narrow down the gap of good politics and bad politics in favor of the good one. and rule to achieve certain political ends. p. 2002.” (Rousseau 2.”
Laws are made in order to protect the common life we share. Politics and Globalization in the 21st Century Globalization as the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world which has been brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication. and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flow of goods. It is the study of rightness or wrongness of human acts reflected in the exercise of power.53) Polithics is ethics in politics or political ethics. 2005.Law and Public Policy “Ignorancia legis neminem excusat. Mohammed Mahathir (former Malaysian Prime Minister 3. (Friedman. “Man was born free and yet everywhere he is in chains.. influence. p. capital.’ (Ofreneo.
2001) Only with the computers can the world become truly a global village. Politics and Globalization We have moved from a world where the big eats the small to a world where the fast eats the slow.
. Davos World Economics Forum. (Friedman. This power of connectivity is shown in the creation of networks of public advocates who identify and solve problems. 2005)
Easton’s Political Systems Model Social Economic.implication is that people who understand this transformation can wield more power than ever. 2005) 3. just and obligatory. (Bill Gates. but one who becomes a hub of connectivity for the many to work the many. promulgated by competent authority for common observance and benefit. Microsoft Chairman)
Study guide Law – a rule of conduct. the public officeholder will no longer be the one who talks or tries to listen to the many. In this model. (Friedman. Political. Politics and Globalization in the 21st Century The next technological political model which he foresees will revolve around the power of community and individual uploading. and Cultural Environment
Jean Jacques Rousseau . body of rules and maxims in accordance with which the powers of sovereignty are habitually exercised.
Laws are made in order to protect the common life that we share.“man was born free and yet everywhere he is in chains.”
Study guide Unitary – control of national and local affairs is exercised by central government Presidential Republic – representative government Democracy – demos (people) and kratos (to rule) Constitution – fundamental law of the state. the law to which all other laws must conform