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RIGID-BODY DYNAMICS
Carlos Murgua
Department of Mechanical Engineering Dynamics & Control Group

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Outline
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1. Inertial Frame and Body Frame.

2. Rotation Matrices.

3. Newtons Laws and Dynamical Models.

4. Introduction to Kinematics
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Inertial Frame and Body Frame


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Inertial Frame

denotes the position of the center of mass of the quadrotor in A. -The inertial coordinate A system is an earth xed coordinate system with origin at the dened home location.

Body Frame

-The origin of the vehicle frame B is at the center of mass of the quadrotor.

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Rotation Matrices 2-D


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-On the Inertial frame,


-On the rotated body frame,

-The projections of and on the inertial frame are given by

respectively . -Since both, the projections and it follows that are expressed on the Inertial frame,

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Rotation Matrices 2-D


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-Define the matrix

the above matrix is the so called rotation matrix, which is nonlinear mapping that rotates any vector from the inertial frame to the body frame and vice versa, the yaw angle - The mapping is an orthonormal matrix , i.e.,

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Rotation Matrices 3-D


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Rotation about a3 (yaw)

Rotation about a2 (pitch)

Rotation about a1 (roll)

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Rotation Matrices 3-D


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Full Rotation

With and shorthand forms for cosine and sine, respectively. -The mapping i.e., is also an orthonormal matrix ,

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Newtons Laws and Dynamical Models


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Inertial Frame

-Newtons second law only applies to inertial systems. -Newtons law applied to the translational motion is Body Frame

-For rotational motion, Newtons second law states that

with the mass moment of inertia.

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Newtons Laws and Dynamical Models


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Inertial Frame

-Coriolis equation: given a vector that rotates with respect to B, its time derivative w.r.t. A can be computed as follows

Body Frame

where denotes the time derivative of with respect to the inertial-frame and with respect to the body-frame. -Using the above coriolis equation and the rotation matrix , the translational and rotational motion equations can be rewritten as

the above equations are alternative forms of the movement equations. In the literature, they use both of them arbitrarily.
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Introduction to Kinematics
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Inertial Frame

-The position of the center of mass in the inertial-frame is given by then the velocity vector is simply given by Body Frame -Let have components body-frame. It follows that in the

Kinematics vs Dynamics?

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Introduction to Kinematics
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Inertial Frame

-The orientation of the body with respect to the inertial-frame is given by the Euler angles

Body Frame

-Let have components body-frame. It follows that

in the

with

Dragan?

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12-Degrees of Freedom System


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Combining the dynamics and the kinematics yields a 12-dimentinal highly coupled nonlinear system

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12-Degrees of Freedom System


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Combining the dynamics and the kinematics yields a 12-dimentinal highly coupled nonlinear system

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Summary & Conclusions


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QUESTIONS???

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