Direct series ( B-a) direct method Formula = ̅ X = Value F= Frequencies of Value Steps:- F ( each item is multiplied by its frequency) = =N

Sum total of FX sum total of frequencies ILLUSTRATION Following is the weekly wage earning of 19 workers: Wages No. Workers 10 Of 4 20 5 30 3 40 2 50 5

Calculate the arithmetic mean using Direct Method. Solution: Wages (X) No. of Workers or frequency Multiple of the Value of X and Frequency (FX) 10 20 30 40 50 4 5 3 2 5 4 x 10 = 40 5 x 20 = 100 3 x 30 = 90 2 x 40 = 80 50 x 5 = 250 = 560

̅

= 29.47

Mean wage earning of 19 workers = 29.47 (B-a) short cut Method ̅ A= Assumed Mean Sum of Frequencies. Steps Firstly take A ( Assumed mean from Values (X) 2. Secondly, find d (deviation) = ( X-A) 3. Thirdly, fd = multiple of d and f = (f x d) 4. Add up, separely the positive (+) and, negative (-) values, of all ‘fd’. Find out the difference between the two to get 5. Move, to got , add up all frequencies

6. Lastly, put the values into formula. Numerical

A =30) Wages (X) No.47 Arithmetic Mean= 29. Workers 10 of 4 20 5 30 3 40 2 50 5 Calculate arithmetic (Assumed Average.47 (B-c) step.53 = 29. of Workers or Deviation(d=X-A) Frequency (F) 10 20 30 40 50 4 5 3 2 5 (A=30) 10-30= -20 20-30= -10 30-30 =0 40-30=10 50-30=20 Multiple of Deviation and Frequency (fd) 4 x (-20)= -80 5 x (-10) = -50 3x0=0 2x10=20 5x20=100 ̅ =30+ =30- = 30-0.ILLUSTRATION Following are the wages of 19 workers: Wages No.Deviation Method Formula = ̅ XC .

Workers 10 of 4 20 5 30 3 40 2 50 5 Calculate arithmetic mean using ‘Step-deviation method’ (Assumed Average.D’ = = d = X-A A= assumed mean C= Common difference Numerical ILLUSTRATION Following are the wages of 19 workers: Wages No. of Workers Deviation(d=X-A) or Frequency (F) (A=30) Step-deviation D’= (C=10) 10 20 30 40 50 4 5 3 2 5 10-30= -20 20-30= -10 30-30 =0 40-30=10 50-30=20 -20/10 = 2 -10/10=2 0/10=0 10/10=1 20/10=2 Multiple Deviation of and Frequency (fd) 4x(-2)=-8 5 x (-1) = -5 3x0=0 2x1=2 5x2=10 . A =30) Wages (X) No.

53=29.47 Arithmetic Mean = 29. Students 0-10 of 20 10-20 24 20-30 40 30-40 36 40-50 20 .47 (C) Continuous series:(C-a) direct method ̅ M= mid value = L1+L2/2 F= Frequency N= No. C=10 and = = -0. Marks No.̅ A= 30. ̅ 30+ x10=30-0. Calculate mean marks using Direct Method.053 Putting these values in the formula. of value Numerical ILLUSTRATION The following table shows marks in English secured by students of class X in your school in their examination.053x10 = 30-0.

Take A from M d= M-A 3. of students or Multiple of Mid-value Frequency (F) 20 24 40 36 20 and Frequency (fm) 20x5=100 24x15=360 40x25=1.Solution:Marks Midvalue{m=L1+L2} 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 0+10/2=5 10+20/2=15 20+30/2=25 30+40/2=35 40+50=45 No.86 marks. Sum total of Frequency = Numerical . (c-b) short cut method ̅ A= Assumed mean (from M) D= M-A F= Frequency Steps 1.260 20x45=900 ̅ = 3. F x d = 4.000 36x35=1.620/140=25. Firstly calculate M= L1+L2/2 2.

Marks No. SOLUTION: ( Assumed Average. 0-10 of 20 10-20 24 20-30 40 30-40 36 40-50 20 students Calculate mean marks using Short-cut Method.Multiple A) (A=25) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 0+10/2=5 10+20/2=15 20+30/2=25 30+40/2=35 40+50/2=45 20 24 40 36 20 5-25= -20 15-25 = -10 25-25=0 35-25=+10 45-25=+20 Deviation of and Frequency (fd) 20x-20= -400 24x-10=-240 40x0=0 36x+10=360 20x +20=400 . A = 25) Marks Midvalue{m=L1+L2}/2 Frequency (f) Deviation (d=m.ILLUSTRATION The following table shows marks secured by the students of a class in an examination in English.

86 Mean marks = 25. M= L1+L2/2 2. Marks No. D= M-A 4.86=25. Students 0-10 of 20 10-20 24 20-30 40 30-40 36 40-50 20 .86 (C-c) step-deviation Method ̅ D’= d/c XC C= common differences Steps: 1.̅ = 25+0. Fd’= f xd’ 6. Sum total of frequency = Numerical ILLUSTRATION: The following table show marks obtained by the students of a class in their test in English. D’= d/c 5. Take A from M 3.

M in case of cumulative frequency series? Sol.86 Key concept Q1.86=25. Directly solve the question. Firstly convert cumulative frequency into simply frequency distribution series than solve it. Calculation of A. by Direct Method. .SOLUTION: Marks Midvalue(=L1+L2)/2 Frequency (f) Deviation (d=m-A) (A=25) Stepdeviation(d’) {d’= m-A}/C (C=10) Multiple stepdeviation and frequency (fd) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 5 15 25 35 45 20 24 40 36 20 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 -40 -24 0 +36 +40 of Mean.086X10 = 25+0.M in a Mid-value series? Sol. there is no need to convert mid value series into simple frequency distribution series. Q2. ̅ XC = 25+0. Calculation of A.

These is no need to convert it into exclusive series. Directly solve question by applying direct method. as under: Conversion of a Cumulative Frequency Distribution into a simple Frequency Distribution Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 No. Marks Less than 10 Less than 20 Less than 30 Less than 40 Less than 50 Solution: A Cumulative frequency distribution should first be converted into a Simple Frequency Distribution. of Studenta 5 17-5 = 12 31-17 = 14 41-31 = 10 49-41 = 8 No.Q3. of Students 5 17 31 41 49 Now mean value of the data is obtained using Direct Method as under: . Illustration Marks in Statistics of the students of Class XI are given below. In case of Inclusive Series? Ans. Find out arithmetic mean.

Marks More than 0 More than 2 Mora than 4 More than 6 More than 8 No. of students 30 28 24 18 10 Solution: .65 ̅ Arithmetic mean = 25. calculate arithmetic mean.82 Illustration The following table shows marks in economics of the students of a class.Calculation of mean Marks Midvalue(=L1+L2)/2 Frequency (f) Multiple stepdeviation and frequency (fm) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 5 15 25 35 45 5 12 14 10 8 25 180 350 350 360 of .

Calculation of arithmetic mean using direct method Marks Midvalue(=L1+L2)/2 Frequency (f) Multiple stepdeviation and frequency (fm) 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10 2 12 30 56 90 of ̅ .Converting cumulative frequency distribution into a simple frequency distribution. of students 30-28 = 2 28-24 = 4 24-18 = 6 18-10 = 8 10-0 = 10 Arithmetic mean of this continuous series is estimated below. using Direct Method. we get the following: Marks 0-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 No.

. Midvalue No. The calculation of arithmetic mean involves the same procedure as in case of exclusive series.Mean marks = 6. But such mean value can be corrected by ̅ ( ) ( ) Illustration Following table gives marks in statistics of the student of a class. Calculation of Arithmetic mean.33 Calculation of corrected arithmetic mean Sometimes in the calculation of arithmetic mean some item or values are wrongly written. mid –values are already given. find out mean marks. of 5 7 9 10 8 6 3 2 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 students Solution In this series. Accordingly. the mean value goes wrong.

9 marks 995 50 Illustration The following table shows monthly pocket expenses of the students of a class.value(m) No. of students or frequency Multiple of Mid-value and (f) Frequency (fm) 25 70 135 200 200 180 105 80 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 5 7 9 10 8 6 3 2 ̅ Arithmetic mean = 19. Pocket Expenses No.Mid. students of 10 8 6 4 2 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 Solution . find out the average pocket expenses.

but one value is missing. 37. 10.15.5) 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 24.30 and 35 respectively.5 64. Given X1 = 10. the missing value may be found using the following formula ̅ illustration 1 2 n suppose mean of a series of 5 itmes is 30. Find the missing (5th value) of the series.5 44. Pocket Expenses Mid-value (m = l1+l2/2) Frequency (f) Deviation (d= Step deviation Fd’ m-A) (A = 44. X3 = 30. Four values are.83 Calculation of missing value 20 30 If mean of the series is known. X5 =? .Calculation of arithmetic mean of inclusive series is the same as of exclusive series. X2 = 15.5 54.5 34. X4 = 35. Solution Assume 5th value as X5.5 10 8 6 4 2 -20 -10 0 10 20 -2 -1 0 1 2 -20 -8 0 4 4 d’ = d/c ̅ Arithmetic mean = Rs.

̅ 10 15 30 5 35 5 90 5 90 5 5 150 = 90 + X5 X5 = 150 – 90 = 60 Thus. the average of such series is called weighted arithmetic average. A housewife may give more significance to food. . but sometimes we may give greater significance to some items and less to others. value of the 5th item = 60 Calculation of Weighted Arithmetic mean In simple AM. Formula ̅ W = weight X = Value Numerical Illustration Calculate weighted mean of the following data. So we can say that when different items of a series are weighted according to their relative importance. less to entertainment. all items of a series are taken as of equal significance. For example.

04 marks. one can get combined Arithmetic mean or mean of the series as a whole Formula Here . 1961 28 Given the mean values of two or more parts of a series and the number of items in each part. Combined Arithmetic Mean. ̅ Weighted mean = 70.Marks(X) Weight (W) 81 2 76 3 74 6 58 7 70 3 73 7 Solution: Calculation of weighted mean Marks (X) 81 76 74 58 70 73 Weight (w) 2 3 6 7 3 7 WX 162 228 444 406 210 511 Weighted mean.

40 students of section B obtained 35 mean marks in Statistics. obtained 40 mean marks in statistics.M of part 1 of the series. . X2 = 35 We know Thus. Numerical Illustration 60 students of Section A of class XI.2 = Combined arithmetic mean of parts 1 and 2 of a series X1 = A. Find out mean marks in Statistics for class XI as a whole. N1 = Number of items in part 1 of the series. N2 = Number of items in part 2 of the series.X1. X2 = A.M of part 2 of the series. combined arithmetic mean = 38 ILLUSTRATION 1. Solution Given. N1 = 60. X1 = 40.

if the arithmetic mean of the distribution is 52: Wages (Rs) No.In the following frequency distribution. 52 (33 + f) = 1.765 + 45f 1.765 + 45f 52f – 45f = 1. Find it.716 => 7f = 49 => f = 7 .765 – 1.756 + 45f ̅ 1765 45f Or.716 + 52f = 1. the frequency of the class interval (40-50) is not known. of Workers 10-20 5 20-30 3 30-40 4 40-50 ? 50-60 2 60-70 6 70-80 13 SOLUTION: Wages (Rs) 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 Mid – value (m) 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 Frequency 5 3 4 F 2 6 13 Ʃ = 33 + f Fm 75 75 140 45f 110 390 975 Ʃfm = 1.

750 1.906 = 1. Wages (x) 110 112 113 117 X 125 128 130 No.755 14X 1.86.906 + 14X 14X = 11.904 1. of Workers (f) 25 17 13 15 14 8 6 2 Ʃf = 100 ̅ Fx 2. if the arithmetic mean of the following series is 115.906+ 14X 9 906 14 100 115.86 x 100 = 9.000 768 260 ƩfX = 9.586 – 9.680 1 680 = 120 .469 1.ILLUSTRATION 2. find the missing value. Wages (Rs) No. of Workers 110 25 112 17 113 13 117 15 ? 14 125 8 128 6 130 2 SOLUTION: Let the missing value be X.

This is because changes in the Simple of a series have minimum effect on the arithmetic average.A. therefore a representative value of the different items.State and certain arithmetic mean can be easily used for comparision.M is a of central tendency. Basis of Comparison :.# Merit 1.Calculation of Arithmetic Mean for Diligent Series Type of Series Direct Method Short Cut or Assumed Step mean Method Method Deviation 1.M is based on all the items in a series. Continuous Series ̅ ̅ fd ̅ d # Define Merit & Demerit of Arithmetic Mean ? Ans :. Stability :. 2. Based on all items :. 3.A. Discrete Series Or ̅ ̅ ̅ fd ̅ d 2. Individuate Series ̅ ̅ d ̅ d 1. . It is.

the average strength of these two classes.The mean value which dose not figure in the series at all .# Demerits :-> Effect of Extreme value :-> The main defect of a mean is that it eblected by extreme value of the series. Laughable Conclusions :. 2. 3. Jf there are 50 students in class XI and 31 student in class XII. Which is very funny because these cannot be half students. the average of 2. 3 .M sometime offers laughable conclusions.3 and 7 is Which is not these in the series.A. Just time . Mean value may not figure in the series at all :. Would come to 2 = 30. For example 1 jf Monthly income of 5 workers are Workers A B C D E Monthly Income (Rs) 6000 3500 2500 1500 1000 The average income of all the five workers would be ̅ 14500 5 6000 3500 2500 1500 1000 5 Certainly this is not such an accurate mean of the monthly income of the monthly income of 5 workers.5 Students.